Presentation on theme: "The Territorial Expansion of the United States 1830’s-1850’s."— Presentation transcript:
The Territorial Expansion of the United States 1830’s-1850’s
The Fur Trade Flourished from the 1670’s to 1840’s. In the 1670’s, the British Hudson’s Bay Colony and Montreal’s North West Company, began exploring beyond the Great Lakes In 1821 the British Hudson’s Bay colony took over and ran the fur trade from trading posts in the far Canadian north. They also explored the Canadian West and the Oregon Country. 1824, William Henry Ashley, instituted the “rendezvous” system There, they traded traps, guns, ammunition, tobacco, beads, fabrics, and alcohol. “Mountain Men” – Lived in the mountains trapping beavers and developing a relationship with the Indian people; Jim Beckwourth.
Exploration… : Lieutenant Zebulon Pike led an expedition to the Rocky Mountains in Colorado : Major Stephen Long made an exploration in which he mapped the Great Plains : John C. Frémont mapped the overland trails to Oregon and California. 1869: Major John Wesley Powell made an expedition of the Grand Canyon. After all of these explorations, the government published their geological surveys, completed with maps, illustrations and photographs. Landscape artists include, Karl Bodmer, Thomas Moran, Albert Bierstadt, and others. American pride and self-image began to increase.
Indian Policy and Expansion “Indian Territory”- a region west of Arkansas, Missouri, and Iowa, on the Eastern edge of the Great Plains, regarded as unfarmable, and known as the “Great American Desert.” 1854: the government abolished the northern half of the territory, establishing the Kansas an Nebraska Territories in its place; opening them to white settlers. (Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854) People in the Southern part of the Indian Territory fared better than the rest, creating new communities. (Cherokees, Chickasaws, Choctaws, Creeks and Seminoles) These Indian groups created self-governing nations with their own schools and churches.
Manifest Destiny and Expansionism In 1845 John O’ Sullivan wrote, “our Manifest Destiny is to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our yearly multiplying millions.” Thomas Hart Benton and others believed that the economic future for the United States depended on trade with Asia. Most Democrats supported expansionism, while most Whigs opposed it.
Traveling the Overland Trails to Oregon Convention of 1818: Britain and United States jointly occupied Oregon First permanent European settlers were retired fur trappers. Next, was a mix of Americans, British, French Canadians, Indians and Métis people, followed by the Protestants. Next, the Midwest farmers came. They would soon represent the majority of the settlers in Oregon, and carried out “Oregon fever.” People met in 1843 to try and draft their own constitution. (Banned African Americans/ slavery) “54-40 or fight”- suggested that the US would go to war if it didn’t get control of the territory south of 54°40’
Oregon continued… June 1846: US and Britain concluded the 49 th Parallel would become the US- Canada border. Webster-Ashburton Treaty 1842 and the Oregon Treaty 1846 Oregon’s Donation Land Claim Act of 1850, codified the practice of giving 320 acres to each white male age 18+ and 640 acres to each married couple. Kinship was very important
The Texas Revolt 1828: the balance between Comanche, American and Tejano was broken. The Mexican government restricted American immigration, outlawed slavery, levied customs duties and taxes, and planned other matters. In fall of 1835 a war broke out. The Americans thought they had won, and were surprised by a Mexican counterattack led by Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna. Santa Anna was defeated and on May 14, 1836, Santa Anna signed a treaty fixing the southern boundary of the new “Republic of Texas” In 1837, Texas applied for admission to the Union, but was denied.
Election of 1844 James K. Polk (Democrat) v. Henry Clay (Whig) Polk favored annexation of Texas Polk won the election by a margin of 40,000 popular votes. Texas entered the Union in December 1845, as the 28 th state, and the 15 th slave state.
Mexican- American War In 1845, the Mexican government broke diplomatic relations with the US Polk sent General Zachary Taylor to Texas to defend against an invasion. He secretly instructed the Pacific naval squadron to seize ports in California if Mexico declared war led by Gen. Winfield Scott On May 13, 1846, Congress declared war on Mexico. Massachusetts passed a resolution condemning Polk’s declaration of war as unconstitutional. Henry David Thoreau wrote “Civil Disobedience” Mexico was too weak. In the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, signed February 2, 1848, Mexico made many agreements with the US which formally ended the war. Popular attitudes toward the war were reported by journalists, not politicians, for the first time in US History.
The Gold Rush Thousands of people, “forty-niners” left their farm and jobs and headed west to make a fortune. 80% were Americans, while the rest were from Mexico, Latin America, Asia and Europe. Many of the incoming forty-niners lived in mines that were unsanitary. Most miners were young men who were unmarried and unsuccessful. The majority of women in the early mining camps were prostitutes. After the Rush, California was left with a booming, multi-cultural population and mining industry.
The Wilmot Proviso In August of 1846, Wilmot proposed that slavery be banned in all the territories acquired by Mexico. Southern Whigs joined the southern Democrats to vote against the measure. Northerners of both parties supported it. Triggered the first breakdown in the national party system and reopened the slavery debate. This posed a serious threat to party unity.
Free-Soil Movement Liberty party was created by abolitionists and further, the free-soil party Free-soil movement shifted the idea of morality of slavery to the ways it affected expansion. The Liberty party suggested that slave states should not be admitted to the union “Free-soilers” really meant, “antiblack” when they said “antislavery” They proposed to ban all African Americans from new territories William Lloyd Garrison denounced the free-soil doctrine as “whitemanism,” a racist effort to make territories white.
Election of 1848 Lewis Cass of Michigan was the Democratic nominee for president. Zachary Taylor, war hero, was the Whig candidate. Zachary Taylor won the election with only 47% of the popular vote.