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Www.npia.police.uk Improving the conduct of stop and search Dr Paul Quinton, NPIA Prof Betsy Stanko, Metropolitan Police Cmdr Tony Eastaugh, Metropolitan.

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Presentation on theme: "Www.npia.police.uk Improving the conduct of stop and search Dr Paul Quinton, NPIA Prof Betsy Stanko, Metropolitan Police Cmdr Tony Eastaugh, Metropolitan."— Presentation transcript:

1 Improving the conduct of stop and search Dr Paul Quinton, NPIA Prof Betsy Stanko, Metropolitan Police Cmdr Tony Eastaugh, Metropolitan Police

2 Improving stop and search? Legitimacy Effectiveness FairnessLawfulness

3 Stop and search levels Source: Bradford m S&S encounters

4 Stop and search arrest rates Source: Bradford 2012

5 Improving effectiveness? Limited & inconclusive evidence Arrest rate from PACE searches = 9%  S&S numbers =  arrest rate At force level, there is no association between S&S rates & crime rates Focused policing activity in crime hot spots can reduce crime Would better targeted S&S be more effective? Would it affect fairness?

6 Improving lawfulness? Code A focuses on how to conduct a S&S, not when Reasonable suspicion is elastic & difficult to define The same standard is required for an arrest But observational research suggests some searches are based on weak grounds Possible reasons? –Officer discretion & low visibility to supervisors –The law not reflecting the realities of policing –Decision-making based on practical rules-of-thumb –The specificity of suspect descriptions & intelligence briefings –Traditional class room based training –Few consequences

7 Improving fairness? Qualitative research suggests the public’s support for S&S is conditional on: –how S&S is used & targeted by the police –the attitudes & behaviour of the officers involved –the reasons for S&S being valid, genuine & credible Negative experiences were more common than positive experiences & more easily remembered Key issues for the public: –Experience of officers being patronising, arrogant, aggressive & intimidating –Not being given a reason for an encounter –Feeling unfairly targeted

8 Why is fairness important? Experiences of policing shape public motivations to cooperate with police & not break the law Fair decision-making & respectful treatment can enhance police legitimacy, which helps to: –build a sense of shared values –make people feel valued by & part of society –create a sense of obligation & responsibility Unfair treatment sends out a clear message… Our rules do not apply to you – you’re not a valued member of society!

9 Legitimacy Why is fairness important? Risk of sanction Moral alignment with police Compliance & cooperation Trust in police effectiveness Trust in police fairness Personal morality Obligation to obey

10 Legitimacy Why is fairness important? Risk of sanction Moral alignment with police Compliance & cooperation Trust in police effectiveness Trust in police fairness Personal morality Obligation to obey

11 Legitimacy Why is fairness important? Risk of sanction Moral alignment with police Compliance & cooperation Trust in police effectiveness Trust in police fairness Personal morality Obligation to obey

12 Legitimacy Why is fairness important? Risk of sanction Moral alignment with police Compliance & cooperation Trust in police effectiveness Trust in police fairness Personal morality Obligation to obey

13 Legitimacy Why is fairness important? Risk of sanction Moral alignment with police Compliance & cooperation Trust in police effectiveness Trust in police fairness Personal morality Obligation to obey

14 Legitimacy Why is fairness important? Risk of sanction Moral alignment with police Compliance & cooperation Trust in police effectiveness Trust in police fairness Personal morality Obligation to obey

15 Legitimacy National survey results Risk of sanction Moral alignment with police Compliance & cooperation Trust in police effectiveness Trust in police fairness Personal morality Obligation to obey

16 The impact of S&S on trust Types of contactQuality of contactEffect on trust in police fairness Police-initiatedPositiveNeutral Negative Public-initiatedPositiveSlightly positive Negative The effect of police contact on trust is asymmetrical Bad contact is very bad Good contact is only a little bit good (at best)

17 The bottom line By making fair decisions, explaining them & being respectful, the police can encourage people to be more socially responsible This is not just about being nice! Fair encounters may not be enough – legacy issues & the volume of police contact There are significant risks of being unfair ‘Trust arrives on foot & leave on horseback’ What goes around, comes around – fairness at work

18 What might help? There are significant gaps in the evidence base Robust studies are needed to find out ‘what works’ A newly formed NPIA / MPS collaboration to test an intervention aimed at improving the conduct of S&S –Scripted encounters?  Queensland random breath test experiment –Practice based & reflective learning?  Chicago quality interaction training experiment  GMP / NPIA victim contact training experiment –More active supervision? –Better targeting towards crime hot spots?


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