Presentation on theme: "Long-term Causes of the Civil War"— Presentation transcript:
1 Long-term Causes of the Civil War Missouri CompromiseWilmot ProvisoCompromise of 1850Fugitive Slave ActUncle Tom’s CabinKansas-Nebraska ActNew Political PartiesDred Scott CaseLincoln Douglass DebatesJohn Brown’s Raid
2 Keeping a Delicate Balance Each time the US gained new territory, the slaveholding South and the non-slaveholding North clashed over whether or not the area would be open to slavery.
3 A Delicate BalanceThe proposals that passed only offered a temporary solution.Meanwhile, the underlying problem continued to worsen.
4 Missouri Compromise (Summary) What was the purpose or intent of the Missouri Compromise? (pg. 222)Intended to maintain a balance between free and slave states so that neither one could dominate the other in Congress.
5 Missouri Compromise (Summary) What were the main points of the Missouri Compromise? (pg. 222)Maine admitted as a free stateMissouri admitted as a slave stateLouisiana Territory was split at 36’30 N. LatitudeWith the exception of Missouri, slavery would be legal below the 36’30 line and banned above it.Missouri Compromise: Interactive Map
6 Missouri Compromise (Effects) What role did it play in the build up to the Civil War? (pg )The fact that this compromise was needed proved that sectional conflict was still a huge problem even during the “Era of Good Feelings.”Many people at the time realized that this was not a permanent solution – they feared it was just a “quick fix” to a problem that would likely get worse..
7 Missouri CompromiseThe Missouri Compromise can be viewed as a symptom of which of these long-term causes?
9 Wilmot Proviso (Summary) What was the purpose or intent? What did David Wilmot and his supporters hope to gain (or avoid) with this proposal? (pg. 306)Intended to keep territory gained from the Mexican War open to free workers; to punish Southerners for refusing to fund the construction of canals and roads; and to keep the South from gaining more seats in Congress.
10 Wilmot Proviso What happened AFTER it was introduced? SummaryEffectsPurpose: What did David Wilmot and his supporters hope to gain (or avoid) with this proposal?Main Points: If it had passed, what would it actually do?What happened AFTER it was introduced?
11 Wilmot Proviso (Summary) What were the main points of the Proviso? What did it say? (pg. 306)If it passed, the proviso would have meant that slavery would be illegal in California, Utah, and New Mexico.
12 Wilmot Proviso (Effects) What role did it play in the build up to the Civil War? (pg. 306)Congress was divided:Northerners supported it.Southerners opposed it. They argued that it violated property rights protected in the Constitution.
13 Wilmot ProvisoThe Wilmot Proviso can be viewed as a symptom of which of these long-term causes?
15 Compromise of 1850SummaryEffectsPurpose: What did Henry Clay hope to gain (or avoid) by getting this Compromise passed?Main Points (5): What does it actually do?Try to come up with two bullets.You might need to infer – try rereading the effects for the Missouri Compromise.What component of this compromise led directly to the next crisis?
16 Compromise of 1850 Description Purpose: Proposed by Henry Clay to avoid Civil War (or “keep the peace”)Main Points (need 3 of 5):California would be a free stateUtah and New Mexico residents decide about slavery (popular sovereignty)Texas given $10 million to give up its claim to New MexicoSlaves no longer sold in D.C., but slavery would remain legalStricter Fugitive Slave laws would be enacted and strictly enforced.Page 308
17 Compromise of 1850DescriptionEffectsProposed by Henry Clay to avoid Civil War over slavery.Main Points:California would be a free stateUtah and New Mexico residents would vote on slavery (popular sovereignty)Texas given $10 million to give up its claim to New MexicoSlaves no longer sold in D.C., but slavery still legalStricter Fugitive Slave laws would be enacted and strictly enforced.This compromise actually threw off the balance between slave and free states.Enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Law would spark the next crisis.
18 Fugitive Slave Act 1850SummaryEffectsPurpose: Why was this included in the Compromise of 1850 (consider the fact that a Fugitive Slave Act had already been passed in 1793)?Main Points (4):How did it affect the abolitionist movement?How did the Northern states react?How did the South feel about the north’s reaction?
19 Fugitive Slave Act 1850 Summary Included in the Compromise of 1850 to appease Southerners who complained that the North did not enforce the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793.Main Points:A statement from a slave owner was all that was needed to have a “fugitive” captured and returnedAccused fugitives would not get a jury trial; could not testify for themselvesFederal Commissioners were paid to enforce the law ($10 if the accused was returned, $5 if freed)Anyone found guilty of helping a fugitive could be fined $1000, sent to prison for 6 months, or both
20 Fugitive Slave Act 1850 Effects The harshness of the law infuriated abolitionists; organized committees to help black people reach Canada to escape slave catchers.Northern states passed personal liberty laws, forbidding imprisonment of fugitives and granting jury trials that could be drug out to increase slave catchers’ costs.Slave owners were furious that the North was resisting the law.
21 Kansas Nebraska Act Purpose: Why did Stephen Douglas propose this act? DescriptionEffectsPurpose: Why did Stephen Douglas propose this act?Main Points (3):What were some of the negative (unintended) consequences of popular sovereignty?What was “Bleeding Kansas?”
22 Kansas Nebraska Act Description Proposed by Stephen Douglas because he believed that a most Americans wanted to see the west become part of the USMain Points:The area was divided into 2 territoriesPeople who lived in the Kansas and Nebraska Territories would vote for or against slavery (popular sovereignty)Repealed the Missouri CompromisePg. 314
23 Kansas Nebraska Act Effects As settlers poured into the Kansas territory, popular sovereignty sets off a race between anti- and pro-slavery activistsgroups were organized to give weapons, seed, and farm supplies to anti- slavery settlers“border ruffians” from Missouri sent into Kansas to vote illegally; Pro- slavery candidates win as a resultViolence eruptsIn the pro-slavery town of Pottawatomie Creek, John Brown attacked 5 men, hacking off their hands and stabbing themThe “Pottawatomie Creek Massacre” triggered more violence throughout the territory and beyond – Territory became known as “Bleeding Kansas”
24 Also see handout and the short biography of Stowe on pg. 312 Uncle Tom’s Cabin (pg. 312)Who wrote it?What did the author hope to achieve by writing this book?How does the author try to achieve this?Miniseries Part 1Miniseries Part 5Also see handout and the short biography of Stowe on pg. 312
25 Uncle Tom’s Cabin (pg. 312) Effects: What effect did the novel have on the abolition movement?How did Southerners react to it?What effect did the book have on the conflict between the North and the South (did it make things better or worse)?
26 New Political Parties Emerge DescriptionEffectsName the parties;briefly state briefly state important background information;list some of their views.How did party politics affect the election process?
27 Dred Scott Case What were the details of the case? DescriptionEffectsWhat were the details of the case?What did the Supreme Court decide?In what way did this case undermine the power of Congress?How could this impact the conflict over slavery in the territories?How did it affect the abolitionist movement?
28 Lincoln-Douglas Debates DescriptionEffectsWhy were they debating?What was the topic of the debates?What was each man’s position on this topic?What effect did the debates have on the Democratic Party?What effect did they have on the Republican Party?
29 John Brown’s Raid What did he do? What happened to him? DescriptionEffectsWhat did he do?What happened to him?How did the North react?How did the South react?
30 Essential QuestionsThink about the points of view expressed in Uncle Tom’s Cabin and Cannibals All! as well as the conflicts and compromises you have examined so far.Then, respond to the following essential question: Can you force someone to follow your beliefs?