2LEQ: Why was a nation founded on life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness practicing slavery? Drill:Why do you think there is no mention of slavery in the Constitution?The image was taken from the seal of the Committee for the Abolition of the Slave Trade, founded 1787
3Our Founding Fathers:acknowledged that slavery violated the core American Revolutionary ideal of libertyBUT their commitment to private property rights, principles of limited government, and desire to maintain harmony among the states prevented them from making a bold move against slaveryBy the time of the Revolution, slavery was a well-established American institutionAmong the founding fathers seventeen of them collectively held about 1,400 slaves
4Why African Slaves in America? Native American populations declined and were harder to “tame”Decline in the number of Europeans arriving as Indentured ServantsAfrican slaves were easily identifiable, they were far from home, could not speak or write the language, slaves made more slavesSlavery had a legal “reign of terror: in AmericaSlavery Auction video clipFirst African slaves arrive in the Americas in 1620 with the SpanishTriangle Trade brought slaves to America, cotton and other raw materials to England, and to Africa went manufactured goods
5Economics in America 1789-1860 Northern States Southern States Industrialization – factory workGrowing CitiesLarge immigrant population (5 million b/w ) = workforcePlantations: cotton, tobacco, rice, sugarcaneIncreased demand for these cash crops = increased demand for enslaved laborSlave Narratives
6LEQ: What were the differences between the northern and southern states in Antebellum America? Drill:Have you ever witnessed the following:What one person was doing prevented someone else from doing what he or she needed to do.One person was so different from another that neither could understand the other or that their needs were conflicting.
8LEQ: What are the causes and effects of the American Civil War? Drill:Interpret the following phrase “A house divided against itself cannot stand.“Do you know who said this?
9Slave State or Free State 1819 Missouri requests admission to the Union as a slave state = Missouri Compromise of 1820: - granted Missouri’s request- admitted Maine as a free state- passed an amendment that drew an imaginary line across the former Louisiana Territory establishing a boundary between free and slave regions1849 California requests admission to the Union as a free state = Compromise of 1850:- admitted California as a free state- slavery in New Mexico and Utah each to be determined by popular sovereignty- ended the slave trade in Washington, D.C.- Fugitive Slave ActAs new territories sought to join the Union there was debate over whether the territories should be admitted as a free or slave state
10Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854With the country growing there was a desire among some for a transcontinental railroadSuggested the railroad run through a new territory = Nebraska Territory (reserved as a free state)Southern representatives wanted the Missouri Compromise repelled firstThe Nebraska Territory was divided in two: Nebraska and KansasNebraska = could be freeKansas = could be slave
11Dred Scott Case Supreme Court Case: Dred Scott v. Sanford, 1857 Dred Scott was an enslaved man who had been taken north to work in a free territory. Scott sued for his freedomChief Justice Taney ruled that African Americans – enslaved or free – were not citizens and had no rights under the Constitution. Taney also decreed that Congress did not have the authority to ban slavery in the territories. This made the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional
12The Union Dissolves John Brown and Harpers Ferry Election of 1860 The South Secedes
13The Union DissolvesJohn Brown and Harpers Ferry: an attempt at rebellion against slaveholders; savior to some aggressor to othersElection of 1860: Dissention in the Democratic Party over Presidential candidate; Republicans nominate Abraham Lincoln = opposed the spread of slavery; Lincoln won the Presidential electionThe South Secedes: viewed Lincoln’s election as a threat to southern society and culture; South Carolina repealed the states ratification of the Constitution = dissolved ties to the Union = seceded from the Union in Dec. 1860- Joined by MS, AL, FL, GA, LA, TX, AR, TN, NC, VA by Feb. 1861= the Confederate States of America a.k.a. the Confederacy
14LEQ: Part 1 Causes of the Civil War: Controversy and Compromise over Free and Slave States/TerritoriesJohn Brown and Harpers FerryElection of 1860Southern states secede from the Union
15The Civil War Fought between 1861-1865 Northern States lead by President Lincoln vs. Southern States lead by Jefferson Davis (President of the Confederate States of America)Emancipation Proclamation January 1st 1863 = all slaves in the rebellious states “shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free.”North won and preserved the Union600,000 casualties
16LEQ: Part 2: Effects of the Civil War Nation is reunited; Federal government proved itself supreme to state governmentEnd of slavery; 13th Amendment to the Constitution makes slavery illegalFormer slaves struggle with freedom; lack of education forces most to become sharecroppersMilitary Occupation of the Southern states are “occupied” by soldiers from the NorthReconstruction & New Technologies – plan to rebuild the southern states that had been devastated by war “putting the country back together