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The American Journey: Chapter 12: Road to Civil War

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1 The American Journey: Chapter 12: Road to Civil War
Section 1: Abolitionists -OR- All Aboard the Underground Railroad!

2 The Spirit of Abolition
Not all Southerners want slavery; not all Northerners call for its end. First group to try to gradually end slavery: American Colonization Society. Society wants to resettle slaves in Africa or Caribbean. Attempts to buy slaves & set them free. Society purchases land in West Africa (Liberia) and resettles former slaves there. Many slaves don’t want to leave America, and pace of slave trade is too great.

3 The Abolition Movement Spreads
1831: William Lloyd Garrison founds anti-slavery newspaper The Liberator. By 1838 Garrison attracts 1,000+ anti-slavery groups.

4 William Lloyd Garrison
“I am aware that many object to the severity of my language; but is there not cause for severity? I will be as harsh as truth, and as uncompromising as justice. On this subject, I do not wish to think, or to speak, or write, with moderation. No! no! Tell a man whose house is on fire to give a moderate alarm; tell him to moderately rescue his wife from the hands of the ravisher; tell the mother to gradually extricate her babe from the fire into which it has fallen; — but urge me not to use moderation in a cause like the present. I am in earnest — I will not equivocate — I will not excuse — I will not retreat a single inch — AND I WILL BE HEARD.”

5 The Abolition Movement Spreads
Sarah & Angelina Grimké free parents’ slaves and write in Theodore Weld’s American Slavery As It Is. Congressman John Quincy Adams proposes anti-slavery Constitutional amendment in 1839. African-Americans like David Walker encourage slaves to overthrow masters. 5

6 The Abolition Movement Spreads
Frederick Douglass: most famous abolitionist. Douglass born a slave but educates himself & escapes. After escape, writes & speaks against slavery. Another famous abolitionist: Sojourner Truth, born Isabella Baumfree.

7 The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850
1850: Fugitive Slave Act requires all citizens help catch & return fugitive slaves. Fugitive = runaway. Many slaves run to North, but Southerners are able to recollect them thanks to the act. Anyone caught aiding slave is fined or jailed. Northerners, bitterly opposed, step up efforts to protect runaway slaves.

8 The Underground Railroad
Underground Railroad: series of whites & freed slaves who aid runaways—providing shelter & buying slaves’ freedom. Harriet Tubman escapes slavery through Underground Railroad. Tubman makes 19 trips back to South to rescue slaves. “Moses of her people.”

9 The American Journey: Chapter 12: Road to Civil War
Section 2: Slavery & the West -OR- Phew, We Kicked the Slavery Can Down the Road for a Few More Years…

10 Sectionalism Divides America
1819: Missouri applies for statehood as slave state. At the time there are 11 slave & 11 free states. North wants to end slavery, opposes admitting another slave state and upsetting this balance. Sectionalism: Strong devotion to region/area. South wants to be left alone and is mad at North’s intrusion in Southern affairs.

11 Sectionalism Divides America
1820: Speaker of the House Henry Clay works out Missouri Compromise w/ Senate. Missouri is admitted as slave state; Maine (formerly part of Massachusetts) is admitted as free state. Slavery is banned in remainder of Louisiana Purchase north of 36º30’N.

12 Missouri Compromise, 1820

13 Nullification Debates
But Southerners again argue nullification, idea that states can legally overturn federal laws they don’t like. Proponents of nullification look to John Locke/Tenth Amendment. Wasn’t federal govt. formed by coalition of states? Doesn’t Tenth Amendment say federal govt. has limits? Therefore, isn’t prohibiting slavery in new states an overstep by federal govt.? You discuss!

14 Nullification Debates
Nullification came up many times: Alien & Sedition Acts War of 1812 1820’s-1830’s tariff debates (Jackson) Nullification debate leads to 2 major propositions: 1. States have their own sovereignty and “states’ rights” outside federal govt. 2. If states are sovereign, they have right to secede (break away) from Union.

15 New Lands in the West 1840’s: Slavery issue comes up again.
Now it’s over Tx., Ca. & N.M. Remember: Texas acquired in 1845, leading to war w/ Mexico.

16 What to do about the West?

17 Wilmot Proviso During Mexican-American War, Rep. David Wilmot proposes Wilmot Proviso. Wilmot Proviso: Slavery should be prohibited in any lands acquired from Mexico. Southerners loudly protest Wilmot Proviso. Sen. John C. Calhoun of S.C. counters w/ new proposal: Congress has no authority to ban slavery or regulate it at all! Neither proposal passes, but furious debate is underway.

18 Wilmot Proviso (Never implemented)
Note: N.M. & Tx. have a border dispute here.

19 The Election of 1848 Main candidates in 1848: Zachary Taylor (Whig) & Lewis Cass (Democrat). And yes, Henry Clay…  Neither candidate takes stand on slavery: afraid of losing votes. So, many abandon both parties and form Free Soil Party. “Free Soil, Free Speech, Free Labor & Free Men” Nominate former Pres. Martin Van Buren.

20 Search for Compromise Zachary Taylor wins election, but many are now calling for abolition. Taylor tells leaders in Ca. and N.M. to apply for statehood immediately. California does so in 1850. If California is admitted as free state and others follow, Southern slave states would be out-voted in Congress. Southern leaders threaten to secede, break away.

21 Compromise of 1850 Before issue is worked out, Taylor dies of stomach illness. New Pres. Millard Fillmore favors compromise on issue of Ca. & slavery. Senators Henry Clay & Stephen A. Douglas work out series of proposals for Congress to vote on. Pres. Fillmore convinces many Whigs to abstain (not vote) on what they disagree with.

22 Compromise of 1850 Compromise of 1850 features 5 provisions:
1. California admitted as free state. 2. N.M. Territory has no slavery restrictions. 3. N.M. & Tx. border dispute settled in N.M.’s favor. 4. Slave trade (not slavery) outlawed in Wash., D.C. 5. Fugitive slave law made stronger.

23 Compromise of 1850

24 The American Journey: Chapter 12: Road to Civil War
Section 3: A Nation Dividing -OR- An Election So Fraudulent, It Would Make Vladimir Putin Proud

25 The Kansas-Nebraska Act
1853: Franklin Pierce, Northern Democrat in favor of fugitive slave act, defeats Winfield Scott for pres. Pierce declares he will fully support fugitive slave act. Thus many fight harder against it. Author Harriet Beecher Stowe writes Uncle Tom’s Cabin, book that shows cruelty of slavery.

26 The Kansas-Nebraska Act
1854: Sen. Stephen A. Douglas introduces Kansas-Nebraska Act. Proposes that area west of Missouri & Iowa be called Kansas & Nebraska. Though both are above 36º30’N latitude line, Douglas proposes scrapping Missouri Compromise & allowing each state to decide on slavery. He calls this popular sovereignty: allow the people to decide.

27 The Kansas-Nebraska Act
Northern states hate the idea. Would allow slavery into formerly free states! Douglas dislikes slavery but sees opportunity to spread railroads westward. With backing of Pres. Pierce & Northern Democrats, Douglas pushes act through Congress. Bill reveals deep split in Democratic & Whig Parties.

28 Compromise of 1850…

29 …vs. Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854

30 Conflict in Kansas Immediately, pro & antislavery groups rush to Kansas to elect officials. 1855: Proslavery legislature is elected in corrupt election. 1000’s of pro-slavery supporters, known as border ruffians, come from Missouri to vote in election & harass abolitionists. Antislavery forces reject legislature & arm themselves 1856: Antislavery constitution/govt created. Both govt’s ask Congress for support.

31 “Bleeding Kansas” Pres. Pierce favors proslavery govt, but Congress favors antislavery govt. May 1856: pro-slavery forces attack anti- slavery capital of Lawrence, Kansas. Led by proslavery leader David Rice Atchison. Antislavery forces retaliate. Soon, full civil war, known as “Bleeding Kansas” breaks out in Kansas. Civil war: war between citizens of same country. 31

32 “Bleeding Kansas” John Brown: abolitionist who believes God commanded him to end slavery. He and 4 sons retaliate for the sacking of Lawrence. They massacre 5 slavery supporters w/ broadswords.

33 The Most Interesting Moment in the History of the Senate…
Violence over Kansas debate spills into Congress. Abolitionist Sen. Charles Sumner lashes out against slavery supporters in Kansas. 2 days later: pro-slavery Rep. Preston Brooks comes to Congress w/ cane and beats Sumner repeatedly on the head.

34 Political Parties Fracture
After Kansas-Nebraska Act, many political parties change. Northern, anti-slavery Democrats leave Democratic Party. Differing views on slavery (Conscience Whigs vs. Cotton Whigs) destroy Whig Party. 1854: anti-slavery Democrats & Conscience Whigs join w/ Free-Soil Party to create Republican Party. Republican Party’s main message: slavery should be banned from all new states.

35 Final tally of political parties…
Dies off c. 1816 Federalists Federalist Party mostly become National Republican Party Whig Party “Era of Good Feelings” (one-party Republican system) Anti-Jackson Democrats Democratic Party (current) Democratic-Republican (Democratic) Party Anti- Federalists (Democratic) Republican Party mostly become

36 The Election of 1856 Republican Party quickly = northern party.
Democratic Party = southern party. 1856: Republicans choose John C. Frémont for president. “Free soil, free speech, and Frémont!” Democrats choose James Buchanan, who wins.

37 The American Journey: Chapter 12: Road to Civil War
Section 4: Challenges to Slavery -OR- Dred, Pure Dred

38 Dred Scott v. Sandford 1857: Supreme Court decides a legendary case.
Dred Scott: slave whose owner moves from Missouri (slave state) to Wisconsin Territory (free territory). Later they return to Missouri, where his owner dies.

39 Dred Scott v. Sandford 1856: Dred Scott sues for freedom, claiming he should be free since he was in Wisconsin. Dred Scott’s case also a chance to rule on slavery in territories. Chief Justice Roger B. Taney (Taw-nee) rules that since Scott is a slave, not a citizen, he has no right to sue. Taney also rules that a slave is always a slave, even on free territory. Fifth Amendment prohibits government from taking property w/out “due process of law.”

40 Dred Scott v. Sandford Taney declares Missouri Compromise unconstitutional. (Slavery cannot be outlawed in territories.) Taney also rules popular sovereignty is unconstitutional. Voters can’t prohibit slavery, because that means taking away property. Dred Scott decision goes further than Stephen Douglas: Constitution protects slavery!

41 Lincoln and Douglas 1858’s congressional race: Democrat Stephen Douglas against unknown Republican lawyer Abraham Lincoln. Douglas dislikes slavery but thinks restricting it will restrict national growth. Lincoln challenges Douglas to series of seven debates about slavery. Challenges Douglas about popular sovereignty.

42 Lincoln and Douglas Douglas claims Lincoln thinks blacks & whites are equal. Lincoln denies this claim, but says all men are equally free and Republican Party finds slavery morally wrong. Compare quotes, pg. 552. Lincoln loses the race, but after 1858, South fears rising Republican power.

43 Lincoln on slavery (1854) “When the white man governs himself that is self-government; but when he governs himself, and also governs another man…that is despotism.…The negro is a man. …There can be no moral right in connection with one man’s making a slave of another…. Let no one be deceived….The spirit of seventy-six and the spirit of Nebraska, are utter antagonisms….Little by little…we have been giving up the old for the new faith. Near eighty years ago we began by declaring that all men are created equal; but now from that beginning we have run down to the other declaration, that for some men to enslave others is a ‘sacred right of self-government.’ These principles cannot stand together…Our republican robe is soiled, and trailed in the dust. Let us repurify it…Let us re-adopt the Declaration of Independence, and with it, the practices, and policy, which harmonize with….If we do this, we shall not only have saved the Union; but we shall have so saved it, as to make, and to keep it, forever worthy of the saving.”

44 Raid on Harpers Ferry 1859: Abolitionist John Brown attacks again.
Financed by abolitionists, he leads 18 white & black men on raid of Harpers Ferry, Va. They attack the arsenal (weapon storage facility). Brown hopes to arm slaves and cause uprising against slave owners.

45 Raid on Harpers Ferry Brown is captured, tried, & hanged.
Some Northerners call him a martyr, one who dies for beliefs. Abolitionists, especially in North, begin rallying strongly against slavery. Southerners believe Brown’s raid & abolition rallies are evidence of Northern conspiracy against South. Civil war is imminent.

46 The American Journey: Chapter 12: Road to Civil War
Section 5: Secession & War -OR- If at First You Don’t Secede…

47 The Election of 1860 After Harpers Ferry raid, South threatens secession. North claims it’s all scare tactics to keep people from voting Lincoln as pres. in 1860. Northern Democrats nominate Lincoln’s Congressional opponent, Stephen Douglas. Southern Democrats nominate John C. Breckenridge.

48 The Election of 1860 Republicans nominate Lincoln.
Lincoln’s position: slavery will be left alone where it exists but excluded from territories. Lincoln wins election. Election is purely sectional: Lincoln wins every Northern state, but his name is not on the ballot in most Southern states! Breckenridge sweeps South. Border states (between North and South) vote for John Bell of Tennessee. 48

49 Election of 1860: Results

50 The South Secedes With Lincoln as pres., South fears slave revolts & loss of states’ rights. Dec. 20th, 1860: South Carolina holds special convention & votes to secede— withdraw from Union. Republicans try hard to work compromise. Kentucky Sen. John Crittenden (Repub.) proposes new set of amendments forever protecting slavery below 36º30’ N. 50

51 The Confederacy Forms Republicans consider Crittenden’s proposal betrayal. Lincoln’s quote, pg. 556. South also rejects any compromise w/ North. By Feb. 1861, six more states have seceded: Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, and Georgia join South Carolina. 51

52 The Confederacy Forms Feb 4th, 1861: These seven states meet in Montgomery, Alabama and form new nation & govt. Called The Confederate States of America or The Confederacy. Remember what a confederation is? Why would they form this type of government? Mississippi Sen. Jefferson Davis chosen as Confed. president. 52

53 The Confederacy How does Confederacy justify secession?
1. Believe in states’ rights. 2. Voluntarily joined Union, can voluntarily leave (Locke’s idea). 3. View Constitution as creation of states. 4. Believe federal govt. had violated the Constitution in two ways: A. not enforcing fugitive slave act. B. denying Southern states equal rights—right to own property (i.e., slaves)—in territories. 53

54 Reactions to Secession, 1861
Most Southerners overjoyed, but some troubled by secession. North is more complicated. Many feel Union is better off being divided than allowing slavery. Others feel Union must be preserved always. 54

55 Lincoln’s Response Many wonder what Lincoln’s inaugural speech will say. What will happen in slave states that chose to remain w/ Union? (Virginia, Maryland, N. Carolina, Kentucky, Tennessee, Missouri, & Arkansas.) Lincoln has to be careful: more states might secede if Union uses force vs. Confederacy. 55

56 Lincoln’s Response 1861: Lincoln’s speech is mix of strong words & pleas for peace. Says South will not be allowed to secede! Lincoln will hold federal property in the South & enforce federal laws. See pg. 557—one of the most famous speeches in history. 56

57 Fort Sumter Right away, Confederate troops begin seizing U.S. forts within their states. Lincoln doesn’t want to go to war over this. However, the day after inaugural address, Pres. Lincoln hears Confederate troops are seizing Fort Sumter in Charleston, S.C. Lincoln responds by sending unarmed Union expedition w/ non-war supplies for besieged troops. 57

58 Fort Sumter April 12, 1861: Confederate president Jefferson Davis orders troops to fire on Ft. Sumter before supplies arrive. Confederate troops take fort & hoist their flag over it. No one killed, but fort is surrendered, April 14th. Lincoln calls for 75,000 Union troops to fight. South issues similar call. 58

59 The Civil War Begins Virginia, N.Carolina, Tennessee, & Arkansas join Confederacy in secession. The Civil War has begun… 59

60 Civil War Map, 1861* June 20th, 1863: West Virginia (free state) secedes from Virginia. Nevada is admitted (free state) in 1864

61 FIN

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