Presentation on theme: "Review and yet to cover. Pre Civil War Economic divisions during the first half of the nineteenth century: The Northern states developed an industrial."— Presentation transcript:
Pre Civil War Economic divisions during the first half of the nineteenth century: The Northern states developed an industrial economy based on manufacturing. They favored high protective tariffs to protect Northern manufacturers from foreign competition. The Southern states developed an agricultural economy consisting of a slavery-based system of plantations in the lowlands along the Atlantic and in the Deep South, and small-scale subsistence farmers in the foothills and valleys of the Appalachian Mountains. The South strongly opposed high tariffs, which made the price of imported manufactured goods much more expensive.
Pre Civil War Crises took place over the admission of new states into the Union during the decades before the Civil War. The issue was always whether the number of “free states” and “slave states” would be balanced, thus affecting power in the Congress.
Pre Civil War The growing division over slavery and states’ rights: As the United States expanded westward, the conflict over slavery grew more bitter and threatened to tear the country apart. The abolitionist movement grew in the North, led by William Lloyd Garrison, publisher of The Liberator, an antislavery newspaper, and many New England religious leaders, who saw slavery as a violation of Christian principles.
Pre Civil War Harriet Beecher Stowe, wife of a New England clergyman, wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin, a best- selling novel that inflamed Northern abolitionist sentiment. Southerners were frightened by the growing strength of Northern abolitionism. Slave revolts in Virginia, led by Nat Turner and Gabriel Prosser, fed white Southern fears about slave rebellions and led to harsh laws in the South against fugitive slaves. Southerners who favored abolition were intimidated into silence.
Pre Civil War The admission of new states continually led to conflicts over whether the new states would allow slavery (“slave states”) or prohibit slavery (“free states”). Numerous compromises were struck to maintain the balance of power in Congress The Missouri Compromise (1820) drew an east-west line through the Louisiana Purchase, with slavery prohibited above the line and allowed below, except that slavery was allowed in Missouri, north of the line.
Pre Civil War In the Compromise of 1850, California entered as a free state, while the new Southwestern territories acquired from Mexico would decide on their own. The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 repealed the Missouri Compromise line by giving people in Kansas and Nebraska the choice whether to allow slavery in their states (“popular sovereignty”). This law produced bloody fighting in Kansas as pro- and anti-slavery forces battled each other. It also led to the birth of the Republican Party that same year to oppose the spread of slavery.
Pre Civil War Southerners argued that individual states could nullify laws passed by the Congress. They also began to insist that states had entered the Union freely and could leave (“secede”) freely if they chose. Abraham Lincoln, who had joined the new Republican Party, and Stephen Douglas, a Northern Democrat, conducted numerous debates when running for the United States Senate in Illinois in 1858. Lincoln opposed the spread of slavery into new states; Douglas stood for “popular sovereignty.”
Pre Civil War The Dred Scott decision by the Supreme Court overturned efforts to limit the spread of slavery and outraged Northerners, as did enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Act, which required slaves who escaped to free states to be forcibly returned to their owners in the South. Lincoln warned, “A house divided against itself cannot stand.” The nation could not continue half-free, half-slave. The issue must be resolved.
Pre Civil War The women’s suffrage movement grew during the same time as the abolitionist movement. Seneca Falls Declaration Roles of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, who became involved in women’s suffrage before the Civil War and continued with the movement after the war
Pre Civil War Between 1776 and 1850, the United States expanded from 13 colonies hugging the eastern seaboard to a continental nation extending from “sea to shining sea.” Why, in your opinion, was America so eager to expand during this time period?
Pre Civil War Who owned Louisiana in the 1790s? (Spain) How did France gain possession of Louisiana? (treaty with Spain) Why did Napoleon want to sell Louisiana? (France needed money as war in Europe resumed. After the slave revolt in Haiti in 1798, France no longer needed the land in Louisiana to grow food to feed the people in Haiti.) Who negotiated the treaty with France? (James Monroe and Robert Livingston)
Pre Civil War What did Jefferson initially want to buy? (the port of New Orleans) How much did the United States pay for Louisiana? ($15 million — about twice the annual federal budget at that time) What concerns, if any, did Jefferson have about the purchase? (He was concerned about the constitutionality of the purchase.) What was the long-term significance of the purchase? (secured the Mississippi River, avoided conflicts with France, furthered possible alliance with Great Britain, strengthened the federal government, established a precedent for land purchases)
Pre Civil War Have you ever heard of the amusement parks “Six Flags over Texas” (or “Six Flags over Georgia”)? Did you know that the amusement parks have the “Six Flags” name because historically Texas has had six nations rule the territory? How many of these flags can you name? (Spain, France, Mexico, Texas Republic, United States of America, Confederate States of America) Your chronology should include: 1821 – Mexico becomes independent from Spain 1836 – Texas Revolution: Texas becomes an independent nation 1844 – Texas is annexed by the United States and becomes a state 1845 – Mexican War starts
CompromiseProblemSolutionDid it work? Missouri Compromise Missouri wanted to enter the Union as a slave state. This would have upset the balance of free and slave states in the Senate. What was to be done? All Missouri was to enter as a slave state, and Maine was to enter as a free state. A line was to be drawn from the southern border of Missouri, and the extension of slavery into territories north of this line was to be forbidden. It provided an uneasy yet essentially workable approach until the 1850s. In the Dred Scott case of 1857, Chief Justice Roger Taney declared the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional. Compromise of 1850 How was the issue of slavery going to be handled in the new territories gained as a result of the Mexican War? NOTE: The Wilmot Proviso and the rise of the free soil debate politicized the slavery issue. California would enter as a free state. The issue of slavery would be decided by popular sovereignty in Utah and New Mexico territories. The slave trade (but not slavery) would be abolished in the District of Columbia. A stricter fugitive slave law would be put into effect. The stricter fugitive slave law inflamed abolitionist opinion and exacerbated sectional differences. California was admitted as a free state to take advantage of the gold found there. Events moved too rapidly during the 1850s to assess the effectiveness of other elements of the compromise.
CompromiseProblemSolutionDid it work? Kansas-Nebraska Act How was the issue of slavery going to be handled in the newly organized territories of Kansas and Nebraska? The issue of slavery would be decided by popular sovereignty in Kansas and Nebraska. “Bleeding Kansas” was the result. This was a kind of mini-Civil War fought out by pro- and anti-slavery people who moved to Kansas to participate in the vote about slavery.