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Corn Co-Products in Beef Cow Rations John D. Lawrence, Iowa State University Darrell Mark, University of Nebraska.

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Presentation on theme: "Corn Co-Products in Beef Cow Rations John D. Lawrence, Iowa State University Darrell Mark, University of Nebraska."— Presentation transcript:

1 Corn Co-Products in Beef Cow Rations John D. Lawrence, Iowa State University Darrell Mark, University of Nebraska

2 Types of Corn Co-Products 1.Corn gluten feed: wet mill –Corn bran + steep –Can be wet or dry –Moderate crude protein, CP = 16-23% 80% of CP is DIP (ruminally degradable) –Low fat, moderate fiber, TDN = 80 –101-115% of energy value of dry-rolled corn –Product variation is significant within and across plants due to amount of steep added back to the corn bran

3 Types of Corn Co-Products 2.Distillers Grains + Solubles: dry mill –Distillers Grains (65%) & Solubles (35%) (DM basis) –May be wet or dried –Higher crude protein, CP = 30% 65% UIP (undegraded, “bypass”, protein –High fat (11%), TDN = 70-110 –Concentrates nutrients 3-fold from corn 0.8% P, 0.35-1.0% Sulfur (variable)

4 Types of Corn Co-Products 3.Condensed distillers soluables: dry mill –Also known as “syrup” –35% dry matter but in liquid form –Higher crude protein, CP = 26% –High fat, low fiber, TDN = 110-115 4.Modified DGS are available –(35-65% DM) 5.Hybrid wet & dry plant combining corn bran and distillers solubles  bran cake –Example: Dakota Bran Cake

5 Nutrient Composition of Selected Corn Milling Co-Products

6 Research in Co-Product Supplementation For Cattle on Forage If properly balanced there appears to be benefit using CGF or DGS to supplement cattle on forage diets –Little starch in CGF, so no negative effect on fiber digestion –Protein in forage highly degraded in rumen, so may need UIP supplementation DGS is a good choice –Cattle on forage may need additional energy DGS can provide this energy, along with the protein and phosphorous One supplement reduces costs

7 SBM & DDGS Supplement With Same Feeding Value

8 Limited Research in Co-Product Supplementation For Cows on Forage Nebraska: DGS based supplement on winter range Illinois: CGF and DGS similar to each other when supplementing corn stalks Illinois: DGS had similar performance as corn- soybean meal for cows fed corn silage based diets

9 Feeding Levels To meet protein and energy requirements for average cows in good condition fed as a supplement to corn stalks: –Last 1/3 of gestation, 3-5 lb. of DDS or 8-15 lb. of WDG per day –Early lactation, 6-8 lb. of DDG or 20-23 lb. of WDG per day Fine-tune for the specific cow size, stage of production, condition score and weight gain

10 Dried Distillers Grains Fed with Corn Stalks to Meet Protein & Energy Needs of Beef Cows by Month 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 123456789101112 Months After Calving Pounds per day

11 Methods of Feeding CGF and DGS –Wet or dry product –Total Mix Ration with forage –Limit feed to grazing animals daily or every other day CDS –Free choice in open tanks or lick tanks like molasses on pasture and corn stalks –Mixed with forage at feeding or at storage

12 Developing Heifers Control –Winter grazing & hay & protein supplement Treatment –Winter grazing & WCGF supplement Treatment saved $6.71 in costs

13 Stalk Grazing

14 DDG Supplement to Steers On Drought Stressed Pasture Whole systems analysis finds better performance through grazing and feedyard

15 DDGS on Brome Pasture ControlFertDDGS Grass ADG1.371.371.95 Weight a 9779771065 Feedlot ADG3.403.403.70 Weight136813681491 a Initial wt = 767

16 Price of Corn and Pasture

17 Price of DDG and Pasture

18 Challenges Dry product is more costly, but stores well Storing wet DGS product –Material exposed to air spoils in 7-14 days depending on temperature –Cowherds do not use fast enough for large loads –Has low pH and does not ensile but will keep in air-tight storage for long periods –Spoilage loss stored in silage bags (Walker et al) 20% loss opened and fed day 78-112 post-sealing 28% loss opened and fed day 190-257 post sealing

19 Challenges Storing wet DGS product –Often delivered in truck load lots –Can store wet DGS in bunker, silage bag or in pile covered with plastic to protect from air –Mix with tub-ground forage and stored in bunker or bag Storing CDS –70% water, protect from freezing –Can mix with tub-ground forage and stored in bunker or bag

20 Storage Could Allow Cattle Producers To Buy Seasonal Price Lows Seasonal Index of Dried Distillers Grains, Nebraska, 2003-2005 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00 120.00 140.00 160.00 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Price Index (% of Annual Average) Seasonal Price Index Seasonal Price Index + 1 Std Dev Seasonal Price Index - 1 Std Dev Source: AMS & University of Nebraska-Lincoln


22 Minimum Levels of Roughage To Mix in WDGS For Storage Bagging a Bunker Grass hay15%30-40 Wheat straw12.525-32 Alfalfa hay22.545-55? DDGS50--- ADMCGF60--- a 300 PSI. Source: Erickson & Klopfenstein

23 Opportunities Often low-cost high protein and energy feed –Particularly wet product near plant Complements low quality forage –Winter feeding programs grazing crop residue –Feeding mature, poor quality grass hay –Drought stressed pastures Extend summer pastures to carry more cattle on the same acres Adding fat (DGS) to diets is shown to increase pregnancy rate in herds with low pregnancy rates

24 Economics Reduced heifer wintering cost $10.47/head feeding DGS supplement on winter range in Nebraska compared to conventional hay based system –Savings from reduced hay and labor –Same pregnancy rates (97%) –

25 Economics Iowa Beef Cow Business Records report average winter feed cost per cow of $1.01 per day Corn stalks and DGS can be much less –Baled corn stalks, $17-25 per ton –Dried distillers grains, $70 per ton –Before for processing, feeding loss, or vit & min Late gestation cost would be $.38-.51 per day Early lactation cost would be $.57-.72 per day –Wet distillers grains is lower cost than DDGS –Supplement grazed corn stalks will also lower cost

26 Resources Distillers Grains for Beef Cows – A low cost vacuum storage method can preserve high moisture, distiller’s grains. Walker, Earing, and Mathews – %20A%20low%20cost%20vacuum%20storage--.pdf %20A%20low%20cost%20vacuum%20storage--.pdf The effect of vacuum stored high moisture distiller’s grains as a protein and energy supplement for beef cows Walker, Earing, and Mathews – –%20The%20effect%20of%20vacuum--.pdf Review of Recent Beef Cow Trials Feeding Distillers Grains – %20Review%20of%20recent%20beef%20cow%20trials--.pdf %20Review%20of%20recent%20beef%20cow%20trials--.pdf –Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports:

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