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(Adding Picture of the group here). Gonorrhea  What do you know?

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Presentation on theme: "(Adding Picture of the group here). Gonorrhea  What do you know?"— Presentation transcript:

1 (Adding Picture of the group here)

2 Gonorrhea  What do you know?

3 What Are Microorganisms?  A. History Spontaneous Generation- Greeks Oldest form of life on Earth – 3.5 billion years!  B. Many diverse organisms Prokaryotes ○ Bacteria ○ Archaea Eukaryotes ○ Algae ○ Protozoa ○ Fungi: molds ○ Helminths Infectious Agents ○ Viruses ○ Viroids ○ Prions

4 How Are Microorganisms BENEFICIAL to Human Beings?  Humans could not exist on earth Help protect against diseases  The entire surface of our body contains bacteria  The study of microorganisms advances medical and scientific research Easy to study, yield quick results. “What is true of an elephant is also true of bacteria” – Dr. Jacques Monod

5 How Are Microorganisms HARMFUL to Human Beings?  Responsible for more human deaths than any war 1918-1919 - Influenza ○ More Americans killed than in WWI, WWII, the Korean War and the Vietnam War combined! 1346-1350 - Plague ○ 25 million European deaths Smallpox ○ 10 million deaths over past 4,000 years

6 What is Gonorrhea?  The word Gonorrhea comes from two Latin words. gonos- meaning seed rhoe- meaning flow  A sexually transmitted bacterial infection Attacks mucous membranes of the body ○ mouth, ears, nostrils, eyes, genitalia, and anus Resides in warm moist body cavities ○ both men and women  Causes most female infertility Also called “the clap” or “the drip”

7 History of Gonorrhea  Discovery Described in early writings ○ Warnings against "unclean discharge from the body" appear in the Bible Discovered in 1879 by Albert Neisser German immunologist Paul Ehrlich Since then, 5 types of the gonococcus identified  Background The history - long and dates back many years Earliest cases of sexually transmitted diseases related to gonorrhea ○ France - 1250’s Common among WWI recruits ○ More than 1 million cases per year reported during late 1970's, Now – around 342,250 per year  Today's Concerns Its prevalence and resistance to antibacterial treatment 20 th century - First successful treatment of Gonorrhea  Other Forms of Treatment Used in Past Mercury Silver nitrate

8 Pathophysiology  Plasmids carry penicillinase  Genes transmitted between different subtypes Subtypes  By transmitting genes surface protein genes ○ high host susceptibility to reaction Makes the genes resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics for 20 years  Signs appear in: lower genital tract Pharynx Rectum male and female urethra

9 Symptoms of Gonorrhea  Symptoms in men Unusual discharge from penis ○ Discoloration ○ Pus-like Itching Urination ○ Painful ○ Frequent ○ May contain blood Pain and swelling ○ Testicles ○ Glands of the groin  Symptoms in women Painful urination Fever Unusual vaginal discharge Bleeding between periods Vomiting Belly pain

10 Symptoms of Gonorrhea – contd.  Silent Symptoms You may have it and not know it. Symptoms may be so mild you don’t notice  Mild/ non-specific symptoms Could be mistaken for: ○ Bladder infection ○ Vaginal infection ○ Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)  Rectal Infection Discharge Anal itching Soreness Bleeding

11 How to Test for Gonorrhea  Sample of body fluid or urine  Types of tests used to detect Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) Nucleic acid hybridization test (DNA probe test, molecular probe test) Gonorrhea culture Gram stain  Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, EIA)

12 Treatment of Gonorrhea  Historically Injection of mercury  First successful – 20 th century  Antimicrobial-resistant strains - large obstacle  New strain Immune to antibiotic - fluoroquinolone Only guaranteed treatment ○ shot of the cephalosporin antibiotic.  Antibiotic treatment dependent on: strain severity geographical location  Important to finish entire course of the medication Regular doses Undertreated  If treated early should not cause long-term problems

13 Prevention of Gonorrhea

14  Abstinence  Safe sex  Talk to your partner about STD’s  Get tested  Don’t have more than one sexual relationship at a time  Contraception Latex or Polyurethane condoms ○ must be in place before sexual activity Male and females condoms available

15 References  Behrman, A. J., & Shoff, W. H. (2009). Gonorrhea. Retrieved March 2, 2010, from emedicine from WebMD, rticle/782913-overview  Gonorrhea Test. (2009, April 27). Retrieved March 3, 2010, from WebMD:  Nester, E. (2009). Microbiology: a human perspective (6 th edition). New York: Mc Graw Hill Company.  Packiam, M. (2009). Mouse Strain-Dependent Differences in Susceptibility to Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infection and Induction of Innate Immune Responses. Infection and Immunity, 433-40.  What is gonorrhea? What causes gonorrhea? (2009). Retrieved on March 2, 2010, from Medical News Today, http://www.medicalnewstodhttp://www.medicalnewstod

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