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Slavery and The War Between the States. You Need to Know Antebellum Antebellum Northwest Ordinance Northwest Ordinance 3/5th Compromise 3/5th Compromise.

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Presentation on theme: "Slavery and The War Between the States. You Need to Know Antebellum Antebellum Northwest Ordinance Northwest Ordinance 3/5th Compromise 3/5th Compromise."— Presentation transcript:

1 Slavery and The War Between the States

2 You Need to Know Antebellum Antebellum Northwest Ordinance Northwest Ordinance 3/5th Compromise 3/5th Compromise 20 year moratorium on slave trade 20 year moratorium on slave trade Missouri Compromise (1820) Missouri Compromise (1820) Abolitionism Abolitionism William Lloyd Garrison/The Liberator William Lloyd Garrison/The Liberator Fredrick Douglas/ North Star Fredrick Douglas/ North Star Underground Railroad Underground Railroad Wilmot Proviso Wilmot Proviso The 1850's: Decade of Crisis The 1850's: Decade of Crisis Compromise of 1850 Compromise of 1850 Fugitive Slave Act Uncle Tom's Cabin Kansas-Nebraska Act Demise of the Whig Party Emergence of the Republican Party Dred Scott decision and Lecompton crisis Lincoln-Douglas debates, 1858 John Brown's raid The election of 1860 Abraham Lincoln The secession crisis During and After the Civil War Emancipation Proclamation Black Soldiers- 54th Massachusetts

3 Civil War DBQ: To what extent was the secession of the Southern states To what extent was the secession of the Southern states the result of the breakdown in the legacy of compromise the result of the breakdown in the legacy of compromise beginning with the constitutional convention? beginning with the constitutional convention?

4 DBQ Outline Introduction- History of Slavery in the United States has been a history of compromise The conflict between the pro-slavery and anti-slavery groups in America resulted in the decision of the Southern states to secede. I- Constitution and Compromises Before 1950 I- Constitution and Compromises Before 1950

5 Missouri Compromise 1820

6 Missouri Compromise: 1818 settlers in Missouri territory requested admission to the Union 1818 settlers in Missouri territory requested admission to the Union The question rose, should it be a slave state or a free state? The question rose, should it be a slave state or a free state? Henry Clay- leader in Congress from Kentucky – Henry Clay- leader in Congress from Kentucky – Conflict emerged between Southern and Northern groups. Conflict emerged between Southern and Northern groups. He created a compromise- to allow equal number of slave and free states He created a compromise- to allow equal number of slave and free states Maine enters as a free state and Missouri enters as a slave state. Maine enters as a free state and Missouri enters as a slave state. Provided for the entrance of new states in the Louisiana Purchase, Slavery is not allowed above 36º 30’ Provided for the entrance of new states in the Louisiana Purchase, Slavery is not allowed above 36º 30’

7 Abolitionism Extremist movement in the North to end Slavery (Christian based) Extremist movement in the North to end Slavery (Christian based) Saw slavery as a moral issue clearly wrong/evil Saw slavery as a moral issue clearly wrong/evil Religious foundations Religious foundations Massachusetts- key- location Massachusetts- key- location Agitated for end of slavery Agitated for end of slavery Wanted to stop the spread of slavery in the Expansion of the country Wanted to stop the spread of slavery in the Expansion of the country

8 Abolitionist Movement: The movement to end slavery and free African Americans The movement to end slavery and free African Americans 100 plus societies in the North 100 plus societies in the North Some suggested that Former slaves be resettled in Africa Some suggested that Former slaves be resettled in Africa Some said former slaves remain in US as free citizens Some said former slaves remain in US as free citizens William Lloyd Garrison was one Abolitionist, published a newspaper The Liberator William Lloyd Garrison was one Abolitionist, published a newspaper The Liberator His paper advocated and called for immediate emancipation His paper advocated and called for immediate emancipation Fredrick Douglas was a former slave, well educated and advocated the end of Slavery at any means possible. Fredrick Douglas was a former slave, well educated and advocated the end of Slavery at any means possible.

9 Abolitionists Douglas Douglas Garrison

10 Underground Railroad: Secret group of abolitionists who helped runaway slaves travel to Canada Secret group of abolitionists who helped runaway slaves travel to Canada Harriet Tubman- former slave helped people escape North Harriet Tubman- former slave helped people escape North

11 Wilmot Proviso Amendment- to the settlement of Mexican American War Amendment- to the settlement of Mexican American War Said no slavery allowed in land obtained from Mexico- Said no slavery allowed in land obtained from Mexico- California, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico… California, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico… (It did not pass the Senate) (It did not pass the Senate) Crittenden Compromise (is similar) Crittenden Compromise (is similar)

12 Uncle Tom’s Cabin 1852 Abolitionist propaganda Abolitionist propaganda Harriet Beecher Stowe Harriet Beecher Stowe Novel designed to create anger among population Novel designed to create anger among population Novel inflamed tensions and anger over Slavery by both North and South Novel inflamed tensions and anger over Slavery by both North and South

13 map California Popular Sovereignty- in Former Mexican land Fugitive Slave Law Wilmot Proviso fails

14 Compromise of 1850: Clay and Webster Clay and Webster States entering the Union, California States entering the Union, California Compromise between Northern and Southern powers in Congress Compromise between Northern and Southern powers in Congress California enters the Union as a free state California enters the Union as a free state South gets a new Fugitive Slave Law said escaped slaves could be recaptured in the North and that people helping slaves could be prosecuted- $1000 fine and 6 months in jail. South gets a new Fugitive Slave Law said escaped slaves could be recaptured in the North and that people helping slaves could be prosecuted- $1000 fine and 6 months in jail. Slavery and Popular Sovereignty Territories that are ready for statehood could decide if they wanted slavery Slavery and Popular Sovereignty Territories that are ready for statehood could decide if they wanted slavery

15 Fugitive Slave Law: Slaves that escape, were to be arrested and returned to their owners Slaves that escape, were to be arrested and returned to their owners Anyone convicted of helping a fugitive slave was liable for a fine of $1000. and imprisonment for up to six months Anyone convicted of helping a fugitive slave was liable for a fine of $1000. and imprisonment for up to six months

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18 Kansas-Nebraska Act Kansas Nebraska Act 1854: Very important Kansas Nebraska Act 1854: Very important Sponsored by Senator Steven Douglas of Illinois Sponsored by Senator Steven Douglas of Illinois Wanted to pass a railroad bill- had to appease Southern interests Wanted to pass a railroad bill- had to appease Southern interests Repealed the Missouri Compromise- now slavery would be allowed in Louisiana Purchase- if requirements were met Repealed the Missouri Compromise- now slavery would be allowed in Louisiana Purchase- if requirements were met Said that territories of Kansas and Nebraska could decide through a vote of the people if they wanted slavery or not (Popular Sovereignty) Said that territories of Kansas and Nebraska could decide through a vote of the people if they wanted slavery or not (Popular Sovereignty)

19 Kansas-Nebraska Act Consequences : Consequences : Destroys and divides the Whig party Destroys and divides the Whig party Divides Northern Democrats- those that don’t want the expansion of slavery leave party create an new and different Republican Party Divides Northern Democrats- those that don’t want the expansion of slavery leave party create an new and different Republican Party Causes fighting in Kansas- Pro-slavery factions (from Missouri) vs Anti-Slavery Factions from North East (John Brown begins there) Causes fighting in Kansas- Pro-slavery factions (from Missouri) vs Anti-Slavery Factions from North East (John Brown begins there) Two territorial governments are formed- one slave one free, this is a mini civil war known as “Bleeding Kansas” Two territorial governments are formed- one slave one free, this is a mini civil war known as “Bleeding Kansas”

20 Emergence of Republican Party 1854 As people began to be more intolerant and sensitive to slavery a new political party developed. As people began to be more intolerant and sensitive to slavery a new political party developed. Opposed Kansas-Nebraska Act and spread of slavery in the territories Opposed Kansas-Nebraska Act and spread of slavery in the territories The party becomes an “umbrella group” United a number of anti-slavery groups- abolitionists, Free Soiliers, Whigs, Democrats, Know Nothings The party becomes an “umbrella group” United a number of anti-slavery groups- abolitionists, Free Soiliers, Whigs, Democrats, Know Nothings

21 How did the South receive the Dredd Scott Case? How did the South receive the Dredd Scott Case? Why does John Brown scare the hell out of the Southerners?

22 Why did the Dredd Scott Case cause so much anger in the North?

23 Dred Scott Case 1857 Dred Scott was a slave who lived in Missouri Dred Scott was a slave who lived in Missouri His owner took him to Illinois and Wisconsin and back to Missouri His owner took him to Illinois and Wisconsin and back to Missouri Scott brought a law suit for his freedom, it went to the Supreme Court Scott brought a law suit for his freedom, it went to the Supreme Court He argued that he had lived in a free state and therefore he should be free. He argued that he had lived in a free state and therefore he should be free. The (Taney) court ruled against Scott “Scott lacked legal standing to sue in Federal Court because he was not, nor ever could be a citizen.” The (Taney) court ruled against Scott “Scott lacked legal standing to sue in Federal Court because he was not, nor ever could be a citizen.” “Being in free territory did not make a slave free.” “Being in free territory did not make a slave free.” The court cited the 5th amendment that protects property, including slaves. The court cited the 5th amendment that protects property, including slaves.

24 Dredd Scott Constitutional Justifications: Constitutional Justifications: US Constitution Article 4 section 2- “No person held to service or labor in one state… escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labor…” US Constitution Article 4 section 2- “No person held to service or labor in one state… escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labor…” US Constitution, Article 4, section 3- “the Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules and regulations respecting the Territory or other property belonging to the United States…” (Dissenting argument) US Constitution, Article 4, section 3- “the Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules and regulations respecting the Territory or other property belonging to the United States…” (Dissenting argument) Key point: The Dred Scott Case strengthened and expanded Slave owners’ rights- Caused the rejection of all the slavery related compromises- now slavery could take place in free states.

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26 Why does John Brown scare the hell out of the Southerners?

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28 John Brown’s Raid 1859 John Brown was a radical abolitionist John Brown was a radical abolitionist He wanted slaves to rise up and take their freedom He wanted slaves to rise up and take their freedom He and 21 other, both white and black attacked the Federal Arsenal at Harpers Ferry and was defeated, tried and executed He and 21 other, both white and black attacked the Federal Arsenal at Harpers Ferry and was defeated, tried and executed Caused reaction both in the North and South, some Northerners celebrated Brown’s actions The South became outraged and convinced that they could not live safely with the North- they became convinced that the North wanted slave rebellion.

29 Lincoln Lincoln’s Election (page ) Lincoln’s Election (page ) Lincoln, a Congressman from Illinois, first ran for Senate against Douglas- lost- Lincoln, a Congressman from Illinois, first ran for Senate against Douglas- lost- Lincoln believed Slavery was Immoral Lincoln believed Slavery was Immoral Slavery in the territories should be disallowed Slavery in the territories should be disallowed Believed slavery should be abolished with a constitutional amendment Believed slavery should be abolished with a constitutional amendment

30 Lincoln Douglas Debates 1856 He gained notoriety from the Senatorial election in Illinois (Lincoln Douglas debates) He gained notoriety from the Senatorial election in Illinois (Lincoln Douglas debates) In those debates he put forth the idea that The concept of Equality voiced in the Declaration of Independence was meant for all human beings and that the government of the US should support this interpretation… In those debates he put forth the idea that The concept of Equality voiced in the Declaration of Independence was meant for all human beings and that the government of the US should support this interpretation… Philosophy Philosophy EQUALITY THROUGH CONSTITUTIONAL MEANS- meant protecting the established order but working for change in a clear, law abiding framework. EQUALITY THROUGH CONSTITUTIONAL MEANS- meant protecting the established order but working for change in a clear, law abiding framework. Mostly an anti-expansion of slavery moderate Republican Mostly an anti-expansion of slavery moderate Republican

31 Lincoln View All humans deserve freedom. “All me are born equally free. The natural right to human liberty applied to all people. Where no law established slavery, freedom prevailed.” All humans deserve freedom. “All me are born equally free. The natural right to human liberty applied to all people. Where no law established slavery, freedom prevailed.” (Territories) (Territories)

32 Lincoln 1860 Republicans nominated Lincoln for president 1860 Republicans nominated Lincoln for president He tried to reassure the South by stating, A Republican administration would not “Interfere with their slaves, or with them about their slaves.” He tried to reassure the South by stating, A Republican administration would not “Interfere with their slaves, or with them about their slaves.”

33 Election of 1860 Democrats split into Two Democrats split into Two North- Stephen Douglas- pro- compromise North- Stephen Douglas- pro- compromise South- Breckenridge- the Southern candidate South- Breckenridge- the Southern candidate Republican Umbrella Group: Northern Anti-Slavery Democrats Anti-Immigration “Know Nothings” Former Whigs Abolitionists extremists

34 What factors persuaded the North to elect Republicans? Victories by Slave Holding States Victories by Slave Holding States Dread Scott Decision Dread Scott Decision Fighting in Kansas over Slavery Fighting in Kansas over Slavery Kansas-Nebraska Act Kansas-Nebraska Act Compromise of 1850 Compromise of 1850 Enforcement of Fugitive Slave Act Enforcement of Fugitive Slave Act

35 Why does the Election results of 1860 cause the Southern states to secede?

36 Election of 1860 The 37th Congress was elected in 1860 The 37th Congress was elected in 1860 Republicans Republicans House = 105; Senate = 31 House = 105; Senate = 31 Democrats House = 43; Senate = 10 Democrats House = 43; Senate = 10 The 38th Congress in 1862 Republicans House = 102; Senate = 36 Democrats House = 75; Senate = 9

37 Secession Crisis Southern states fearing the end of slavery and the limitations of their rights as states, decide to leave the Union and created their own government Southern states fearing the end of slavery and the limitations of their rights as states, decide to leave the Union and created their own government First to go: First to go: South Carolina Dec South Carolina Dec Mississippi Mississippi Florida Florida Alabama Alabama Georgia Georgia Louisiana Louisiana Texas… Texas…

38 Buchanan, 15 th President Buchanan was weak, an apologist for the South Buchanan was weak, an apologist for the South “The south was in no real danger because Lincoln would be restrained by Congress. The president would have to follow the dictates of the federal courts, which sustained slavery in the territories and the fugitive slave law.” “The south was in no real danger because Lincoln would be restrained by Congress. The president would have to follow the dictates of the federal courts, which sustained slavery in the territories and the fugitive slave law.” If the South did secede, the president lacked the constitutional power to stop it. If the South did secede, the president lacked the constitutional power to stop it. Perhaps a constitutional convention to pass an amendment protecting slavery in any state that now had or should later want it would calm things… would help. Perhaps a constitutional convention to pass an amendment protecting slavery in any state that now had or should later want it would calm things… would help.

39 Northern Democrats said: said: “If a state secedes, it is revolution and the seceders are traitors. Those who are charged with the executive branch of government are recreant to their oaths if they fail to use all lawful means to put down such rebellion” “If a state secedes, it is revolution and the seceders are traitors. Those who are charged with the executive branch of government are recreant to their oaths if they fail to use all lawful means to put down such rebellion” Some senators looked back to Andrew Jackson, regarding the South Carolina nullification issue, “By the eternal, I will hang them.” Some senators looked back to Andrew Jackson, regarding the South Carolina nullification issue, “By the eternal, I will hang them.” “Oh for one hour of Jackson!” “Oh for one hour of Jackson!”

40 Lincoln Before Inauguration wrote privately after the election explaining he would: Not interfere with slavery where it existed Not interfere with slavery where it existed Would favor the end of opposition to the fugitive slave law Would favor the end of opposition to the fugitive slave law Had no intention of using the power over interstate commerce to touch slavery Had no intention of using the power over interstate commerce to touch slavery He desperately wanted to avert a conflict; He desperately wanted to avert a conflict; He said, “Each and all of the states will be left in as complete control of their own affairs respectively and at as perfect liberty to choose, employ, their own means of preserving and protecting property, and preserving peace and order…” He said, “Each and all of the states will be left in as complete control of their own affairs respectively and at as perfect liberty to choose, employ, their own means of preserving and protecting property, and preserving peace and order…” He and others both North and South Democrats wanted one more compromise. He and others both North and South Democrats wanted one more compromise. Moderate Republicans helped negotiate with moderate Southern and Northern Democrats Moderate Republicans helped negotiate with moderate Southern and Northern Democrats

41 Crittenden Compromise: Slavery within the states to be protected from national government interference Slavery within the states to be protected from national government interference The revival of the Missouri Compromise line 36  30’- extended to the Pacific The revival of the Missouri Compromise line 36  30’- extended to the Pacific No interference with interstate slave trade No interference with interstate slave trade Slaveholders who lost runaways to Northern states to be compensated Slaveholders who lost runaways to Northern states to be compensated Attempt was made to reassure the south and protect slavery Attempt was made to reassure the south and protect slavery Republicans don’t allow it. Compromise was dead. Republicans don’t allow it. Compromise was dead.

42 Last Word From Lincoln However, Lincoln would not compromise on the issues of Expansion of Slavery and he clearly made a concerted commitment to the concept of equality and associate this with African Americans!: However, Lincoln would not compromise on the issues of Expansion of Slavery and he clearly made a concerted commitment to the concept of equality and associate this with African Americans!: “ Let there be no compromise on the question of extending slavery.” “ Let there be no compromise on the question of extending slavery.” “There is no possible compromise upon it… hold firm as with a chain of steel.” “There is no possible compromise upon it… hold firm as with a chain of steel.” “ I will be inflexible on the territorial question, I am for fighting again- that is all.” “ I will be inflexible on the territorial question, I am for fighting again- that is all.” Southerners were correct that he intended to reverse slavery in the territories. Southerners were correct that he intended to reverse slavery in the territories.

43 End of Compromise “All hope of relief in the union, through the agency of committees, Congressional legislation or constitutional amendments is extinguished.” “All hope of relief in the union, through the agency of committees, Congressional legislation or constitutional amendments is extinguished.”


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