Presentation on theme: "American Stories: A History of the United States Second Edition Chapter American Stories: A History of the United States, Second Edition Brands Breen Williams."— Presentation transcript:
American Stories: A History of the United States Second Edition Chapter American Stories: A History of the United States, Second Edition Brands Breen Williams Gross The Sectional Crisis 1846–
Dubious Support After his constituents learned of Preston Brooks’s caning of Senator Sumner, they sent Brooks a gold-handled cowhide whip to use on other antislavery advocates.
The Sectional Crisis 1846–1861 The Compromise of 1850 Political Upheaval, 1852–1856 The House Divided, 1857–1860
Brooks Assaults Sumner in Congress Representative Brooks beat Senator Sumner with a cane over Sumner’s condemnation of the South wanting to extend slavery to Kansas Territory Agitation over extension of slavery led to the creation of the Republican Party Violence on the Senate floor foreshadowed violence on the battlefield
The Compromise of 1850
North and South conflict violently over slavery’s extension into the territories Professional politicians mediate conflict
The Problem of Slavery in the Mexican Cession Slavery traditionally kept out of politics Congressional power over slavery includes: Setting conditions to make territories states Forbidding slavery in new states Mexican Cession of 1848 puts status of slavery in new territory into question
The Wilmot Proviso Launches the Free-Soil Movement Mexican War mobilizes antislavery groups Wilmot Proviso Amendment to Mexican War Appropriations Bill by David Wilmont (D-PA) Ban all blacks from new territories to preserve for white farmers Links racism and anti-slavery
The Wilmot Proviso Launches the Free-Soil Movement (cont’d) Proviso passes in House, fails in Senate Battle over the Proviso foreshadows sectional conflict of 1850s
Forging a Compromise Henry Clay’s 1850 compromise package California admitted as a free state Slave trade prohibited in District of Columbia Strong fugitive slave law Enlarged New Mexico territory to be admitted on basis of popular sovereignty
TABLE 14.1 The Election of 1848
Forging a Compromise (cont’d) President Taylor opposes, VP Fillmore supports Clay’s compromise July 1850 Taylor dies Compromise passed as separate measures
A Fragile Compromise Henry Clay, shown here addressing the Senate, helped negotiate the Compromise of 1850 to settle the dispute over the extension of slavery in territories acquired in the Mexican-American War. Daniel Webster, seated at left resting his head on his hand, supported Clay’s proposed compromise. Ardent states’ rightist John C. Calhoun, standing third from right, led the opposition.
Forging a Compromise (cont’d) Part of Compromise of 1850 Those accused of being fugitive slaves denied Constitution rights Very unpopular in Abolitionist areas Anthony Burns case in Boston 1854
Map 14.1 The Compromise of 1850 The “compromise” was actually a series of resolutions granting some concessions to the North—especially admission of California as a free state—and some to the South, such as a stricter Fugitive Slave Law.
Political Upheaval 1852–1856,
Political Upheaval, 1852–1856 Whigs and Democrats manage controversy in 1850 Sectionalism destroys both parties in 1850s
Caution! This abolitionist broadside was printed in response to a ruling that fugitive slave Thomas Sims must be returned to his master in Georgia.
The Party System in Crisis Parties need new issues after 1850 Democrats succeed Claim credit for the nation’s prosperity Promise to defend the Compromise of 1850 Whigs fail, become internally divided 1852: Whig Winfield Scott loses in a landslide to Democrat Franklin Pierce
TABLE 14.2 The Election of 1852
The Kansas-Nebraska Act Raises a Storm 1854: Douglas’s Kansas-Nebraska bill Apply popular sovereignty to Kansas, Nebraska Repeal Missouri Compromise line Act passes on sectional vote Northerners outraged, Democratic party split
The Kansas-Nebraska Act Raises a Storm (cont’d) Whig indecision causes party to disintegrate “Anti-Nebraska” candidates sweep, North Democrats become sole Southern party Free Soil Party grows, becomes Republicans President Pierce’s effort to acquire Cuba provokes antislavery firestorm
Map 14.2 The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 The Kansas-Nebraska Act applied the principle of popular sovereignty to voters in the Kansas and Nebraska territories, allowing them to decide for themselves whether to permit slavery in their territories. The act repudiated the Missouri Compromise of 1820, which had prohibited slavery in the territory of the Louisiana Purchase north of 36°30’ latitude.
Kansas and the Rise of the Republicans Republican party unites former Whigs, Know-Nothings, Free-Soilers, Northern Democrats Appeals to Northern sectional sympathies Defends West for white, small farmers from Slave Power
Kansas and the Rise of the Republicans (cont’d) “Bleeding Kansas” helps Republicans Struggle among abolitionists, proslavery forces for control of Kansas territory Republicans use conflict to appeal for voters
Sectional Division in the Election of 1856 Republican John C. Frémont seeks votes only in free states Know-Nothing Millard Fillmore champions sectional compromise Democrat James Buchanan defends the Compromise of 1850, carries election
Sectional Division in the Election of 1856 (cont’d) Election really 2 elections North: Freemont vs. Buchanan South: Fillmore vs. Buchanan Republicans make clear gains in North
TABLE 14.3 The Election of 1856
The House Divided 1857–1860,
Sectional quarrel becomes virtually irreconcilable under Buchanan Growing sense of deep cultural differences, opposing interests between North and South
Cultural Sectionalism Major Protestant denominations divide into Northern and Southern entities over slavery Southern literature romanticizes plantation life
Cultural Sectionalism (cont’d) South seeks intellectual, economic independence Northern intellectuals condemn slavery Uncle Tom’s Cabin an immense success in North
The Dred Scott Case Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857): Supreme Court can decide on slavery in the territories Court refuses narrow determination of case
The Dred Scott Case (cont’d) Major arguments Scott has no right to sue because neither he nor any other black, slave or free, is a citizen Congress has no authority to prohibit slavery in territories, Missouri Compromise unconstitutional
The Dred Scott Case (cont’d) Ruling supports Republican claim that an aggressive slave power dominated all branches of federal government
Debating the Morality of Slavery Lincoln Decries “Southern plot” to extend slavery Promises to work for slavery’s extinction Casts slavery as a moral problem Defends white supremacy in response to Douglas
Debating the Morality of Slavery Douglas accuses Lincoln of favoring equality Lincoln loses election, gains national reputation
Little Giant Stephen Douglas, the “Little Giant” from Illinois, won election to Congress when he was just 30, years old. Four years later, he was elected to the Senate.
The Election of 1860 Democratic Party splits: North: Stephen Douglas, South: John Breckenridge Constitutional Union Party: John Bell Abraham Lincoln nominated Platform to widen party’s appeal
A Rising Star Abraham Lincoln, shown here in his first full-length portrait. Although Lincoln lost the contest for the Senate seat in 1858, the Lincoln–Douglas debates established his reputation as a rising star of the Republican party.
The Election of 1860 (cont’d) Lincoln wins by carrying North South sees beginning of minority status in politics South launches secession movements
Map 14.3 The Election of 1860 Many observers have said that the election of 1860 was really two elections: one in the North and one in the South. From this map, can you see why the candidate who won the northern election became president?
Conclusion: Explaining the Crisis
Republicans a strict sectional party Fundamental conflict of ideals Southern ideals Paternalism, generosity, prosperity Slavery defended on the grounds of race
Conclusion: Explaining the Crisis Northern ideals Inspired by evangelical Protestantism Each person free and responsible Slavery tyrannical and immoral