Introduction Different forms of learning can take place; however, there is no correct way of learning. Many learning theorist have developed theories to find out how people learn. In this presentation, I will be introducing Albert Bandura, a cognitive theorist, and Edwin R. Guthrie, a behavioral theorist.
Theorists Edwin R. Guthrie Albert Bandura 1925-present Behavioral TheoristCognitive Theorist
Edwin R. Guthrie Born in Lincoln, Nebraska Graduate of University of Nebraska B.A. in Mathematics M.A. in Philosophy Graduate of University of Washington PhD in Philosophy Was 33 years old when he transitioned from philosophy to psychology Winner – Second Gold Medal Awarded by the American Psychology Association for outstanding lifetime contributions
Contiguity Theory Contiguity theory is a behavioral theory based on the work of E. R. Guthrie. It proposes that any stimulus and response connected in time and/or space will tend to be associated. States that a combination of stimuli which has accompanied a movement will on its recurrence tend to be followed by that movement (Guthrie, 1952). Learning is based on a stimulus-response association.
Contiguity Theory (cont.) Examples: A baseball player wearing a certain pair of socks on the day he hits three home runs associates wearing the socks and hitting home runs. A student making a good grade on a test after trying a new study technique makes an association between the stimulus of studying and the response of getting a good grade.
Impact The impact this theory would have on an adult education/training program: Creating a positive atmosphere and in depth learning experience will equate in raised results This will, in turn, create a positive association with the adult and the training program Scope/Application: Contiguity theory is intended to be a general theory of learning, although most of the research supporting the theory was done with animals. Guthrie did apply his framework to personality disorders.
Albert Bandura 1949: Bandura received his B.A. degree from the University of British Columbia (Isom, 1998) 1951: M.A. received from the University of Iowa (Albert Bandura, n.d., Minot State University) 1952: Ph.D. received from University of Iowa under the direction of Arthur Benton (who was heavily influenced by William James). (Isom, 1998)
Albert Bandura (cont.) Bandura has received several honorary degrees from universities all over the world. (Moore, n.d.) 1972: Recipient of a distinguished achievement award from the American Psychological Association (Isom, 1998) Recipient of a Scientist Award from the California State Psychological Association (Isom, 1998) 1974: Bandura was elected the president of the American Psychological Association (Isom, 1998).
Social Cognitive Theory Comprehensive theory that includes motivational and self regulatory mechanisms Emphasizes the social origins of human thought process and behavior Emphasizes cognitive influence on behavior, rather than conditioning influences from the environment
Social Cognitive Theory (cont.) Human beings have specific abilities related to learning that sets them apart from other species. Social cognitive theory states that there are three characteristics that are unique to humans: Vicarious consequences (Model and imitate others) Self–efficacy (self reflection) Performance standards and moral conduct (Ability to regulate one’s own behavior) A person’s level of motivation is an affective state and actions are based more on what they believe. In order to learn, one must: pay attention be able to retain or remember have the ability to reproduce the behavior.
Impact The impact this theory would have on an adult education/training program: Utilizing a more Hands-On approach in an Adult Education/Training Program will use this learning theory in an effective manner Creating the appropriate environment for the learner will support this theory Scope and Application The Social Cognitive Theory is relevant for designing health education and health behavior programs. This theory explains how people acquire and maintain certain behavioral patterns. The theory can also be used for providing the basis for intervention strategies
Conclusion In conclusion, theorist have discovered many learning theories to help describe the learning styles that people utilize today. Neither one is correct, but we determine which learning theory will help us learn and continue to grow.
References Bandura, A. (n.d.). Retrieved September 12, 2003 from the Francis Marion University website: Bandura, A. (n.d.). Retrieved September 18, 2003 from the Minot State University website: ra.htm ra.htm ra.htm Bandura, A: Biographical Sketch. (n.d.). Retrieved October 6, 2003 from the Emory University website: o.html o.html o.html
References (cont.) Guthrie, E.R. The Psychology of Learning: Revised Edition. Harper Bros: Massachusetts Wolman, Benjamin B. Handbook of General Psychology. Prentice Hall: New Jersey