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The Importance of Qualitative Research in Mixed Methods: Part I

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1 The Importance of Qualitative Research in Mixed Methods: Part I
John W. Creswell, Ph.D., Tim Guetterman, M.A. University of Nebraska-Lincoln Presentation to the University of the Western Cape, South Africa April 17, 2014

2 Topics Use of qualitative research in mixed methods
Key features of qualitative research Types of problems addressed through qualitative research Philosophical assumptions Qualitative purpose statements and research questions Qualitative data collection Qualitative data analysis and software Validation/accuracy

3 How Qualitative Research Fits into Mixed Methods
Useful in Providing multiple perspectives Explaining quantitative results Exploring before administering an instrument Validating quantitative results Hearing participant views Understanding process in evaluation

4 Key Features of Qualitative Research
Follow the scientific method (e.g., problem, questions, method, results) Listen to participants’ views Ask open-ended questions Build understanding based on participants’ views Develop a complex understanding of the problem Go to the setting to gather data Be ethical Analyze data inductively-let findings emerge Write in user-friendly, literary way Include rich quotes Researcher presence in the study

5 Types of Problems Need to explore Important to listen to participants
Unusual culture, sample Do not know questions to ask Understand process Need to tell a story

6 Philosophical Assumptions: Worldview, Beliefs, Values
Issue Post-positivism Critical Theory Constructivism Participatory Ontology Critical realism-”real” reality but only imperfec and probabilistic. Historical realism-virtual reality shared by social, political, cultural, economic, ethnic, and gender values. Relativism-local and specific co-constructed realities. Participative reality-subjective-objective reality, co-created by minds. Epistemology Modified dualist/objectivist; critical tradition/community; findings probably true. Transactional/subjectivist; value-mediated findings. Transactional/subjectivist; co-created findings. Critical subjectivity in participatory transaction; experiential, propositional, and practical knowing; co-created findings Methodology Modified experimental/manipulative; critical multiplism; falsification of hypotheses; may include qualitative methods Dialogic/dialectical Hermeneutical/dialectical Political participation in collaboration; primacy of the practical; use of language grounded in shared context. Adapted from Lincoln, Lynman, & Guba , 2011

7 How are philosophies implemented?
Multiple realities Subjectivity Explicit values Emerging design Language is personal

8 Writing a Good Qualitative Purpose Statement
What it includes: Single sentence “The purpose of this study . . .” Central phenomena Qualitative words (e.g. explore, understand, discover Participants Research site

9 Sample Purpose Statement Script
“The purpose of this qualitative study (replace later with type of qualitative approach later) will be to ______(understand, describe, develop, discover) the ________(central phenomenon) for _______(participants: person, process, groups) at ______________(site)

10 Qualitative Purpose Statement Example
Approach Central Phenomenon What I hope to do in the study We therefore conducted a qualitative study to explore the care seeking behaviour, access to treatment, and knowledge and perceptions about TB among men and women of The Gambia, West Africa. Participants Site Definition of Central Phenomenon? Eastwood & Hill, 2004

11 Understanding a central phenomenon
Quantitative Explaining or predicting variables Qualitative Understanding or exploring a central phenomenon Y X Y The independent variable (X) influences a dependent variable (Y) In-depth understanding of Y; external forces shape and are shaped by Y

12 Qualitative Research Questions
Open-ended Broad 1 or 2 central questions 5 to 7 subquestions Single phenomenon Exploratory verbs Participants and site

13 Sample Script for the Central Question
___(How or what) is the ___ (“story for” for narrative research; “meaning of” the phenomenon for phenomenology; “theory that explains the process of” for grounded theory; “culture-sharing pattern” for ethnography; “issue” in the “case” for case study) of ___ (central phenomenon) for ___ (participants) at ___ (site)?

14 Qualitative Central Question Example
What is the theory that explains the process of accessing TB services among women of The Gambia?

15 Methods for a Qualitative Study
Data collection Data analysis Data representation Data interpretation Validation strategies

16 Data Collection Sampling (purposeful)
Site selection (gate keepers, permissions) Recruitment (incentives) Types of data (observation, interview, public/private documents, audio-visual) Locating Site/Individual Gaining Access and Making Rapport Purposefully Sampling Collecting Data Recording Information Resolving Field issues Storing Data

17 Interview Types Decide on the type of interview to use Individual
Focus group Telephone

18 Interview Procedures Create an interview protocol
Ask open-ended questions (5-7) allows the participant to create options for responding participants can voice their experiences and perspectives If possible, record and transcribe for analysis

19 Interview Protocol for (Title of Study) Interviewer Introduction
Interviewee: Date: Time: Place: Interviewer Introduction Start Recording The purpose of this study is (briefly describe purpose} Interviewee information: (e.g., position, role) Questions: What… Closing Comments (Write out comments and thank the participant for the interview)

20 Observations Create an observational protocol Record descriptive notes
Record reflective notes Decide on your observational stance Enter site slowly Conduct multiple observations Summarize at end of each observation

21 Observation Protocol for (Title of Study)
Date: Time: Place Descriptive Notes Reflective Notes (Portrait of informant, physical setting, event description) (Personal reflections, insight, ideas, confusion, hunches, initial interpretation)

22 Types of Audio-visual Materials
Examine physical trace evidence (e.g., footprints in sand or snow) Videotape or film a social situation, individual, or group Examine website main pages Collect sounds Collect or social network messages (e.g., Facebook, Twitter) Examine favorite possessions or ritual objects

23 Steps in Qualitative Data Analysis
Reading through databases (margin notes) Checking accuracy of account (validity) Coding Representing findings (figures, theme passage) Collapsing codes into themes Interrelating themes

24 Common Software Packages Available
MAXQDA NVIVO Atlas.ti HyperResearch

25 How to Code Many Many Codes 30-40 Pages Reduce Codes to Segments
Initially read through data Divide text into segments of information Label segments of information with codes Reduce Overlap and redundancy of codes Collapse codes into themes Many Pages of Text Many Segments of Text Codes reduced to 20 30-40 codes Reduce Codes to 5-7 Themes

26 How to Code Theme Code Term Select Climbing Wall Narratives, Fall, 2011, Section 002, #1 As I walked into the gym, I was bombarded with the smell of old gym shoes, a smelly locker that had seen the many wins and losses of a team. Around me was a juxtaposition of sights. The old wood floors and brick foundation of the gym did not fit with what was inside; badminton nets, an open view of different workout rooms, and lastly a climbing wall. The climbing wall was separated by two activities: instruction and climbing. To the left of the wall, an instructor was giving a tutorial, with a typed handout, on how to use the necessary equipment to climb. The new climbers were asked to read a portion of the handout, as the instructor provided a visual demonstration on the equipment. The new climbers asked questions regarding the handout and the demonstration. This process continued for some time; a detailed process, yet very relaxed and informal. Another instructor came in, wearing jeans and a tank top. Physical description Physical description of wall Instructor Process of climbing

27 How to Write a Theme Passage

28 Major Validation Strategies
Member checking: Members check the accuracy of the account Triangulation: Looking for themes across different types of data; different researchers; different participants Others: peer review, external audit, report disconfirming evidence, clarify researcher’s stance, thick description, prolonged time in the field

29 Writing the Qualitative Research Study
Description 5-7 themes (including multiple perspectives, good quotes, useful dialogue, even metaphors or analogies) Detail Realistic, note tensions/contradictions Engaging/persuasive/storytelling

30 Checklist for a Rigorous Qualitative Study
General: ___ Provide a rationale for why qualitative research is well-suited for studying the research problem (e.g., participant views, context, complex understanding, lack of known variables, capturing voices) ___ Describe the type of qualitative research design (e.g., narrative research, phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, or case study) that will be used ___ Explain why the design is well-suited to address the problem Qualitative Data Collection: ___ Discuss the site(s) that will be studied ___ Identify permissions that have been granted (include something about IRB permissions) ___ Indicate how participants will be recruited to the study ___ N of participants ___ Discuss the type of purposeful sampling to be used (inclusion criteria) ___ Demographics of participants ___ Indicate how the participants will benefit from the study (reciprocity) ___ Indicate the types of data to be collected (perhaps a table of data collection?) ___ Indicate the extent of data collection ___ Mention the use of protocols (interview, observations, records) used to record the data ___ State the research questions that will be asked (if interviews occur)

31 Checklist for a Rigorous Qualitative Study (continued)
Data Analysis: ___ Discuss preparing the data (transcriptions) ___ Indicate the general procedure of data analysis (reading through the data and writing memos, coding the data, description, developing themes, interrelating the themes) ___ Indicate any specific procedures related to the approach to qualitative research (e.g., in grounded theory, use open coding, axial coding, and selective coding) ___ Discuss the use of qualitative data analysis software to help analyze the data (e.g., MAXQDA, etc.) ___ Discuss use of multiple coders (i.e., intercoder agreement) if used in the study and how this process was accomplished with the percent agreement ___ Discuss validity strategies (e.g., member checking, triangulation, negative case analysis, peer audit, external audit, immersion in the field) ___ Discuss reflexivity—how the researchers’ experiences and role will influence the interpretation of findings.

32 Topics Use of qualitative research in mixed methods
Key features of qualitative research Types of problems addressed through qualitative research Philosophical assumptions Qualitative purpose statements and research questions Qualitative data collection Qualitative data analysis and software Validation/accuracy

33 ? ? Questions Asked Journal to publish in Online course to learn about
Use of theory Funding sources for projects Convincing faculty advisors Variation in how to write up

34 Key Readings Marshall and Rossman, 2011 Bazeley, 2013 Kuckartz, 2014
Saldana, 2013 Creswell & Guetterman, 2015 Qualitative journals:

35 The Importance of Qualitative Research in Mixed Methods: Part I
John W. Creswell, Ph.D., Tim Guetterman, MA University of Nebraska-Lincoln Presentation to the University of the Western Cape, South Africa April 17, 2014

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