Presentation on theme: "Chapter 18 Popular Sovereignty Each party enjoyed support in North and South-many wanted to ignore slavery yet could not Polk a single termer so Democrats."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 18 Popular Sovereignty Each party enjoyed support in North and South-many wanted to ignore slavery yet could not Polk a single termer so Democrats looked to a new man Turned to Lewis Cass-Democrats wanted to be quiet on the issue yet Cass supported popular sovereignty Much of the public like this-Self Determination Politicians thought it was a compromise-threw the issue to the people and therefore they did not have to take the issue It might spread slavery?
Triumph of Taylor Whigs nominated Zachary Taylor Avoided key issues & tried to stick to appeal Free Soil was organized-against slavery in the territories & for the Wilmot Proviso, for federal aid for internal improvements, free government homesteads for settlers Attracted a wide group: Northerners who opposed tariff reduction, favoritism for all of Texas & not Oregon, those who feared competing w/ blacks, those who condemned slavery- nominated Van Buren Free Soil Argument? Taylor wins!-(Van Buren help?)
Californy Gold Taylor could not sit on lid of slavery w/ discovery of gold in California in 1848 Thousands poured in w/ few successes-most not particularly good citizens-crime explosion Many law abiding and wanted an adequate state government California drafted a constitution in 1849 that excluded slavery & applied for statehood-bypass territorial stage-bypassing Southern Congressman trying to block free soil-Violent opposition
Sectional Balance & Underground RR South of 1850 was well-off-Taylor in the White House,Majority of cabinet and Supreme Court Southerners, equality in the Senate, Cotton fields expanding and profits high. Many felt slavery was safe below the Mason-Dixon line-Senate Power! South worried delicate balance would be lost w/California Problems already existed w/ New Mexico and Utah-nonslave- fateful precedent for Mexican territory lost w/ southern blood Texas also argued it additional territory South also angered by agitation for abolition in DC Angered by runaway slaves-Underground RR (Harriet Tubman) Southerners demanded new and tougher fugitive slave laws- Northerners failed to follow laws 1850-South was losing about 1,000 slaves per year-most gained freedom through purchase or voluntary emancipation
Need for Compromise Allow California in as a free state? Clay, Calhoun, Webster in twilight Clay, 73, played large role, proposed a series of compromises ably helped by Stephen A. Douglas-North needed to yield Calhoun, 68, championed the Southern cause-leave slavery alone, return runaways, give South its political rights & restore balance-2 presidents? Webster, 68, asked for a new fugitive slave law w/ teeth & no slavery in the territories-his speech strengthened the union for a time
Compromise of 1850-Pg. 397 New guard had their say-WH Seward came our vs. concession- strong antislavery position Seward argued Christian legislators must obey God’s law Taylor threatened to veto any compromise & threatened to take our Texas himself Compromise Taylor died-Millard Fillmore took over reigns & signed a series of compromises Union strengthened & favored compromise-South did not Effort at gathering extremists of the the South failed-Talk of secession died out temporarily
Who Benefited? North had the best deal-control of the Senate-N. Mexico & Utah-popular sovereignty Texas paid $10 million for land that would be free No slave trade in DC Fugitive slave law of 1850-slaves could not testify & no trial by jury-help in escape would bring heavy fines and punishment States passed personal liberty laws to fight fugitive law North was forging ahead of South each passing decade Delay also added to the moral strength of the North- Compromise won the war for the North
Defeat for Whigs 1852-Dems nominate Franklin Pierce/Whigs Winfield Scott Issue of slavery not brought to the forefront-Mudslinging Whigs began the split along N/S-Pierce wins Whig Party dies-emergence of sectional political alignments Contribution?
Pierce Expansionist-Canals & Cuba South wanted land-no slavery in Mexican cession Nicaragua-Wllm Walker-1850s-crushed by Coalition Nicaragua interested Britain-1850 Clayton-Bulwar Treaty-not America nor Britain would secure exclusive control over any isthmian waterway US wanted trade with China and Japan By 1853 Japan was ready to emerge from seclusion Fleet of US ships arrived in Japan in 1854-led to treaty
Cuba Manifest Destiny of 1850s-offered $100 million & Spain refused two efforts from Southern adventurers failed-Spain seized American vessel, “Black Warrior” Ostend Manifesto-$120 million for Cuba, if refused, US would take the island Word of Manifesto leaked-Free Soilers cried foul & Pierce had to back off South-Cuba, North-Canada?
RR and Gadsden Purchase California & Oregon were tough travel RR was real solution-who would have terminus? Secretary of War, Jefferson Davis arranged for James Gadsden to be minister to Mexico Santa Anna in power & need of $-offered $10 million for land Purchase allowed South to lay claim to RR North-if organized territory the test-Nebraska should be organized-Many land hungry were poised on Nebraska border Greeted w/ apathy by South
Kansas-Nebraska Douglas-goal-Chicago terminus Plan: Nebraska cut into Kansas & Nebraska-popular sovereignty Idea: Kansas-slave/Nebraska-free Violation of the Missouri Compromise South backed and so did Pierce(1854) Free Soilers in Congress passed bill through Douglas’ motives? Failed to feel the moral issue in North-breach of faith w/ repeal of Missouri Compromise-”No more clean bed without snakes” Douglas still popular in Illinois
Congress Legislate Civil War Kansas-Nebraska Act greased the slippery slope to Civil War Antislavery Northerners were angered-made compromise in the future more difficult Fugitive Slave Law dead in the North Compromises done! New Republican Party emerged Quickly became a second party and a sectional one Democrats hurt/No Republicans in the South Sectionalism ruled the day