Questions to think about… S1: How did the Fugitive Slave Act lead to the undoing of the Compromise of 1850? S2: Why did the Whig Party collapse after the Kansas-Nebraska Act while the Democratic Party survives? S3:How did the Republican doctrine of free soil unify northerners against the South? S4: Why did southerners conclude that the North was bent on extinguishing slavery in the southern states?
1848: After the mexican war 15 slave & 15 free states. Options: o Missouri Compromise: run line straight to the Pacific. o Allow new territories to determine slave status. California & Utah ask to become free states. 9 southern states protested admitting CA & UT
Compromise of 1850 Henry Clay proposed: 1.Admit California free. 2.Divide Mexican land: New Mexico & Utah territory to decide slave status. 3.Settle TX/NM border dispute favoring NM. 4.Compensate TX by paying off its debts. 5.Not allow slavery in D.C. 6.Pass new fugitive slave laws. Congress passed the compromise.
Fugitive slave act Federal marshals sent to find runaways. Northerners helped slaves hide and escape to Canada. 9 states passed liberty laws against act. Southerners angered over North refuse to follow act. Uncle Tom’s Cabin—Harriet Beecher Stowe 1853—sold 1.2 million copies.
Kansas-Nebraska Act Whigs & Democrats divided on slavery issue. Whig, Stephen K. Douglas proposed the Kansas-Nebraska Bill Wanted to settle the region to link the Transcontinental Railroad. Needed Southern support. Rejected Clay’s Missouri Compromise. Allowed states to decide slave status. Gave the South Kansas (near the slave state of Missouri).
Political unrest A.Southern Whigs joined Democrats in voting for K-N Act B.Northern Whigs & Free Soilers turned into the American, or Know-Nothings (Republicans) C.Whigs fall apart! D.Know-Nothings: 1.Disliked Catholics, immigrants, and slavery- extention. 2.Western slavery equaled limited free labor. 3.Later pulled apart by issue of slavery. E.Republicans: 1.Supported Missouri Compromise & free-soil ideas.
Rush to Kansas! Pro & Anti-slavery citizens moved to Kansas to decide the state’s fate for slavery. Thousands from Missouri illegally entered the state to vote pro-slavery. Kansas government in Lecompton was corrupt and tried to shut out the free-soilers. Free-soilers create a new government in Topeka. Civil War broke out! Pierce supported Lecompton and Northern Democrats & Republicans supported Topeka.
Dred Scott Case A.Dred Scott v. Sandford—Scott’s master took him from Missouri (slave state) to Illinois (free state). 1.After master died, sued for freedom because he now lived in a free state. B.Ruling: slaves free or slave were not citizens, Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional, the Fifth Amendment was violated because property owners have protection of property. C.Republicans rejected this decision!
Harper’s ferry & John brown A.1859 John Brown led a group of 21 men from MD to VA B.Wanted weapons @ U.S. Arsenal at Harpers Ferry. C.Goal: destroy slavery in S. D.Tried and convicted of treason against VA. " I, John Brown, am now quite certain that the crimes of this guilty land will never be purged away but with blood."
Election of 1860 A.Democrats 1.N: against slavery— Stephen Douglas 2.S: for slavery—John C. Breckenridge B.Republicans: Lincoln 1.Slavery stay in the S and against admitting slave states. 2.South threatens to secede if Lincoln president. C.Constitutional Union Party: John Bell 1. Keep the Union together. D.1860—SC, AL, MISS, FL, GA, LA, and TX secede from the Union when Lincoln is elected. E.Lincoln rejects Crittenden Compromise— supports slavery south of the MS Compromise Line.
Federal Fort in Confederate Territory Fort Sumter overtaken by Confederates in 1861. The first conflict of the Civil War.