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Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 1 AS PSYCHOLOGY REVISION GUIDE Oundle School Psychology Department 2008.

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Presentation on theme: "Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 1 AS PSYCHOLOGY REVISION GUIDE Oundle School Psychology Department 2008."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 1 AS PSYCHOLOGY REVISION GUIDE Oundle School Psychology Department 2008

3 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 2 Contents Introduction How to use this presentation Cognitive Psychology Social Psychology Developmental Psychology Physiological Psychology Individual Differences Themes and Perspectives Index of studies Themes and Perspectives Index

4 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 3 Introduction This presentation is intended to be used as a revision aid. It does not contain all you need to know. It does not contain all you need to know. It contains minimum detail, and maximum questions. Use it section by section as a different way to view revision. Once you are familiar with the layout, use it slide by slide to test yourself. Good luck!

5 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 4 How to use this presentation, part 1 At the bottom of every slide these four buttons will appear: Hyperlink Return This one will return you to where you were before you followed a hyperlink – more on hyperlinks later. This one will take you back to the ‘Contents’ slide. This one takes you back to the previous slide. This one will take you to the index

6 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 5 How to use this presentation, part 2 Hyperlink Return Two further buttons are animated to appear: This one will take you back to the beginning of the study you are reviewing. This one appears to indicate that all the elements of that slide have appeared Click on the mouse to move on to the next slide.

7 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 6 How to use this presentation - Hyperlinks Any text which is underlined in white is a hyperlink. Clicking on the text will take you to a different slide in the presentation. Clicking on the on the page you are transferred to will bring you back here. Try it by clicking on this text now, and then clicking on the hyperlink return button on the page you are transferred to.this text Hyperlink Return

8 Hyperlink return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT7 COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY “Reconstruction of automobile destruction” Loftus and Palmer (1974) “Reconstruction of automobile destruction” Loftus and Palmer (1974) “Pictorial perception and culture.” Deregowski (1972) “Pictorial perception and culture.” Deregowski (1972) “Does the autistic child have a theory of mind?” Baron-Cohen, Leslie and Frith (1985) “Does the autistic child have a theory of mind?” Baron-Cohen, Leslie and Frith (1985) “Teaching Sign Language to a chimpanzee.” Gardner and Gardner (1969) “Teaching Sign Language to a chimpanzee.” Gardner and Gardner (1969)

9 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 8 What is cognitive psychology? Cognitive skills include thinking, reasoning, communicating and perceiving, learning and memory. As such, this area of psychology studies mental processes. Cognitive psychology really took off following the development of computers. At the same time, the mind does not just process and analyse information - it is creative (and illogical) at times. A cognitive psychology Click here for a Core 2A question on cognitive psychology Click here

10 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 9 “Reconstruction of automobile destruction”. Key question: How reliable is the testimony of eye-witnesses? In this study, subjects were shown films of automobile accidents, and asked questions about what they saw. The study is concerned with how information received after an event influences the memory of that event. Loftus and Palmer (1974) What are the weaknesses of eye-witness testimony?

11 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 10 What sort of study was this? This was one of a series of laboratory experiments.

12 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 11 Who were the subjects? 45 students participated “in groups of various sizes” for experiment students participated in experiment 2.

13 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 12 What were the aims of this experiment? Loftus and Palmer wished to investigate the effect of leading questions on:  the accuracy of speed estimates in a car crash, and  the perceived consequences of a car crash.

14 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 13 What were the variables? Independent: The words  smashed,  collided,  bumped,  hit, or  contacted used in the question “About how fast were the cars going when they …………. each other? Dependent: The subjects’ estimates of the speed the car was travelling. Experiment 1

15 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 14 What was the procedure? (Experiment 1) Subjects were shown films of traffic accidents. They were then asked to give an account of what they had seen. They were asked the critical question (hidden randomly amongst others) “About how fast were the cars going...”

16 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 15 What were the results? (Experiment 1) The more violent the word used to describe the collision, the greater the average estimate of speed. (smashed = 41 mph; contacted = 32 mph).

17 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 16 What were the variables? Independent: The word used in the question “how fast were the cars going when they  hit, or  smashed into each other?” (Plus a control group who were not asked about the speed). Dependent: The subjects’ responses (1 week later) to the question “Did you see any broken glass?” Experiment 2

18 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 17 What was the procedure? (Experiment 2) Three groups of 50 students were shown a film of a multiple car crash. After the showing, they were asked the critical question relating to speed, or not asked about the speed of the cars (as a control). One week later they were asked (without seeing the film again) “Did you see any broken glass?”

19 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 18 What were the results? (Experiment 2) More subjects reported seeing broken glass when the word smashed was used than when the word hit was used. In both conditions, however, most subjects correctly reported not seeing any glass (in other words, they did not respond to the leading question).

20 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 19 What did the authors conclude? The authors suggested that the original memory of an event can be altered by information received after the event. They identified two types of information which go into a person’s memory – the first is info gained from perceiving the event, the second is other information received after the event. This is what they called reconstructed memory.

21 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 20 What is our evaluation of this study? This study has implications for the way witnesses give evidence. Highlights the dangers of leading questions. The study was well controlled. Ecological validity: Watching films of accidents is not the same as seeing a real accident eg: when walking to school. Ecological validity  no fear, or other distractions;  Subjects expect something to happen. What other evaluation points can be made?

22 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 21 Click here to go to past Core 1 questions on Loftus and Palmer here

23 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 22 Pictorial perception and culture. Deregowski (1972) Key question: Do people from different cultures see the world in different ways? This study examines whether people from different cultures see and interpret 2-D pictures of 3-D images the same way.

24 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 23 What sort of study was this? This was a review paper, discussing the work of the author and others (particularly Hudson) in carrying out cross-cultural comparisons between the interpretation of 3-D pictures by members of western cultures and various African cultures.cross-cultural Define ethnocentrism

25 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 24 Who were the subjects? South African workers. Zambian school-children.

26 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 25 What were the variables? The independent variables could be considered as the subject’s nationality, or whether they had been classified as either a 2-D or a 3-D perceiver. The dependent variable would be their performance in the tasks.

27 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 26 What was the aim of this study? This study aimed to present a summary of the findings of cross- cultural research into pictorial perception. Remember that this is a review paper. Deregowski first discusses anecdotal evidence from missionaries such as Mrs. Fraser anecdotal What does anecdotal mean?

28 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 27 What was the procedure? There were several types of experiments.  Split vs Perspective drawings  The use of pictorial depth cues such as: familiar size, overlap and perspective;  The building of 2-D or 3-D models;  The ambiguous trident experiment. What is a split split drawing?

29 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 28 An example of Hudson’s pictures two... and which two are missing? two Can you identify the two depth cues in this picture...

30 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 29 What were the results? African children and adults preferred split drawings. Hudson found that many African subjects could not perceive 3-D in 2-D images. 2-D perceivers built 2-D models. 2-D perceivers were not deceived by the ambiguous trident. What were the models they had to build?

31 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 30 The ambiguous trident experiment. School children were shown a normal drawing of a trident, and the version shown on the left. They were asked to copy the image, and the time taken to copy it recorded. 2-D perceivers drew the ambiguous trident more quickly, as they were not confused by the perceptual trick in the ambiguous trident.

32 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 31 What did the authors conclude? Pictures are not a universal medium of communication – “lingua franca”, and our interpretation of pictures is a feature of our culture and upbringing. Deregowski suggested that split drawings may represent an ‘early stage’ in artistic development.

33 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 32 What is our evaluation of this study? The cross-cultural approach to psychology is valuable, as it prevents ethnocentric bias. This study supports the nurture side of the nature/nurture debate. Pictures lacked cues such as texture gradients, and were presented on paper, itself culturally alien to the S. Africans. There is a suggestion that the Western view of perception is ‘better’. What are the problems associated with cross- cultural studies?

34 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 33 Click here to go to past Core 1 questions on Deregowski here

35 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 34 Does the autistic child have a theory of mind? Baron-Cohen, Leslie and Frith (1985) Key question: Do autistic children think differently to other children? The authors use two dolls – Sally and Anne – to test whether autistic children can attribute beliefs to others, and predict their behaviour. The Theory of Mind – the ability to attribute mental states to oneself and others. What are the characteristics of autism?

36 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 35 What sort of study was this? This was a laboratory experiment which used independent measures.independent measures This was also a quasi-experiment, in that the children could not be randomly allocated to groups, or the independent variable occurred naturally.quasi-experiment

37 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 36 Who were the subjects? 20 autistic children, average age 12 years old, verbal mental age 5.5; 14 Down’s syndrome children, average age 11 years old, verbal mental age 2.1; 27 normal children, average age 4 years six months, verbal mental age the same as actual age.

38 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 37 What were the variables? Independent: The group to which the child belonged:  Normal  Autistic  Down’s syndrome Dependent: Success (or failure) in the Sally-Anne test. belief Did the children answer the belief question correctly? Down’s syndrome Why was the Down’s syndrome group included?

39 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 38 What was the hypothesis? Autistic children will lack a theory of mind (TOM). This means that they are unable to attribute beliefs to others.

40 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 39 What was the procedure? 1. The dolls... Two dolls, Sally and Anne. Sally has a basket, Anne a box. Sally places her marble in her basket. Sally leaves the ‘room’. Anne takes the marble and places it in her box. Sally re-enters the room.

41 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 40 What was the procedure? 2. The questions Naming question – which doll is which? 2. Belief question – “Where will Sally look for her marble?” 3. Reality question – “Where is the marble really?” 4. Memory question – “Where was the marble in the beginning?” Why ask each of the four questions?

42 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 41 What were the results? All children answered the naming, reality and memory questions correctly. Belief question (% correct):  Normal 85%  Down’s syndrome 86%  Autistic 20%

43 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 42 What did the authors conclude? Autistic children do not appreciate the difference between their own and the doll’s knowledge. This is a specific deficit in autistic children, not related to mental retardation. What is meant by the term false belief”? “ false belief”?

44 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 43 What is our evaluation of this study? This is a clever way to study a difficult cognitive problem. Autistic children do not engage in pretend play – will they respond to the make-believe in this experiment? Sally and Anne are dolls – do dolls have minds? This is an issue of ecological validity.ecological validity Some autistic children passed the test (and some normal children failed it).

45 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 44 Click here to go to past Core 1 questions on Baron-Cohen, Leslie and Frith here

46 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 45 Teaching sign language to a chimpanzee. Gardner and Gardner (1969 ) Key question: Can we teach language to a chimp? The authors studied a chimp called Washoe, and taught it American Sign Language by a variety of training methods. These methods included behaviour shaping, and reinforcement. language? How do we define language?

47 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 46 What sort of study was this? This was a type of case study. case study. As there was an attempt to change Washoe’s behaviour, it may be suggested that this was an experiment, with Washoe’s use of signs as the dependent variable. (Whether Washoe’s use of signs constitutes language is another matter...)

48 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 47 Who was the subject? Washoe was a wild-caught female infant chimpanzee. Her age was estimated at 14 months in June This is a picture of Washoe (in retirement). Washoe died in 2007

49 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 48 What were the variables? There were no variables manipulated in this study.

50 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 49 What was the hypothesis? To what extent can a non-human species use language? This is a study in comparative psychology. This is the only study involving animals we look at – you must consider the validity, and the ethics, of using animal subjects.

51 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 50 What was the procedure? Washoe was brought up in the Gardners’ home. She spent all her waking hours in the company of human helpers, who were not allowed to talk, but had to use ASL at all times, in her presence. By imitation, reinforcement and shaping, she was introduced to a range of gestures in the ASL vocabulary. The extent to which she used the signs was recorded. operant What is operant conditioning?

52 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 51 What were the results? Washoe acquired 34 signs, 28 of which were used on at least 20 days. She could transfer signs eg: “key” sign transferred to all varieties of keys and locks. There is some suggestion of rudimentary combinations. The rate of acquisition of new signs increased:  four new signs in the first 7 months;  nine during the next 7 months; and  21 during the next 7 months.

53 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 52 What did the authors conclude? ASL provided a possible way to engage in two-way communication between man and chimp. They were hopeful that these results were just the start of Washoe’s linguistic capabilities.

54 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 53 What is our evaluation of this study? Washoe showed many signs of language, but some were absent. Ethics:  Animal rights/captivity etc.  Capture of wild chimps. This does not replicate how humans acquire language, for eg:  no increase in length of sentences;  no turn-taking;  few spontaneous communications.

55 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 54 Click here to go to past Core 1 questions on Gardner and Gardner here

56 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 55 Some words or phrases you should know... Autism Theory of Mind Quasi (or natural) experiment Leading questions Reconstructive memory Ethnocentrism Review article Cross-cultural research Depth cue Familiar size Overlap Perspective Semantic Reinforcement Inter-observer reliability Do you know them all?

57 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 56 The end of this section You may use this slide to start any of the other five sections on this presentation ( click on the pointing finger ) Developmental Psychology Individual Differences Social Psychology Themes and Perspectives Physiological Psychology

58 Hyperlink return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT57 SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY “A study of prisoners and guards in a simulated prison.” Haney, Banks and Zimbardo (1973). “A study of prisoners and guards in a simulated prison.” Haney, Banks and Zimbardo (1973). “Good Samaritanism: An underground phenomenon?” Piliavin, Rodin and Piliavin (1969). “Good Samaritanism: An underground phenomenon?” Piliavin, Rodin and Piliavin (1969). “A behavioural study of obedience.” Milgram (1963) “A behavioural study of obedience.” Milgram (1963) “Experiments in intergroup discrimination.” Tajfel (1970) “Experiments in intergroup discrimination.” Tajfel (1970)

59 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 58 What is social psychology? This looks at the behaviour of individuals in a social environment. Our behaviour is directly or indirectly affected by the presence of others (or we affect the behaviour of others). It includes such areas as:  conformity  obedience  prejudice

60 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 59 “A study of prisoners and guards in a simulated prison.” Haney, Banks and Zimbardo (1973). Key question: How will people behave in a pretend prison? A famous simulation in which the authors created a mock prison in the basement of a Stanford University building. This study is concerned with social roles, and how we alter our behaviour due to the situation we are in.

61 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 60 What sort of study was this? This is an experiment in a simulated environment.

62 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 61 Who were the subjects? 75 students replied to a newspaper advertisement. 24 subjects then selected after psychological screening. 2 subjects kept as reserves, 22 used in actual study. All male. Predominantly white, middle class (one oriental student).

63 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 62 What were the variables? Independent: Random allocation into two groups: either ‘prisoner’ or ‘guard’. Dependent: How the subjects behaved. Measured by using video, audiotape and direct observation Qualitative data

64 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 63 What was the hypothesis? Zimbardo wanted to disprove the dispositional hypothesis. dispositional He believed that the situation people find themselves in has a much greater effect on their behaviour than their own disposition (or character). This is part of the nature vs. nurture debate.nature vs. nurture

65 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 64 What was the procedure? Random assignment to role. Arrest of prisoners by local police. Imprisonment in mock cells created in basement of building. Subjects clearly identified by clothing (uniform etc.) All routines and treatment very close to real prison.

66 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 65 What were the results? Both groups very quickly conformed to the roles they had been assigned. Extreme depression and stress on part of prisoners. Guards exhibited pathology of power. Study only lasted 6 days (out of a projected two weeks). evidence What evidence do we have for this?

67 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 66 What did the authors conclude? They started to believe in their roles – they internalised the situation. Prisoners experienced deindividuation and showed learned helplessness. Zimbardo demonstrated that nurture (or situational factors) were most important in determining these behaviours.

68 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 67 What is our evaluation of this study? Zimbardo acted as warden – was he objective – or even a subject in his own study? Ethics: caused unacceptable levels of stress to participants – but could this have been predicted? This is a landmark study – does the end justify the means?

69 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 68 Click here to go to past Core 1 questions on Haney, Banks and Zimbardo here

70 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 69 “Good Samaritanism: An underground phenomenon?” Piliavin, Rodin and Piliavin (1969). Key question: Will people help a stranger in trouble? Study initiated by the killing of Kitty Genovese in New York, This study investigates:  Bystander apathy.  Diffusion of responsibility.  Altruism.

71 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 70 What sort of study was this? This was a field experiment.field experiment Results were recorded via observation. observation strengths weaknesses What are the strengths and weaknesses of this methodology?

72 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 71 Who were the subjects? Approximately 4450 travellers witnessed the incidents. Racial mix was 45% Black and 55% White. Average number of people in critical area was 8.5 per trial.

73 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 72 What were the variables? Independent: Type of Victim: ‘drunk’ or ‘cane’. Race of Victim: black or white. Dependent : Speed and frequency of helping. Race of helper. Measured by observation Both qualitative and quantitative data collected.

74 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 73 What were the hypotheses? People are more likely to help others of the same race as themselves. The model in the ‘cane’ condition would be helped more readily than the ‘drunk’ model. Why?

75 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 74 What was the procedure? Study took place on New York Subway. 4 students entered train – 2 female observers, 1 male ‘model’ and 1 male acting the part of ‘drunk’ or ‘cane’ victim. Victim staged collapse. Nature and speed of help, and race of helper noted by observers. If not assistance offered, ‘model’ was to intervene.

76 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 75 What were the results? ‘Cane’ victim received help 62 out of 65 trails. ‘Drunk’ victim received help 19 out of 38 trials. Males more likely to help than females. Less ‘same-race’ helping than predicted. There was no evidence of diffusion of responsibility – in fact, the exact opposite – more people present produced faster helping.

77 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 76 What did the authors conclude? The authors explained their results using cost-reward analysis. Observation of an emergency creates a state of emotional arousal – we act to reduce this. Piliavin believed that helping behaviour is selfish rather than altruistic.

78 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 77 What is our evaluation of this study? This was a field experiment, therefore:  Good ecological validity.  But no control of subjects or extraneous variables.  Ethics – no informed consent, or debriefing; also potential distress for passengers. Less ‘drunk’ than ‘cane’ condition trials. In a train, subjects cannot avoid the situation – helping may be more likely. Results can be interpreted as showing altruism as much as selfishness.

79 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 78 Click here to go to past Core 1 questions on Piliavin, Rodin and Piliavin here

80 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 79 “A behavioural study of obedience.” Milgram (1963) Key question: Would you torture a stranger because you were told to do it? This study looks at obedience to authority. The background to this study were the levels of obedience shown during WWII – “we were only following orders.” good In what ways can obedience be good for society?

81 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 80 What sort of study was this? This was an experiment in the sense that there was a dependent variable – there was no independent variable, however. In some senses, this could be described as a controlled observational study.

82 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 81 Who were the subjects? 40 males. Aged between 20 and 50 years old. Mixed occupations. Obtained via a newspaper article, and direct mail. Were paid $4.50 (about $27 today).

83 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 82 What were the variables? Independent: None Dependent: The maximum shock administered before refusing to go any further (quantitative) Behaviour of subjects (qualitative)

84 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 83 What was the aim of this study? To investigate how far people will go in obeying an authority figure.

85 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 84 What was the procedure? Subjects were told the study was about learning. Subjects (the ‘teacher’) believed they were delivering increasingly painful electric shocks to a ‘learner’. They were encouraged to continue (with verbal ‘prods’) by ‘the experimenter’ (in lab coat). What were the verbal ‘prods’?

86 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 85 What were the results? Levels of obedience displayed were phenomenal. 26 out of 40 subjects continued to end of scale. Some continued even though visibly distressed. How did Milgram explain the levels of obedience?

87 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 86 What did the authors conclude? This is a type of behaviour that anybody could show. Americans (and the many nationalities that were studied subsequently by other psychologists) were just as likely to respond to authority in the same way as the German soldiers.

88 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 87 What is our evaluation of this study? Ecological validity – were the subjects responding to the demand characteristics of the experiment? Ethics :  great levels of distress;  deception;  Subjects not screened;  But  But –  levels of obedience could not have been predicted The importance of this study may outweigh any ethical objections.

89 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 88 Click here to go to past Core 1 questions on Milgram here

90 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 89 “Experiments in intergroup discrimination.” Tajfel (1970) Key question: What does it take to create prejudice? Previous ideas suggested that prejudice arose as a consequence of competition. Tajfel believed that the process of categorisation was sufficient to induce prejudice. prejudice Define prejudice

91 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 90 What sort of study was this? This was a laboratory experiment. laboratory experiment

92 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 91 Who were the subjects? 64 boys years of age. Attended the same state school Bristol.

93 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 92 What were the variables? Independent: The group the boys were assigned to:  1 st experiment: over-estimators or under- estimators.  2 nd experiment: preference for Klee or Kandinsky. Dependent: How the subjects awarded the points.

94 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 93 What was the hypothesis of this study? Discriminatory behaviour can be expected even if the individual is not involved in any conflict of interest. Tajfel wanted to establish the minimum conditions required for intergroup discrimination - this became known as the minimal groups paradigm. Define discrimination

95 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 94 What was the procedure? Subjects believed they were sorted into two groups by a selection test. Selection was in fact entirely arbitrary. Subjects were then asked to allocate points (translated later into pennies) to members of either group.

96 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 95 What were the results? (Experiment 1). The majority of boys gave more money to members of their own group.

97 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 96 What were the results? (Experiment 2). He measured three variables:  maximum joint profit - little effect;  largest reward to ingroup - little effect;  maximum difference – This was the most important factor in how the boys made their choices.

98 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 97 What did the author conclude? That discriminatory behaviour could be induced by the simple act of making people believe they were in a different group to others - no matter how irrelevant the categorisation, or the fact that the selection was in fact arbitrary.

99 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 98 What is our evaluation of this study? Interpretation of results - behaviour may actually represent fairness as much as discrimination Only boys used. This was a very artificial situation - demand characteristics may have affected the results demand characteristics Why is this a problem?

100 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 99 Click here to go to past Core 1 questions on Tajfel here

101 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 100 Test yourself... What do these mean? Pathology of power Dispositional hypothesis Conformity Obedience Deindividuation Learned helplessness Bystander apathy Diffusion of responsibility Altruism Cost-reward model Prejudice Discrimination Minimal groups

102 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 101 The end of this section You may use this slide to start any of the other five presentations on this disk ( click on the pointing finger ) Themes and Perspectives Physiological Psychology Developmental Psychology Cognitive Psychology Individual Differences

103 Hyperlink return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT102 DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY “Asking only one question in the conservation experiment.” Samuel and Bryant (1984) “Asking only one question in the conservation experiment.” Samuel and Bryant (1984) “Transmission of aggression through imitation of aggressive models.” Bandura, Ross and Ross (1961) “Transmission of aggression through imitation of aggressive models.” Bandura, Ross and Ross (1961) Social and family relationships of ex- institutional adolescents.” Hodges and Tizard (1989) Social and family relationships of ex- institutional adolescents.” Hodges and Tizard (1989) “Analysis of a phobia of a five year-old boy.” Freud (1909) “Analysis of a phobia of a five year-old boy.” Freud (1909)

104 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 103 What is developmental psychology? It is concerned with changes that occur over a person’s lifetime, not just childhood. Some psychologists believe that development occurs in stages. Others are more interested in whether development is influenced by biological factors (nature) or environmental circumstances (nurture). B developmental psychology Click here for a Core 2B question on developmental psychology Click here

105 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 104 Asking only one question in the conservation experiment. Samuel and Bryant (1984) Key question: Do children think differently to adults? Piaget believed children went through stages of development. This study challenges how Piaget conducted his experiments on conservation on pre-operational- children. What are Piaget’s Four stages?

106 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 105 What sort of study was this? This is a laboratory experiment. Because one of the independent variables could not be altered (the age of the children) this could be described as a quasi-experiment. The study was an independent measures design.

107 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 106 Who were the subjects? 252 children from Devon. Ages 5 to 8.5 years old. Divided into four groups of 63 by age:  5,  6,  7 and  8 years of age. A children as subjects Click here for a Core 2A question on children as subjects Click here

108 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 107 What were the independent variables? Age of child. Materials – plasticene/liquid/buttons. Conditions :  Standard – asked questions in the way that Piaget did (two questions, one before and one after transformation).  One-judgement – only asked one question after transformation.  Fixed array – just saw objects after they had been changed and not before.

109 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 108 What was the dependent variable? The answer to the questions asked. (How many errors the children made.)

110 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 109 What was the hypothesis? More children will be able to conserve when they have to make only one judgement (rather than two in the standard Piagetian task).

111 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 110 What was the procedure? Each child was tested four times on each of the three materials (plasticene/buttons etc.) – thus 12 tests in all. Children were allocated to one of three conditions:  Standard;  One-Judgement;  Fixed array.

112 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 111 What were the results? Children were significantly more able to conserve in a one- judgement task. Older children made significantly less errors than younger children. Conservation of number produced less errors than either volume or mass.

113 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 112 What did the authors conclude? This study shows that the reason some children make errors on the conservation task is due to demand characteristics - the way they are asked questions, rather than the task itself. Piaget’s theory of stages of development was supported – older children make fewer errors in the conservation tasks.

114 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 113 What is our evaluation of this study? Good methods – a wide range of controls, good sample size. Good analysis of data. This study highlights the importance of procedures on results obtained – small changes can have a large effect.

115 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 114 Click here to go to past Core 1 questions on Samuel and Bryant here

116 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 115 Transmission of aggression through imitation of aggressive models. Bandura, Ross and Ross (1961)  Key question: Do we imitate the behaviour of others?  Bandura was an influential social learning theorist.  Children were left in a room with an adult showing aggressive behaviour (or not) to a Bobo doll to see whether they would imitate this behaviour.

117 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 116 What sort of study was this? Laboratory experiment. Results collected by observation. observation Revise the strengths and weaknesses of collecting data by observation observation

118 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 117 Who were the subjects? 36 boys and 36 girls. 37 months to 69 months (3-6 years of age). 1 male adult and 1 female adult to act as role models. A children in psychological research Click here for a Core 2A question on children in psychological research Click here

119 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 118 What were the variables? Independent: Aggressive or non-aggressive model. Male or female model. Dependent: The degree to which children imitated the model.

120 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 119 What were the hypotheses? Children shown aggressive models will show significantly more aggression than those shown non- aggressive models. Boys will show significantly more imitative aggression than girls. Children will imitate the behaviour of same sex models to a greater degree.

121 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 120 Before the experiment As children vary – or show individual differences - in the amount of aggression they show in everyday situations, it was important that the experimental groups were matched for aggression. The children were observed in their nursery, and scored on four measures of aggression before the experiment began.

122 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 121 What was the procedure? Stage 1. Children left in room with model. Stage 2. “Mild aggression arousal” in second room. Stage 3. Child taken to third room, kept in for 20 minutes, number and nature of aggressive acts recorded through a one-way mirror. How did they do this?

123 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 122 Images from Bandura’s study.

124 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 123 What were the results? Children shown an aggressive model displayed more aggressive behaviour. There was some evidence of same-sex imitation.  Boys tended to show more physical aggression in response to a male model;  Girls showed more verbal aggression if the model was female. Some children displayed non-imitative aggression – they weren’t just copying the adults.

125 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 124 What did the authors conclude? They show that aggressive behaviour can be learnt by imitation. There is no clear conclusion about the influences of nature or nurture in the occurrence of aggressive behaviour.

126 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 125 What is our evaluation of this study? There are pitfalls with observational techniques. Ecological validity – how often do adults hit dolls? Ethics  parental consent not sought.  Exposure to violence may be frightening.  Deliberately upsetting the children during mild aggression arousal. children What other problems are there when we use children as subjects?

127 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 126 Click here to go to past Core 1 questions on Bandura, Ross and Ross here

128 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 127 Social and family relationships of ex-institutional adolescents. Hodges and Tizard (1989) Key question: What are the effects of a disrupted early home life? Many studies indicate the importance of a main care-giver to a child’s development. Institutional children may lack this experience. This study examines the importance of this early attachment and a possible critical period during which attachment may occur.

129 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 128 What sort of study was this? The authors used matched comparison groups for controls. This was a longitudinal study. longitudinal study In contrast - what is a cross-sectional study?cross-sectional study?

130 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 129 Who were the subjects? 39 children – both boys and girls - aged 16. There were originally 65 subjects at age 4, and 51 subjects at age 8 – this decrease is called subject attrition.

131 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 130 What were the variables? This is a natural (or quasi) experiment where the independent variables (the child’s environment) –  either returning to live with their natural parents (restored),  being adopted,  or being part of the comparison group who had not been institutionalised. Their social relationships could be seen as the dependent variable.

132 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 131 What was the aim of this study? To investigate whether experiencing early institutionalisation with ever- changing care-givers until at least two years of age will lead to long- term problems in adolescence.

133 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 132 What was the procedure? An interview with the subject. An interview with their mother. A self-report questionnaire concerning social difficulties. A questionnaire completed by subject’s schoolteacher about social relationships.questionnaire A psychiatric evaluation - the Rutter ‘B’ scale

134 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 133 What were the results? Adopted children were just as attached to their parents as comparison groups – restored children were less attached. Ex-Institutional children had more problems with siblings – especially the restored group. Ex-Institutional children tended to show more indiscriminate affection to adults. There was some evidence that the ex- institutional adolescents had more social problems with their peer group.

135 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 134 What did the authors conclude? Given the correct environment (eg: being adopted by a loving family) any early effects of deprivation can be overcome.

136 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 135 What is our evaluation of this study? Can we be sure that the comparison groups had a stable family background? Problems with self-reporting and questionnaires. Many of the other ratings were done by adults. Ethics – asking personal questions. The success of many children in forming attachments after institutional care questions Bowlby’s theory of attachment. We must remember that many did, however, experience social problems outside of the family. What are the pro’s and con’s of questionnaires? questionnaires

137 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 136 Click here to go to past Core 1 questions on Hodges and Tizard here

138 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 137 Analysis of a phobia of a five year-old boy. Freud (1909) Key question: Why do children develop fears and phobias? This is an account of how a young boy called Little Hans was psychoanalysed in order to explain his anxiety, and a phobia of horses.

139 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 138 What sort of study was this? This was a case study. case study

140 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 139 Who was the subject? Hans was a five-year old son of a man who was a firm believer in Freud’s ideas.

141 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 140 What were the variables? There were no variables in this study. This is an account of the conversations between Freud and the boy’s father, and one meeting with Hans himself.

142 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 141 What were the aims of this study? Freud was seeking support for his ideas about:  Unconscious motivations for behaviour.  Psychosexual development.  The Oedipus complex.  The cause of phobias.  Psychoanalysis – bringing unconscious causes of behaviour ‘out into the open’. What were Freud’s stages of development?

143 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 142 What was the procedure? Little Hans’ father reported conversations with his son to Freud, and Freud’s interpretations and suggestions back to his son.

144 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 143 What interpretations did Freud make? Freud believed that the Oedipus complex explained much of Hans’ behaviour with regard to his mother, and his obsession with his ‘widdler’. He explained his fear of being bitten by horses as a fear of being castrated by his father. What were some of the other behaviours Hans displayed, and how did Freud explain them?

145 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 144 What were the results? Little Hans stopped having his fantasies and phobias.

146 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 145 What did the author conclude? Freud believed that Hans wanted to identify with (or be like) his father, and that the Oedipus complex could be a way in which all boys learn to emulate a male role model.

147 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 146 What is our evaluation of this study? Case study – cannot generalise to all people, but can be useful for its richness of information. All data collected second-hand via father. Neither father nor Freud objective in their analysis and interpretation. No explanation as to how girls develop.

148 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 147 Click here to go to past Core 1 questions on Freud here

149 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 148 Some words or phrases you should know... Conservation Fixed array Social learning theory Inter-rater reliability Longitudinal study Attachment Subject attrition Self-report Psychodynamics Case study Unconscious mind Oedipus complex

150 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 149 The end of this section. You may use this slide to start any of the other five sections of this presentation ( click on the pointing finger ) Cognitive Psychology Individual Differences Social Psychology Themes and Perspectives Physiological Psychology

151 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 150 Quiz time! Name all the psychologists on the next slide (they are all authors in one of the twenty core studies). As a clue, there are some missing... The minimal groups man, the Mr. and Mrs of Samaritan fame, half of the emotional pair, half of the three faces of Eve, half of a car crash, half of conservative children, half of black children and half of sleepy brains. There is only one third of Bashing Bobo, murderers brains, prison guards and autistic children, and no unattached adolescents at all. First correct entry (five in top row; six in middle and seven in lowest row) ed to Mr Heath at wins a prize!

152 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 151

153 Hyperlink return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT152 PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY. “Cognitive, social and physiological determinants of emotional state.” Schachter and Singer (1962) “Cognitive, social and physiological determinants of emotional state.” Schachter and Singer (1962) “The relation of eye movements during sleep to dream activity.” Dement and Kleitman (1957) “The relation of eye movements during sleep to dream activity.” Dement and Kleitman (1957) “Hemisphere deconnection and unity in consciousness.” Sperry (1968) “Hemisphere deconnection and unity in consciousness.” Sperry (1968) “Brain abnormalities in murderers indicated by positron emission tomography.” Raine, Buchsbaum and LaCasse (1997) “Brain abnormalities in murderers indicated by positron emission tomography.” Raine, Buchsbaum and LaCasse (1997)

154 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 153 What is physiological psychology? It looks at how the structure and function of our nervous system may affect our behaviour. It has been said that it looks at people as if they were biological machines. We are all aware that drugs, alcohol and hormones (such as adrenaline) do affect our behaviour. A physiological psychology Click here for a Core 2A question on physiological psychology Click here

155 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 154 “Cognitive, social and physiological determinants of emotional state. “ Schachter and Singer (1962) Key question: What are the things that make us feel emotions? The authors examined the interaction between physiological arousal (the presence of adrenaline) and cognitive factors (the subjects understanding of the situation) in the experience of emotion. This is known as the two-factor theory.

156 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 155 What sort of study was this? This was a laboratory experiment. The design used was independent groups – different participants are used in each condition.independent groups In contrast - what are repeated measures? repeated measures?

157 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 156 Who were the subjects? 184 University psychology students. All male. 90% received academic credits for taking part in the study.

158 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 157 What were the variables? Independent : Physiological arousal – adrenaline or saline. Explanation of arousal –  informed  misinformed  ignorant. Emotional cues – ‘euphoric’ or ‘angry’ stooge. Dependent : Self reports of emotions. Observation through one-way mirror of interactions with stooge. Measurement of pulse

159 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 158 What were the hypotheses? When an individual has no immediate explanation for his state of physiological arousal, he will label the emotion in terms of his understanding of what is going on (the cognitions available to him). If the individual has an explanation for his state of arousal, he will not label his emotions in the same way. An individual will experience emotion only in the presence of physiological arousal.

160 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 159 What was the procedure? Subjects were told they were receiving an injection of Suproxin (an imaginary vitamin compound) but were in fact given injections of either epinephrine ( adrenaline ) or saline (as a placebo ). Subjects were then either:  informed - told what symptoms to expect,  misinformed - told to expect made-up symptoms,  ignorant - not told what to expect at all.... continued on next slide... What are the effec ts of adrenaline?

161 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT the procedure (continued)... the procedure (continued) Subjects were then further divided into two groups: those who were exposed to an actor or ‘stooge’ pretending to be silly and care-free (the ‘euphoric’ condition); or a stooge pretending to be ‘angry’. Subjects were observed throughout, and asked to complete self-rating scales. A stooges Click here for a Core 2A question on stooges Click here

162 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 161 What were the results? Subjects in the informed group were least affected by the behaviour of the stooges. Subjects receiving the placebo injection consistently displayed a higher emotional level than the informed group. Most results were insignificant, or only made so by careful selection of subject data.

163 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 162 What did the authors conclude? That those subjects who had a valid cognitive label for their physical symptoms (the informed group) did not need to label their emotions using the behaviour of the stooge. The response of the placebo group is explained by suggesting that the injection itself causes physiological arousal.

164 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 163 What is our evaluation of this study? The study was too complex, and has not been replicated. No measure of mood was made before the experiment. Injections by themselves will cause arousal. Ethics:  Injections are painful.  Deception about nature of injection (and symptoms in misinformed group)

165 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 164 Click here to go to past Core 1 questions on Schachter and Singer here

166 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 165 “The relation of eye movements during sleep to dream activity.” Dement and Kleitman (1957) Key question: What happens when we sleep? Subjects had their EEG recorded whilst they slept. They were woken when they were experiencing REM sleep, and asked if they could remember their dreams.

167 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 166 What sort of study was this? An observation under controlled laboratory conditions. The authors say: “This paper represents the results of rigorous testing of the relation between eye movements and dreaming.”

168 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 167 Who were the subjects? Seven adult males and two adult females. Five were studied intensively, four were used to confirm results of first five.

169 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 168 What does an EEG look like?

170 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 169 What were the variables? In one part of the study, subjects were woken 5 or 15 minutes into a period of REM sleep – the IV, and their estimates of dream length recorded – the DV. Other parts of the study could be termed a controlled observation.

171 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 170 What were the hypotheses? REM sleep is associated with dreaming, NREM sleep is not. There is a positive correlation between the length of REM sleep and the subject’s estimate of dream length. The pattern of eye movement is associated with dream content.

172 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 171 What was the procedure? Subject instructed to refrain from alcohol or caffeine on day of experiment. Reported to laboratory a little before usual bedtime. EEG and EOG (which measures eye movement) recorded. Subjects woken up at various times to test their dream recall. Why?

173 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 172 What were the results? REM sleep is associated predominantly with dreaming; NREM is associated with non- dreaming sleep. There was a very good correlation between estimates of dream length and time of REM sleep. There was a link between type of eye movements and dream content.

174 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 173 What did the authors conclude? They provide evidence of a strong link between the physiological recordings (objective measurements) made during dreaming, and the subjective and psychological experiences of the subjects. objective subjective What is the difference between objective and subjective measurements ?

175 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 174 What is our evaluation of this study? Ability to recall dreams may be affected by how deeply one is asleep. Sleeping in a laboratory isn’t the same as sleeping in your own bed. Very few subjects. Provides support for the objective measurement of dreams.

176 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 175 Click here to go to past Core 1 questions on Dement and Kleitman here

177 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 176 “Hemisphere deconnection and unity in consciousness.” Sperry (1968) Key question: If you split someone’s brain in half – do they become two people? This study reports the findings on the behavioural and psychological effects of having the left and right hemispheres surgically disconnected.

178 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 177 What sort of study was this? These are several case studies, or clinical studies. This has sometimes been called a natural experiment – the experimental manipulation has been done “by nature”.

179 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 178 Who were the subjects? Patients who had undergone a cerebral commisurotomy – they had their corpus callosum cut surgically to treat severe epileptic seizures which were not responding to drug therapy.

180 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 179 What were the variables? This study was a mixture of quasi- experiments and case studies. The methodology is not easily divided into variables, or designs.

181 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 180 What was the aim of this study? Sperry wanted to investigate the functioning of the two hemispheres of the brain, by presenting stimuli to each half separately in people whose hemispheres cannot communicate with each other.

182 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 181 What was the procedure? Split-brain subjects were exposed to a variety of visual stimuli of very brief duration (1/10 th second) usually to one side of their visual field. They were also asked to do tasks involving touch, but without being able to see their hands. The next slide shows a view of the experimental set up.

183 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 182 Sperry’s set up. The following slide tries to mimic brief visual stimuli..

184 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 183 Focus on the red dot..

185 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 184 What were the results? Items seen in the left visual field will only be recognised if presented again to the left. Only items seen in the right visual field can be named verbally or in writing. If an object is felt by the left hand it can recognised by the left hand again, but not by the right hand, nor named by the subject.

186 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 185 What did the authors conclude? The two hemispheres of the brain have different abilities and functions – particularly language, which usually resides in the left hemisphere. One side of the brain does not know what the other side of the brain has seen or felt when the corpus callosum has been cut.

187 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 186 What is our evaluation of this study? We have no knowledge of subjects’ mental abilities before operation. Few subjects. Not everyone has same degree of ‘one-sided-ness’ (laterality). Did long term epilepsy, or the recent brain surgery, affect their brain function?

188 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 187 Click here to go to past Core 1 questions on Sperry here

189 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 188 “Brain abnormalities in murderers indicated by positron emission tomography.” Raine, Buchsbaum and LaCasse (1997) Key question: Is there a difference between the brains of murderers and non-murderers? This study used Positron Emission Tomography or P.E.T. scans to compare the activity of various areas of the brains of people who had committed murder and those who had not.

190 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 189 What sort of study was this? This was a quasi-experiment.quasi-experiment Subjects were not randomly selected into groups. Their legal status (whether or not they had murdered someone and were pleading not guilty by reason of insanity) was the only variable.

191 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 190 Who were the subjects? Experimental group: 41 people declared Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity (NGRI). Control group: 41 age- and sex- matched subjects – ‘normal’ people. Raine also managed to match six subjects who had schizophrenia.

192 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 191 What were the variables? Independent: ‘Normal’ controls or NGRI subjects. Dependent: The level of activity (glucose metabolism) in 14 selected areas of the brain.

193 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 192 What was the hypothesis? NGRI subjects will have localised dysfunction in brain areas previously linked to violence, namely the:  prefrontal cortex;  angular gyrus;  amygdala;  hippocampus;  thalamus and the  corpus callosum.

194 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 193 What was the procedure? All subjects were given an injection of radioactively labelled glucose. Given a mental (continuous performance) task for 32 minutes. Given a PET scan. glucose Why glucose ?

195 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 194 What do PET scans look like? Areas of high activity show up as red, less activity as yellow to green, and little or no activity as blue

196 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 195 What were the results? Compared to controls, NGRI subjects showed: Less activity in pre-frontal and parietal cortex, and in the corpus callosum. Evidence of asymmetry of function in the amygdala, hippocampus and thalamus More activity in the occipital lobe, and no difference in the temporal lobe. What are these structures?

197 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 196 What did the authors conclude? They suggested that these structures could be implicated in violent or aggressive behaviour in a number of ways; eg: Pre-frontal cortex = impulsivity and lack of self control. Amygdala = emotional control. Corpus callosum = reduced communication between hemispheres.

198 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 197 What is our evaluation of this study? They used a large sample and found significant differences in results. There are many technical concerns in the interpretation of PET scans. The task set was not relevant to violent behaviour. The authors themselves stress that the results do not indicate that violence is only caused by biology, but has many contributory factors. significant What does significant mean?

199 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 198 Click here to go to past Core 1 questions on Raine, Buchsbaum and LaCasse here

200 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 199 Some words or phrases you should know about... Adrenaline Placebo Two-factor theory Pre-frontal cortex Corpus callosum Lateralisation EEG REM NREM PET scans Can you describe them all?

201 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 200 The end of this section. You may use this slide to start any of the other five sections on this disk ( click on the pointing finger ) Cognitive Psychology Developmental Psychology Individual Differences Social Psychology Themes and Perspectives

202 Hyperlink return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT201 The Psychology of INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES “On being sane in insane places.” Rosenhan (1973). “On being sane in insane places.” Rosenhan (1973). “A case of multiple personality”. Thigpen and Cleckley (1954). “A case of multiple personality”. Thigpen and Cleckley (1954). “Black is beautiful; A re-examination of racial preference and identification.” Hraba and Grant (1970). “Black is beautiful; A re-examination of racial preference and identification.” Hraba and Grant (1970). “A nation of morons.” Gould (1982)

203 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 202 What is the psychology of individual differences? Most approaches to psychology look at how humans behave in general, and try to find rules which apply to everyone. This approach to psychology acknowledges that we are all individuals, and are therefore unique. This is an idiographic approach. It is dominated by case studies (eg: personality disorders), and our attempts to quantify differences between people (eg: IQ tests).

204 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 203 “On being sane in insane places.” Rosenhan (1973) Key question: Can we confidently tell the difference between the sane and the insane? In this study, ‘actors’ gained admission to a number of psychiatric hospitals to see whether their sanity would be detected.

205 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 204 What sort of study was this? This was a field experiment.field experiment advantages disadvantages What are the advantages and disadvantages of this method?

206 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 205 Who were the subjects? The subjects of this study were the hospital staff - the doctors and nurses whose behaviour was being tested and observed by the pseudopatients. The pseudopatients themselves were NOT the subjects.

207 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 206 What was the hypothesis? Psychiatrists cannot reliably tell the difference between the sane and the insane.

208 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 207 What was the procedure in the first study? Pseudopatient complained of hearing voices (symptom of schizophrenia). On gaining admission, all subjects stopped simulating any symptoms. They then tried to seek release by persuading staff they were sane. Kept a diary of events.

209 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 208 What was the procedure in the second study? A teaching and a research hospital were informed of the results of the first study. They were told that one or more pseudopatients would try to gain admittance to their hospital. Each staff member had to rate each new patient on a 10-point scale as to the likelihood of them being a pseudo patient. No psuedopatients actually attempted to gain admission during the period.

210 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 209 What were the results? All but one released with a diagnosis of ‘schizophrenia in remission’. Little contact with medical staff (average less than 7 minutes/day). Powerlessness and depersonalisation were experienced. All normal behaviour became interpreted in the light of the schizophrenic “label”. More likely to be identified as ‘sane’ by inmates than doctors! depersonalisation In which other study have you heard the phrase depersonalisation ?

211 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 210 What were the results of the second study? Out of 193 admissions during the period:  41 were judged to be psuedopatients by at least one staff member;  19 were suspected by one psychiatrist and one other staff member. Remember that all 193 patients were real.

212 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 211 What did the authors conclude? “It is clear that we cannot distinguish the sane from the insane in psychiatric hospitals.” Rosenhan illustrated some of the problems in psychiatric hospitals of the time. He discussed the issue of labels, and how hard they are to remove.

213 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 212 What is our evaluation of this study? No controls. Diagnosis (“in remission”) indicated that doctors had recognised some special features of these patients. Ethics of deception, but means may justify the end. Led to re-evaluation of the criteria for diagnosis of certain mental disorders.

214 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 213 Click here to go to past Core 1 questions on Rosenhan here

215 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 214 “A case of multiple personality”. Thigpen and Cleckley (1954) Key question: Can more than one person co-exist in the same body? This is a psychiatric study of a woman who was diagnosed with Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD), and the authors’ attempt to cure her. Mrs Eve White was the dominant subject, with Miss Eve Black and Jane being additional personalities.

216 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 215 What sort of study was this? This was a case study.case study

217 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 216 Who was the subject? A woman called Christine Sizemore, a 25 year-old married woman. a.k.a.  Mrs Eve White  Miss Eve Black  Jane

218 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 217 What was the case- history? She was referred to the authors because she had severe headaches and black- outs. A letter was received by the authors which Mrs. Eve White. did not remember sending. The ‘personality’ of Miss Eve Black. emerged over the next few sessions. During the course of therapy a third personality Jane emerged.

219 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 218 What techniques were used? Hypnosis to retrieve memories, and initially speak to Miss Eve Black. Interviews to assess personalities. EEG measurement. Testing:  IQ  Rorschach (pronounced raw-shock) tests (ink blots). EEG What is an EEG – and which other study uses this technique?

220 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 219 The three personalities. Mrs Eve White Quiet, retiring Anxious Failed marriage IQ 110 Miss Eve Black Mocking Hedonistic Denies marriage IQ 104 Jane Mature Balanced Capable and interesting.

221 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 220 What did the authors conclude? Multiple personality disorder was a distinct disorder, distinguishable from schizophrenia. The two ‘Eves’ were so consistent in their behaviours that fakery was not likely. Similar to other reported cases of MPD.

222 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 221 What is our evaluation of this study? MPD is an extremely rare disorder, and some psychiatrists do not believe it exists. Case study method can be challenged. The ‘cure’ reported by Thigpen was not complete – the subject subsequently reported 22 more personalities until Why?

223 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 222 Click here to go to past Core 1 questions on Thigpen and Cleckley here

224 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 223 “Black is beautiful; A re-examination of racial preference and identification.” Hraba and Grant (1970). Key question: How can we measure our sense of racial identity? This is a repetition of an earlier studies carried out in 1939 and The study sets out to examine the racial preferences of black children in an interracial setting.

225 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 224 What sort of study was this? In that the childrens’ race was the independent variable, but could not be manipulated, this was a quasi-experiment.

226 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 225 Who were the subjects? 160 children:  89 black children;  71 white children. 4 to 8 years of age, from Lincoln, Nebraska.

227 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 226 What were the variables? Independent: Race of child. Dependent: Which doll the child chooses. The race of the child’s best friends.

228 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 227 What was the hypothesis? Contact between white and black children will make the black children prefer objects which resemble whites.

229 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 228 What was the procedure? Children interviewed individually by either black or white interviewer. Two white and two black dolls used. Children asked a series of 8 questions in three categories, eg:  give me the doll that you want to play with (racial preference);  give me the doll that looks like a white child (racial awareness);  give me the doll that looks like you (racial self-identification).

230 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 229 What were the results? Majority of black children at all ages preferred black dolls, thought black dolls looked nice, and identified themselves with the black dolls. These results are significantly different to the earlier study in There was no relationship between doll preference and the race of the friends of the children.

231 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 230 What did the authors conclude? Black children in interracial settings are not white oriented. The authors discuss the impact of the black pride movement.

232 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 231 What is our evaluation of this study? Forcing such a limited choice does not permit measurement of the intensity of the attitude. Accepting a black doll does not imply a rejection of the white doll. This study does indicate a shift in attitude over 30 years, and highlights the influence of historical context on findings in social psychology.

233 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 232 Click here to go to past Core 1 questions on Hraba and Grant here

234 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 233 “A nation of morons.” Gould (1982) Key question: What do IQ tests measure? This article by Gould describes one part of the early history of IQ testing, when Robert Yerkes tested 1.75 million recruits to the US army at the start of WWI. This area of psychology is called psychometrics.

235 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 234 Who were the subjects? 1.75 million recruits and draftees to the U.S. Army at the start of WWI.

236 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 235 What were the variables? There were no variables.

237 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 236 What was the hypothesis? Yerkes wanted to provide psychology with scientific credibility by generating ‘hard’ numbers. He told the army that the tests could be used as a method of officer selection.

238 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 237 What was the procedure? Literate recruits were given the Army Alpha test – similar to modern day IQ tests. Illiterate recruits and alpha test failures took the Beta test – a pictorial test. Beta test failures were individually interviewed. Tests were administered by army personnel on the recruitment bases.

239 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 238 What were the results? Yerkes claimed that the average mental age of:  white adults was 13 years;  ‘Immigrants’ was between 11 and 12 years;  ‘Negroes’ was 10.4 years.  He also suggested that the more ‘northern’ European was intellectually superior to ‘Slavs’ and southern Europeans.

240 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 239 What did the authors conclude? That IQ can be objectively measured. Intelligence is inherited. This study supports the nature side of the nature-nurture debate. As it is inherited, special education measures were a waste of time. B psychometrics Click here for a Core 2B question on psychometrics Click here

241 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 240 What is our evaluation of this study? Administration of tests was inconsistent. Beta tests often not given to those who needed them most (thus reducing scores). Ignored issues to do with length of time subjects had spent in the US. Tests were ethnocentric and biased towards Western culture.ethnocentric Tests asked for knowledge, rather than aptitude or ability.

242 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 241 Evaluation 2. The results were used by racists in government to support stereotypes of Jewish, black and Polish peoples, and ultimately to restrict their entry into the U.S. during the run-up to WWII, with disastrous consequences.

243 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 242 Click here to go to past Core 1 questions on Gould here

244 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 243 Some words or phrases you should know... Idiographic Pseudopatient Powerlessness Depersonalisation Labelling MPD Case study IQ Psychometrics Projective test Nature-nurture debate Ethnocentrism

245 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 244 The end of this section. You may use this slide to start any of the other five sections on this presentation. ( click on the pointing finger ) Social Psychology Themes and Perspectives Physiological Psychology Developmental Psychology Cognitive Psychology

246 Hyperlink return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT245 THEMES AND PERSPECTIVES Themes and Perspectives In this section, this button now links to an index of Themes and Perspectives topics.

247 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 246 What are themes and perspectives? In this presentation, we will look at some ideas about the different areas of psychology, and some of the themes that connect them. A second part of this presentation will examine the terms used in methodology, and the strengths and weaknesses of the various methods used to collect psychological data.

248 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 247 Contents. The classic approaches. The classic approaches. Terms and concepts. Terms and concepts. Methodology. Methodology Index to this section. Index to this section

249 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 248 The classic approaches. Unlike some of the natural sciences, psychology doesn’t have one general theory or particular approach. The following six slides looks at some major divisions of psychological thought.

250 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 249 The biological (or physiological) approach. The primary focus of this is that humans are biological machines. Our behaviour can be seen in terms of fulfilling biological need. Our nerves and hormones determine our behaviour. Eg: Sperry (Split-brains)Sperry (Split-brains)

251 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 250 The cognitive approach. This explains human behaviour in terms of conscious mental processes. Eg: Loftus and Palmer (Eye- witnesses)Loftus and Palmer (Eye- witnesses) What are these processes?

252 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 251 The developmental approach. It is concerned with the changes that occur over a person’s life-time, starting from conception and infancy through to old age. Eg: Samuel and Bryant (conservation)Samuel and Bryant (conservation)

253 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 252 Social approach. This approach looks at human behaviour in the context of our social environment. Looks at how the individual behaves (as opposed to groups – that would be sociology). We are both the producers of and the product of the relationships and groups to which we belong.

254 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 253 Individual Differences. generalisations Psychology often makes generalisations about people – this is called a nomothetic approach. differences This approach, however, explores the differences between people – this is called an idiographic approach. It also explores the concept of abnormal behaviour B abnormal behaviour Click here for a Core 2B question on abnormal behaviour Click here

255 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 254 Terms and concepts. The following slides look at terms and concepts with which we need to be familiar. Test yourself by starting the slide, and then trying to get the definition correct before clicking the mouse again.

256 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 255 Demand characteristics. These are the cues that subjects pick up during their participation in the study which may cause them to change their behaviour. Can you think of any examples? For example,  they may try to please the experimenter,  they may try to guess the aim of the experiment. Laboratory experiments tend to have high demand characteristics.

257 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 256 Determinism. An individual’s behaviour is determined by internal or external factors. Ultimately, they have no control over their actions. This is in direct contrast to the idea of free-will, where an individual is able to choose their own behaviour regardless of past experience or present environment.

258 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 257 Examples of determinism. Biological determinism - hormones or nerve cells determine behaviour; eg: Raine et al suggests that parts of our brain determine whether or not we may murder someone.Raine et al Zimbardo would suggest that our social situation determines our behaviour. Zimbardo B determinism Click here for a Core 2B question on determinism Click here

259 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 258 Dispositional explanation. A dispositional explanation would say a subject’s characteristics or personality were responsible for their behaviour. It implies that these characteristics are innate, or part of nature, not nurture. This is in contrast to the situational explanation. situational explanation.

260 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 259 Ecological validity. How true to real-life was the experimental situation? Could the results obtained be generalised to other situations? If the answer to both these questions is yes, then the study would be said to have ecological validity. Field experiments, for eg: Piliavin (subway Samaritans) have high ecological validity.Piliavin (subway Samaritans B ecological validity Click here for a Core 2B question on ecological validity Click here

261 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 260 Ethics. All psychological studies should observe certain rules when dealing with human subjects.  Subjects not being harmed.  Subjects giving consent.  Subjects being informed as to the purpose of the study, or not being deceived about the true purpose.  All data being treated as confidential.  Subjects should be debriefed after the study is completed. B ethics Click here for a Core 2B question on ethics Click here

262 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 261 Ethnocentrism. The belief that the views of a particular group, culture or race are superior to the views of other cultures or races. Psychology is a science dominated by ideas derived from a Western culture. Eg:  Gould Gould  Deregowski Deregowski B ethnocentrism Click here for a Core 2B question on ethnocentrism Click here

263 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 262 Nature vs Nurture. These terms are applied to the debate as to the origins of certain behaviours: Nature: If behaviours are inherited, or common to all humans – part of our genetic make-up. Nurture: A behaviour we acquire through experience, culture or learning. B naturenurture Click here for a Core 2B question on nature-nurture Click here

264 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 263 Reductionism. Involves explaining a phenomenon by breaking it down into its basic building blocks. Reduces complex factors into a set of simple principles. B reductionism Click here for a Core 2B question on reductionism Click here

265 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 264 Example of reductionism. Physiological reductionism will try to explain all behaviour in terms of nerve cells, or regions of the brain.

266 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 265 Situational explanation. The situational explanation would suggest that the reasons for behaviour lie outside of the person – their culture, circumstances or social group are determining their behaviour. The converse is the dispositional explanation. dispositional explanation B situational explanations Click here for a Core 2B question on situational explanations Click here

267 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 266 Methodology. Psychologists collect data in many different ways. Their choice of methodology, and the way they organise their subjects, can have a great effect on the interpretation we place on their results. The following slides explain the methods used, and their strengths and weaknesses. A methods Click here for a Core 2A question on methods Click here

268 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 267 Sampling. Random sample Quota sample Stratified sample Snowball sample Self-selecting sample Opportunity sample Volunteer sample Can you remember what these mean? A sampling Click here for a Core 2A question on sampling Click here

269 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 268 Variables - independent and dependent In an experiment, we manipulate the independent variable, to see what effect it will have on the dependent variable. The independent variable is what we change, and we should try to avoid changing more than one thing at a time. The dependent variable is the record or measurement you would write down in a results table.

270 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 269 Confounding (or extraneous) variables. Some experiments cannot be completely controlled. There may be more than the independent variable exerting an effect on the dependent variable. Think about the effect of a rainy day on an outdoor observation of people in a street. A control Click here for a Core 2A question on control Click here

271 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 270 ‘Operationalising’ variables. This means the way the variables are actually put into practice. Eg: Bandura wanted to investigate whether children would imitate violent behaviour.Bandura This was operationalised by him observing children left alone with a Bobo doll who had previously seen an adult behave violently towards it. Schachter and Singer Schachter and Singer How did Schachter and Singer operationalise their variables? Schachter and Singer They wanted to create an angry and a happy social situation. Subjects were exposed to an actor pretending to be angry or silly. How then did they operationalise the subjects’ cognition of what was happening to them?

272 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 271 Laboratory experiments: Description The independent variable is manipulated to observe the effect on the dependent variable. The setting does not have to be an actual laboratory. The experimenter has better control over extraneous variables. Eg: Loftus and Palmer (eye- witness testimony)Loftus and Palmer (eye- witness testimony)

273 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 272 Laboratory Experiments: For and Against For Can be easily replicated. Better control over variables. Generates quantitative data. Don’t have to wait for behaviour to occur naturally. Against Low ecological validity. Often problems with deception. Demand characteristics. Need representative samples. A quantitative data Click here for a Core 2A question on quantitative data Click here

274 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 273 Field experiments: Description Experiments carried out in natural surroundings. Participants behave in an everyday context. The experimenter still manipulates the IV. Eg: Piliavin (Good Samaritanism)Piliavin (Good Samaritanism)

275 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 274 Field Experiments: For and Against For Better ecological validity than laboratory experiment. No demand characteristics. Against Lack of control of extraneous variables. Lack of informed consent. Difficult to replicate.

276 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 275 How are ‘Natural’ or ‘Quasi’ Experiments different? In natural experiments, the experimenter does not have control over the IV (eg: Baron-Cohen and autism). Baron-Cohen Subjects cannot be randomly allocated to experimental condition. Can be used to study effects where it would be unethical to manipulate IV. Have to wait for situation to occur naturally.

277 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 276 Observations: Description Can be  naturalistic (subjects in their own environment) or  controlled (under conditions contrived by the researcher.) Eg; Bandura et al (Imitation of aggression)Bandura et al (Imitation of aggression) A observations Click here for a Core 2A question on observations Click here

278 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 277 Observations: For and Against For High ecological validity. Few demand characteristics. Against Inter-observer reliability. Unethical to observe people without consent. Lack of control of extraneous variables. What is inter- observer reliability?

279 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 278 Questionnaires: Description A quick way to obtain information from people. May ask about specific behaviours, attitudes, or measurements of some characteristic eg: psychometric tests (Gould; IQ testing).Gould; IQ testing

280 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 279 Questionnaires: For and Against For Quick –many respondents can be assessed. Less biased than interviews – answers are structured. Against Scope for answers is limited. Respondents may not tell the truth. Wording of question may cause ambiguity.

281 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 280 Correlational studies: Description Correlations are not a method of study nor an experimental design, but are a statistical procedure which allows us to examine the relationship between two independent variables. There is no dependent variable, because correlation does not imply cause and effect.

282 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 281 Correlational studies: For and Against For Correlations can form the basis of future research Can be used when it would be impractical or unethical to conduct an experiment Against They cannot prove cause and effect.

283 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 282 Case study: Description Single individual or small group studied in detail. Methods may include interviews, observations and tests. Data usually qualitative. Eg: Freud (Little Hans)Freud (Little Hans) A case studies Click here for a Core 2A question on case studies Click here

284 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 283 Case Study: For and Against For Unique data can be collected. Data can be particularly rich in detail. May find example which disproves ‘general’ rule. Against Results may not be representative. Potential problems with experimenter bias and relationship with subject. May rely on memory which is fallible.

285 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 284 Cross-cultural studies: Description Looking at a psychological variable (eg: childhood development) in two different cultures, to see whether any difference is determined by genetics (nature) or culture (nurture). Eg: Deregowski (perception)Deregowski (perception)

286 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 285 Cross-cultural studies: For and Against For Can demonstrate universal development and trends. Gives insights in different cultures and beliefs. Rich data. Against Interpretation of results may be ethnocentric. Very costly and time consuming. Language problems. Culture being studied may not be homogenous.

287 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 286 Cross-sectional (or snap- shot) study: Description Most research is carried out on subjects at the same moment in time. Comparisons are made between groups of subjects. Most of the studies you have learnt about are cross-sectional. A snapshot studies Click here for a Core 2A question on snapshot studies Click here

288 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 287 Cross-Sectional Study: For and Against For Easier to correct errors in procedure and replicate. Can spot trends quickly. Against Groups selected can never be exactly the same. Different experiences of one group may make comparisons difficult.

289 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 288 Longitudinal study: Description Studies the same people over a long period of time. Subjects are compared to themselves at various points in time. Particularly useful for studying the long- term changes due to development. Eg: One group of children studied at 4, 8, 12 and 16 years of age. Eg: Hodges and Tizard (ex-institutional adolescents)Hodges and Tizard (ex-institutional adolescents) B longitudinal studies Click here for a Core 2B question on longitudinal studies Click here

290 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 289 Longitudinal study: For and Against For Differences in behaviour at various ages cannot be result of sample differences. Can provide in- depth and rich data. Against Time consuming and costly. More difficult to identify trends in data. Subject attrition. What is this?

291 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 290 Independent Measures: Description If there are two conditions, A and B, each subject will only participate in one condition – either A or B. Ideally subjects should be randomly allocated to groups – (for converse, see quasi experiments).quasi experiments).

292 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 291 Independent Measures: For and Against For No order effects. Participants less likely to guess aim of experiment. Against Participant variables not controlled – groups may not be perfectly matched. Less economical on participants.

293 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 292 Repeated measures: Description bothand If there are two conditions, A and B, each subject will participate in both conditions – A and B. Any differences in the results cannot be because the subjects in condition A are different to the subjects in condition B.

294 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 293 Repeated Measures: For and Against For Differences in participants between groups eliminated. More economical on participants. Against Order effects – people may improve through practice – or get fed up. Need different stimulus lists, etc.

295 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 294 Themes and Perspectives Index Biological approach Case Study Cognitive approach Confounding variable Correlational study Cross-cultural study Cross-sectional study Demand characteristics Determinism Dependent variable Developmental approach Dispositional Ecological Validity Ethics Ethnocentrism Extraneous variables Field Experiment Independent measures Independent variable Individual differences Laboratory experiment Longitudinal study Natural Experiment Nature vs nurture Observation Operationalising Quasi-experiment Questionnaire Reductionism Repeated measures Sampling Situational Snapshot study Social approach

296 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 295 The End! You may use this slide to start any of the other five presentations on this disk ( click on the pointing finger ) Social Psychology Physiological Psychology Developmental Psychology Cognitive Psychology Individual Differences

297 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 296 Finally... Psychology tries to answer the BIG questions. As you revise the course, remember to ask yourself:  What theory was the study based on, or why was it carried out?  What were the details of subjects, methods and results?  What are the key terms and concepts?  What implications do the results have?  What was there in the study that was good, and what elements of the study mean we should question the results?

298 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 297 Study Index Bandura, Ross and Ross (1961) Bandura, Ross and Ross (1961) Baron-Cohen, Leslie and Frith (1985) Baron-Cohen, Leslie and Frith (1985) Dement and Kleitman (1957) Dement and Kleitman (1957) Deregowski (1972) Freud (1909) Gardner and Gardner (1969) Gardner and Gardner (1969) Gould (1982) Haney, Banks and Zimbardo (1973). Haney, Banks and Zimbardo (1973). Hodges and Tizard (1989) Hraba and Grant (1970). Loftus and Palmer (1974) Milgram (1963) Piliavin, Rodin and Piliavin (1969). Piliavin, Rodin and Piliavin (1969). Raine, Buchsbaum and LaCasse (1997) Raine, Buchsbaum and LaCasse (1997) Rosenhan (1973). Samuel and Bryant (1984) Schachter and Singer (1962) Schachter and Singer (1962) Sperry (1968) Tajfel (1970) Thigpen and Cleckley (1954). Thigpen and Cleckley (1954).

299 Hyperlink Return OUNDLE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT 298 You got here by using the link from the ‘how to use this presentation’ page. To return to where you were, click on this button now


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