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Chapter 11 The Coming of the Civil War

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1 Chapter 11 The Coming of the Civil War

2 Harriet Beecher Stowe

3 Stowe wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin.
The book became an instant bestseller and sold millions of copies in the U.S. and abroad. The story is set in the pre-Civil War South. Uncle Tom’s Cabin had powerful an effect during this time period. When Stowe met President Lincoln during the Civil War he said, “So this is the little lady who made this big war?” Stowe’s novel presented northern readers with a vivid picture of both slavery and the South that they could adopt as accurate, even if it was in fact exaggerated.

4 Southerners view of slavery was the plantation was like a large and happy family.
Southerners thought that Uncle Tom’s Cabin was insulting and lies about the South. Southerners said that northern industrialists took no personal responsibility for their workers. Northerners thought that slavery would ruin America.

5 Population North South 21.5 million 9 million
North was becoming more urban and more industrial than the South. The North was more than twice the size of the South. By 1860, nine of the country’s ten largest cities were located in the North.

6 Railroad miles Factories North--21,700 110,100 South--9,000 20,600
The biggest technological change was appearance of the railroads. In 1860 the North had 70% of the railroad track in the United States.


8 Samuel F. B. Morse invented the telegraph in 1844
Samuel F. B. Morse invented the telegraph in Telegraph wire was stung along railroad tracks. If the wire was strung along railroads, who do you think had the advantage in communicating? North

9 Compromise of 1850-two laws favored the North, two the South, and one law allowed the territories to decide. Laws that favored the North- Congress would admit California as a free state. Congress wold abolish the sale of enslaved people in Washington D.C. Laws that favored the South- Slavery itself wold remain legal in Washington, D.C. A Fugitive Slave Act wold order all citizens of the U.S. to assist in the return of enslaved people who had escaped from their owners. It wold also deny a jury trial to escaped slaves. Allowed the people of the territories of New Mexico and Utah wold decide for themselves whether slavery wold be legal.


11 The Coming of War After the Compromise of 1850, the Whig party will never again win a presidential election. Other political parties are created: Free Soil Party-abolitionists American Party-anti-Catholic and anti-immigrant

12 The American party was frequently called the “Know-nothings”.
They did very well in local elections.

13 Kansas-Nebraska Act In order to split up the disputed territory of Kansas/Nebraska in 1854, Stephen Douglas of Illinois proposed that they be allowed popular sovereignty. This would force the repeal of the Missouri Compromise.

14 After 9 months of debate, it passed, but everyone was angry about it
After 9 months of debate, it passed, but everyone was angry about it. Because of this, the Republican party was created as an anti-slavery, anti-South, strong central gov’t party in 1854.

15 The Republicans drew support from Free Soilers, Whigs, anti-slavery Democrats, and abolitionists.

16 Senator Stephen Douglas of Illinois introduced the Kansas-Nebraska Act.

17 The act supported the practice of popular sovereignty--letting the people in the territory decide whether slavery wold be allowed there. Douglas hoped the act would make North and South happy, but it turned out ugly for Douglas and the territories.

18 The Kansas-Nebraska Act brought violence between free soilers and pro-slavery.
Read the captions.

19 Bleeding Kansas On May 21, 1856, open violence erupted when pro-slavery Southerners looted newspaper offices and homes in Lawrence, KS.

20 John Brown, an evangelical anti-slavery CT native, believed that he was God’s chosen instrument and responded by gathering some men and killing 5 pro-slavery settlers with swords while their families watched. This would not help matters.

21 Rep. Preston Brooks (D-SC) beat Sen
Rep. Preston Brooks (D-SC) beat Sen. Charles Sumner (R-MA) senseless, because of some anti-slavery remarks he had made.

22 Brooks resigned from the House, but South Carolina immediately re-elected him. He was presented with numerous canes as gifts from well-wishers. Sumner suffered severe neurological damage and spent years recovering in Europe.

23 Dred Scott Scott v. Sanford
Have one student read what the outcome of the case was. Page

24 The Politics of Slavery
In the election of 1856, the Democrats nominated James Buchanan, who had been out of the country and was not associated with an opinion on Kansas, but their party platform favored the Compromise of 1850.

25 James Buchanan

26 The Republicans ran John C
The Republicans ran John C. Freemont, a Mex/Am war hero with no political experience. They supported a free Kansas. The American (Know-nothing) party ran Millard Filmore. They didn’t talk much about slavery. The whole election was about Kansas.

27 Buchanan won the election and promised to stop the North’s “agitation of slavery”. He hoped that the Supreme Court would do this, but they only made things worse. Two days after Buchanan’s inauguration, they handed down the Dred Scott decision.

28 Newspaper about the SC decision
Newspaper about the SC decision. Dred Scott and his wife are at the bottom.

29 In Scott v. Sanford, the slave Dred Scott sued his owner in Missouri, saying that since they had once lived in free states that they were free. The SC ruled that slaves were property and that people could not be deprived of property without the due process of the 5th Amendment.

30 Northerners were outraged
Northerners were outraged! This meant that Congress had no power to ban slavery anywhere. So the MO Compromise was illegal, and the Compromise of 1850 was illegal. “Slavery follows the flag!” Buchanan thought this would be the end of the slavery issue.

31 Kansas was unwilling to accept any SC ruling as law
Kansas was unwilling to accept any SC ruling as law. In 1857, a small proslavery group elected a Constitutional Congress to apply for KS statehood. The “LeCompton Constitution” was so offensive that anti-slave people refused to participate in the vote.

32 Remember kids, the LeCompton Constitution is evil! And say no to drugs!

33 Buchanan, hoping to end the debate on slavery, urged Congress to approve the LeCompton Constitution. This was too much even for Northern Democrats. Stephen Douglas (D-IL) spoke out against it. Congress sent it back to KS for a vote where it was defeated.

34 Lincoln - Douglas Debates

35 The Lincoln-Douglas debates.
Where are these statues at? What is Douglas’ nick name? Little Giant Douglas very important Senator. Lincoln- from Kentucky, postmaster, rail splitter, later moved to Springfield IL.--Practiced law. Debate covered all over the country.

36 Lincoln - Douglas Debates (1858)
Series of seven debates over slavery in new territories Illinois sharply divided on slavery Lincoln and Douglas were fighting for seat in Senate

37 Stephen Douglas “Little Giant” Thought whites superior to blacks
Denounced Lecompton Constitution

38 Abraham Lincoln Born log cabin in Kentucky
Taught himself - studied law Worked as postmaster, railsplitter Settled in Springfield, Illinois

39 Debates Focused on two principles of government - majority rule and minority rights

40 Douglas Beliefs Majority of people in state or territory can do what want Popular sovereignty Make own decision on slavery

41 Lincoln Beliefs Common man
Didn’t believe majority had right to infringe on minority’s right to life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness

42 Views on Slaves Both didn’t think Federal gov. had power to stop slavery Lincoln favored containing it to sectional areas until die out Lincoln viewed as moral issue

43 “A house divided within itself cannot stand”
Abraham Lincoln

44 Election Results for Senate
Lincoln lost election Began to get larger following because of moral values

45 John Brown’s Raid October 16, 1859 John Brown (and 22 others) raided a Federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry. Wanted to get weapons to give to enslaved blacks in Virginia.

46 Response to Raid Col. Robert E. Lee sent to subdue raid.
Killed half of Brown’s men. After surrendering, Brown tried found guilty for treason.

47 Aftermath of Raid Many northerners praised him as tool of justice against slavery Deepened distrust and anger between North and South

48 Nov. 6, 1860 Lincoln elected Pres
Nov. 6, 1860 Lincoln elected Pres. Without the support of the southern states



51 In the winter of the southern states started to secede and they formed the Confederate States.

52 In Feb. 9, 1861 Jefferson Davis was elected pres. of the Confederacy.

53 Have a student read page 335.

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