Presentation on theme: "Chapter 15 Toward Civil War ( )"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 15 Toward Civil War (1840-1861) Section 2 A Nation Dividing
2 Section 2-Polling Question If you disagree with a law, do you have the right not to obey it?A. Yes, alwaysB. No, neverC. Only under certain circumstancesABC
3 How did popular sovereignty lead to violence in Kansas? Essential QuestionHow did popular sovereignty lead to violence in Kansas?
4 The Fugitive Slave ActAs part of the Compromise of 1850, Senator Henry Clay convinced Congress to pass the Fugitive Slave LawThis was to pacify slaveholdersThis required all citizens to help catch runaway slavesAnyone who aided a fugitive could be fined or imprisonedSoutherners believed the law would force Northerners to recognize the rights of SouthernersInstead, the enforcement of the law convinced more people of the evils of slavery
5 A B C D What resulted from the Fugitive Slave Act? Section 2What resulted from the Fugitive Slave Act?A. Passage of the law quieted widespread violence in Kansas and Nebraska.B. Most Northerners believed Southern slaveholders’ rights should be upheld.C. Abolitionists were jailed in the North.D. The law angered the North, convincing many of the evils of slavery.ABCD
6 The Fugitive Slave Act Continued After the passage, slaveholders stepped up their efforts to catch runawaysEven tried to catch runaways who lived in freedom in the North for yearsSometimes they forced African Americans who were not trying to escape into slaverySome Northerners refused to cooperate with the lawThey justified it on moral grounds1849 Henry David Thoreau wrote “Civil Disobedience”If the law “requires you to be the agent of injustice to another, then I say, break the law”
7 Helping Runaway Slaves The Underground Railroad- A network of free African Americans and whites helped runaways to freedomAntislavery groups tried to rescue African Americans being chased and tried to free those that were capturedIn Boston, an antislavery group shouted “Slave hunters- there go the slave hunters”People put their money together to buy slaves’ freedomNorthern juries refused to convict those accused of violating the Fugitive Slave Act
8 The Kansas-Nebraska Act President Franklin Pierce intended to enforce the Fugitive Slave Act1854- Illinois senator Stephan A. Douglas introduced a bill in CongressDouglas proposed organizing the region west of Missouri and Iowa as the territories of Kansas and NebraskaBecause of their location, they both seemed likely to be Free statesBoth were north of 36°30' north (Missouri Compromise)Douglas knew the South would object because it would give the free states more votes in the SenateDouglas called for eliminating the Missouri Compromise and for popular sovereignty (allow the people to decide)
10 Passage of the Act Northerners protested This plan would allow slavery into areas that had been free for more than 30 yearsSoutherners supported the billSoutherners expected Kansas to be settled mostly by slaveholders from Missouri who would vote to keep slavery legalCongress passed the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854
11 Conflict in KansasWhen the law passed, pro-slavery and antislavery groups rushed into KansasWhen elections took place, a pro-slavery legislature was electedOnly 1,500 voters lived in Kansas at the timeBut there were more than 6,000 ballots cast1,000s of pro-slavery supporters from Missouri crossed the border just to vote in the electionThese Missourians traveled in armed groups and became known as border ruffians
12 Conflict in Kansas Continued The new Kansas legislature passed laws supporting slaveryOne law even restricted political office to pro-slavery candidatesThe antislavery people refused to accept these lawsThey armed themselves, held their own elections, and adopted their own constitution that banned slaveryBy Rival governments existed in KansasOne for slavery and one against slaveryThe city of Topeka, shown here on a panoramic map from 1869, housed the Free Soil Kansas legislature.
13 Pro-slavery Attacks Both sides were armed and violence was inevitable May slavery supporters attacked Lawrence, a stronghold of antislavery settlersThe attackers burned the Free State Hotel and destroyed two newspaper offices and many homesAnti Slavery force retaliated
14 Antislavery AttacksAbolitionist John Brown (from Hudson, Ohio) believed God chose him to end slaveryBrown heard of the attack on Lawrence and vowed to “strike terror in the hearts of the pro-slavery people”Brown led a group and killed 5 supporters of slaveryArmed bands soon roamed the territory
15 “Bleeding Kansas”Newspapers referred to “Bleeding Kansas” and “the Civil War in Kansas”In October 1856, the territorial governor sent federal troops to stop the bloodshedViolence also broke out in CongressMassachusetts senator Charles Sumner lashed out against pro-slavery forces in Kansas, such as Andrew P. Butler from South Carolina2 days later, Butler’s cousin, Representative Preston Brooks, walked into the Senate and hit Sumner with a caneSumner fell unconscious and bleeding
16 A B C D What was the main cause of the Civil War in Kansas? Section 2What was the main cause of the Civil War in Kansas?A. Dual governments set up by pro- and antislavery groupsB. Passage of the Fugitive Slave ActC. John Brown’s attack on Pottawatomie CreekD. Invasion of Kansas by border ruffiansABCD
17 How did popular sovereignty lead to violence in Kansas? Essential QuestionHow did popular sovereignty lead to violence in Kansas?-Outsiders corrupted the election, and fighting broke out over the results
18 Enforcement of the Fugitive Act led to compromise.more anger in the North.recognition of Southerners' rights.an end to the struggle.
19 Stephen A. Douglas proposed letting the people decide about slavery through popular sovereignty.states' choice.free choice.people's choice.
20 Missourians who traveled in armed groups to cross the border and vote in elections became known as border ruffians.border voters.border patrol.Missouri voters.
21 The law that required all citizens to help catch runaway enslaved people was the Removal Act.Fugitive Slave Act.Runaway Act.Slave Owners Act.
22 What did Senator Stephen A What did Senator Stephen A. Douglas propose should be replaced by popular sovereignty?Missouri–Maine ActTexas–Maine ActKansas–Nebraska ActMissouri Compromise
23 According to the __________, a person could be fined or imprisoned for aiding fugitives. Southern Slave ActOwners-Right ActFugitive Slave ActRunaway Slave Act
24 A war between citizens of the same country is called a cold war.an undeclared war.a civil war.a country war.
25 Who vowed to “strike terror in the hearts of pro-slavery people”? Andrew P. ButlerPreston BrooksCharles SumnerJohn Brown
26 Rival proslavery and antislavery governments existed in Missouri.California.Texas.Kansas.
27 What was the first territory to shed blood in a civil war over slavery? TexasKansasMissouriSouth Carolina