Presentation on theme: "“The good… …the ugly… …and the bad”. Martin Luther King Born: January 15, 1929 Atlanta, Georgia, United States D ied: April 4, 1968 (aged 39) Memphis,"— Presentation transcript:
Martin Luther King Born: January 15, 1929 Atlanta, Georgia, United States D ied: April 4, 1968 (aged 39) Memphis, Tennessee, United States
-Martin Luther King, Jr. (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an American clergyman, activist, and prominent leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement. - King's efforts led to the 1963 March on Washington, where King delivered his "I Have a Dream" speech. There, he expanded American values to include the vision of a color blind society, and established his reputation as one of the greatest orators in American history. -In 1964, King became the youngest person to receive the Nobel Peace Prize for his work to end racial segregation and racial discrimination through civil disobedience and other nonviolent means. -King was assassinated on April 4, 1968, in Memphis, Tennessee. He was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1977 and Congressional Gold Medal in 2004;Martin Luther King, Jr. Day was established as a U.S. federal holiday in 1986.
March on Washington, August 28, 1963 -John F. Kennedy initially opposed the march outright, because he was concerned it would negatively impact the drive for passage of civil rights legislation. -Malcolm X called it the “Farce on Washington.”. -The Nation of Islam forbade its members from attending the march. -The march did, however, make specific demands: an end to racial segregation in public schools; meaningful civil rights legislation, including a law prohibiting racial discrimination in employment; protection of civil rights workers from police brutality; a $2 minimum wage for all workers.
Malcolm - X Born: May 19, 1925 Omaha, Nebraska. Died: February 21, 1965 (aged 39) New York City.
-Malcolm X (May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965), born Malcolm Little and also known as El-Hajj Malik, was an African American Muslim minister and human rights activist. -In 1946, at age 20, he went to prison for breaking and entering. -In prison, Malcolm X became a member of the Nation of Islam and after his parole in 1952 he quickly rose to become one of its leaders. -After breaking with the Nation of Islam in 1964— saying of his association with it, "I was a zombie then... pointed in a certain direction and told to march"—and becoming a Sunni Muslim, he disavowed racism and expressed willingness to work with civil rights leaders, though still emphasizing black self-determination and self defense. - In February 1965, less than a year after leaving the Nation of Islam, he was assassinated by three members of the group.
“For me, my 'X' replaced the white slavemaster name of 'Little' which some blue-eyed devil named Little had imposed upon my paternal forebears.” -When Little was released from prison in 1952, he had more than a new religion. He also had a new name. -Shortly after his release from prison, Malcolm X visited Elijah Muhammad in Chicago, Illinois. In June 1953, Malcolm X was named assistant minister of the Nation of Islam's Temple Number One in Detroit. Soon, he became a full- time minister. -From his adoption of the Nation of Islam in 1952 until he broke with it in 1964, Malcolm X promoted the Nation's teachings, including that black people are the original people of the world, that white people are "devils", that blacks are superior to whites, and that the demise of the white race is imminent. While the civil rights movement fought against racial segregation, Malcolm X advocated the complete separation of African Americans from white people. He proposed the establishment of a separate country for black people as an interim measure until African Americans could return to Africa. Malcolm X also rejected the civil rights movement's strategy of nonviolence, and instead advocated that black people use any necessary means of self-defense to protect themselves.
Africa and Mecca -On April 13, 1964, Malcolm X departed JFK Airport in New York for Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. His status as an authentic Muslim was questioned by Saudi authorities because of his United States passport and his inability to speak Arabic. On April 19, Malcolm X completed the Hajj, making the seven circuits around the Kaaba, drinking from the Zamzam Well, and running between the hills of Safah and Marwah seven times. After completing the Hajj, he was granted an audience with Prince Faisal. Malcolm X said the trip allowed him to see Muslims of different races interacting as equals. He came to believe that Islam could be the means by which racial problems could be overcome. -Malcolm X visited Africa on three separate occasions, once in 1959 and twice in 1964. During his visits, he met officials, gave interviews to newspapers, and spoke on television and radio in Egypt, Ethiopia, Tanganyika (now Tanzania), Nigeria, Ghana, Guinea, Sudan, Senegal, Liberia, Algeria, and Morocco. Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana, Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt, and Ahmed Ben Bella of Algeria invited Malcolm X to serve in their governments. By the time he returned to the United States on November 24, 1964, Malcolm had met with every prominent African leader and established an international connection between Africans on the continent and those in the diaspora.
Malcolm-X has been called one of the greatest and most influential African Americans in history. Over 1500000 people attended his funeral.
“Listening to leaders like Nasser, Ben Bella, and Nkrumah awakened me to the dangers of racism. I realized racism isn't just a black and white problem. It's brought bloodbaths to about every nation on earth at one time or another.”
Nelson Mandela Born: Rolihlahla Mandela 18 July 1918 (age 93)
-Mandela served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999, and was the first South African president to be elected in a fully representative democratic election. -Before his presidency, Mandela was an anti- apartheid activist, and the leader of Umkhonto we Sizwe, the armed wing of the African National Congress (ANC). -In 1962 he was arrested and convicted of sabotage and other charges, and sentenced to life in prison. Mandela served 27 years in prison, spending many of these years on Robben Island. Following his release from prison on 11 February 1990, Mandela led his party in the negotiations that led to multi-racial democracy in 1994. -Mandela has received more than 250 awards over four decades, including the 1993 Nobel Peace Prize.
Political activity and armed anti- apartheid activities -After the 1948 election victory of the Afrikaner-dominated National Party, which supported the apartheid policy of racial segregation,Mandela began actively participating in politics -Mahatma Gandhi influenced Mandela's approach, and subsequently the methods of succeeding generations of South African anti-apartheid activists. -In 1961 Mandela became leader of the ANC's armed wing, Umkhonto we Sizwe (translated Spear of the Nation, and also abbreviated MK), which he co- founded. He coordinated sabotage campaigns against military and government targets, making plans for a possible guerrilla war if the sabotage failed to end apartheid. Mandela also raised funds for MK abroad and arranged for paramilitary training of the group. -Mandela described the move to armed struggle as a last resort; years of increasing repression and violence from the state convinced him that many years of non- violent protest against apartheid had not and could not achieve any progress.
Arrest and imprisonment -On 5 August 1962 Mandela was arrested after living on the run for seventeen months, and was imprisoned in the Johannesburg Fort. -Mandela was imprisoned on Robben Island where he remained for the next eighteen of his twenty-seven years in prison. While in jail, his reputation grew and he became widely known as the most significant black leader in South Africa. -In March 1982 Mandela was transferred from Robben Island to Pollsmoor Prison, along with other senior ANC leaders Walter Sisulu, Andrew Mlangeni, Ahmed Kathrada and Raymond Mhlaba.It was speculated that this was to remove the influence of these senior leaders on the new generation of young black activists imprisoned on Robben Island, the so- called "Mandela University"
The release -On 2 February 1990, State President F. W. de Klerk reversed the ban on the ANC and other anti-apartheid organisations, and announced that Mandela would shortly be released from prison. Mandela was released from Victor Verster Prison in Paarl on 11 February 1990. The event was broadcast live all over the world.