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Citizenship and the crises of welfare states Janet Newman The Open University, UK

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Presentation on theme: "Citizenship and the crises of welfare states Janet Newman The Open University, UK"— Presentation transcript:

1 Citizenship and the crises of welfare states Janet Newman The Open University, UK

2 Why citizenship?  The focus of governmental projects (how to be an active citizen)  The focus of hopes for renewal (activist and angry citizens) (citizens doing it for themselves)

3 Citizenship and welfare states  Citizenship as national status  Citizenship as solidaristic  Citizenship as the focus of expansive claims on the state  Citizenship as the basis of democratic legitimacy

4 Citizenship and welfare states  Citizenship as national status  Citizenship as solidaristic  Citizenship as the focus of expansive claims on the state  Citizenship as the basis of democratic legitimacy  Challenge of mobility, challenge of globalisation of problems  Challenge of accommodating difference  Challenges of redistribution and recognition  Challenge of disaffection

5 Political narratives of crisis  Crisis of dependency  Crisis of individualisation and consumerism  Crisis of social cohesion

6 Crisis of dependency Government has an interest in promoting active citizenship because it:  Will help people and communities find common solutions to shared problems  Can generate social capital  Can stimulate collective efficacy  Can achieve co-production  Can be a progression route from civic involvement to support of democratic and public service infrastructure (DCLG 2008: 15)

7 Narrative of consumerism In an era of mass production needs were regarded as identical and preferences were ignored. Today, successful services thrive on their ability to respond to the individual needs of their customers. We live in a consumer age. Services have to be tailor- made not mass-produced, geared to the needs of users not the convenience of producers. The NHS has been too slow to change its ways of working to meet modern patient expectations for fast, convenient, 24 hour, personalised care (Department of Health 2000: ).

8 Crisis of cohesion Worklessness and a weak neighbourhood economy is personally damaging for the individuals involved, undermining personal confidence and their power to contribute to society, not just economically but through decision-making and community activities….

9 Crisis of cohesion cont’d High levels of worklessness can :  Undermine community cohesion  Create conditions for increase in crime and anti-social behaviour, reducing the quality of life for all residents  Reduce the possibility of private sector investment (in deprived neighbourhoods) DCLG 2008, 18

10 Producing the active citizenship  The citizen consumer  The responsible citizen  The participative citizen (Cf the rights bearing, litigious citizen)

11 Network governance Self governance Hierarchical governance Managerial governance Differentiation, weak control Integration, strong control Process legitimacy Legitimacy based on outputs/outcomes

12 The responsible citizen The rights bearing citizen The citizen consumer Differentiation, weak control Integration, strong control Process legitimacy Legitimacy based on outputs/outcomes The participative citizen

13 Women as negotiators, facilitators, partners Women as carers, women’s role in civil society Paternalism, patriarchy Equality rules, norms Women as social entrepreneurs Women as consumers Elasticity of women’s labour Gendering governance

14 Studying the active citizen  How are discourses mediated by organisations, professions?  How are discourses lived, practiced by citizens?

15 Comparative project  Problems of methodological nationalism

16 Comparative project  Problems of methodological nationalism  Problems of methodological statism

17 Comparative project  Problems of methodological nationalism  Problems of methodological statism  Problems of discourse and politics

18 2 paradoxes  Active citizens and political renewal v angry citizens and political retrenchment  New legitimacy for states (in financial crisis) and decline of legitimacy for politics

19 Sources Newman, J and Clarke, J Publics, Politics and Power: remaking the public in public services. Sage, Clarke, J et al: Creating citizen-consumers Sage 2007 Barnes, M, Newman J and Sullivan H: Power, participation and political renewal Policy Press 2007 Newman, J Modernising Governance Sage 2001 Newman, J Remaking Governance Policy Press 2005


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