6North and South Take Different Paths Northern EconomyBased on Industry and CommerceGrowth of Northern CitiesEastern and Midwestern states develop strong tiesSouthern EconomyBased on Plantation SystemFew wealthy planters controlled Southern SocietyPlanters relied on exports for profitSouth had little industry
7Controversy over Territories California wants to come into US as a FREE stateWould disrupt the balance of power between slave and free states in CongressSoutherners wanted to divide the state into 2 halves
8Compromise of 1850Proposed by Henry Clay2 Main Terms…
9Compromise of 1850 California admitted as FREE state Pleases North slave trade is abolished in Washington, D.C.Pleases NorthCongress would not pass laws regarding slavery for rest of territories won from Mexicopass stronger law to help slave owners recapture runaway slavesPleases South
11Fugitive Slave Act Helped slave owners recapture runaway slaves People accused could be held without arrest warrantNo right to jury trialRequired Northerners to help recapture runaway slavesSometimes free African Americans were capturedFines and jail for those who did not cooperate, helped slaves escape
13Do I break the law and oppose slavery?WHY????????? Moral Choice….Do I obey the law and support slavery,OrDo I break the law and oppose slavery?WHY?????????
14Uncle Tom’s Cabin Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe Portrayed the moral issues of slaveryBook centers on main character’s life under three owners
15Kansas-Nebraska Act (Notes) Background info:Stephen Douglass drafted a bill to organize Nebraska territory into two territories – Nebraska and KansasSuggested decision of slavery should be decided by Popular Sovereignty
16Kansas-Nebraska Act Popular Sovereignty System where the residents vote to decide an issue (in this case they are voting on slavery)If passed, would get ride of Missouri Compromise by allowing people to vote for slavery where it had been bannedPassed in Congress and became law
18“Bleeding Kansas” (Notes) Fire-eaters: Those that were “Pro-slavery”Jayhawkers: Those that were “Anti-slavery”
19“Bleeding Kansas”Proslavery and antislavery settlers flood into Kansas territory to vote on issue of slavery5,000 Missourians came over and voted illegallyNew Kansas legislature was now packed with proslavery representativesAntislavery settlers boycotted new governmentSettlers on both sides get violent
20“Bleeding Kansas” Proslavery mob attacks Lawrence, Kansas Abolitionist John Brown seeks to avenge the “Sack of Lawrence”Goes to cabins of proslavery neighbors and murders 5 people.Civil War breaks out in Kansas
25The Case of Dred Scott Scott was a slave in Missouri Owner had taken him to live in territories where slavery was illegalOwner dies and Scott sues for his freedom
26Dred Scott v. Sandford Case reaches Supreme Court Said Dred Scott was a slave, not a citizen, so he could not sue in U.S. courtsAlso rules that Congress could not ban slavery in the territoriesThis would violate slaveholders’ 5th Amendment property rightsHuge setback for abolitionist movement!!
27Dred Scott v. Sandford“The language of the Declaration of Independence is equally Conclusive: ...We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights; that among them is life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; that to secure these rights, Governments are instituted, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed.
28Dred Scott v. SandfordThe general words above quoted would seem to embrace the whole human family, and if they were used in a similar instrument at this day would be so understood. But it is too clear for dispute, that the enslaved African race were not intended to be included, and formed no part of the people who framed and adopted this declaration…..
29Dred Scott v. Sandford…Yet the men who framed this declaration were great men -- high in literary acquirements -- high in their sense of honor, and incapable of asserting principles inconsistent with those on which they were acting. They perfectly understood the meaning of the language they used, and how it would be understood by others; and they knew that it would not in any part of the civilized world be supposed to embrace the negro race”
30Lincoln-Douglass Debates Slavery was a moral, social, and political wrong.DouglassArgued that popular sovereignty was the best way to address slavery
31"A house divided against itself cannot stand "A house divided against itself cannot stand." I believe this government cannot endure, permanently half slave and half free. I do not expect the Union to be dissolved-I do not expect the house to fall-but I do expect it will cease to be divided. It will become all one thing, or all the other.”-Abraham Lincoln, Springfield, Illinois,June16, 1858
32John Brown Attacks Harpers Ferry Brown wants to inspire slaves to fight for their freedomPlanned to capture weapons arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia
33John Brown Attacks Harpers Ferry Kills 4 people in the raidSends word to rally and arm local slavesBut no slaves join the fight!!Brown and his men captured and executedAbolitionists tolled bells and fired guns in salute
37Southern States Secede Lincoln had said he would do nothing to abolish slaverySoutherners did not trust himSaw Republican victory as a threat to the Southern way of lifeWarned if Lincoln won, the Southern states would secede, or withdrawal from the Union
38Southern States Secede South Carolina secedes firstFollowed by Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and TexasFormed the Confederate States of AmericaJefferson Davis – President of the Confederacy
39Efforts to Compromise Fail Efforts for Compromise failLincoln assured South again he would not abolish slaveryLincoln stated he would not invade the South, but he would not abandon the Union’s property thereWould need to supply several forts in the South, including Fort Sumter, S. Carolina…
40Critical ThinkingStates’ Rights – theory that states had the right to judge when the federal government had passed an unconstitutional lawDo you think the Southern states seceded to protect slavery or states’ rights??Defend your answer