Samuel F. B. Morse invented the telegraph in Telegraph wire was stung along railroad tracks.
Compromise of 1850-two laws favored the North, two the South, and one law allowed the territories to decide.
The Coming of War After the Compromise of 1850, the Whig party will never again win a presidential election. Other political parties are created: Free Soil Party-abolitionists American Party-anti-Catholic and anti-immigrant
The American party was frequently called the “Know- nothings”. They did very well in local elections.
Kansas-Nebraska Act In order to split up the disputed territory of Kansas/Nebraska in 1854, Stephen Douglas of Illinois proposed that they be allowed popular sovereignty. This would force the repeal of the Missouri Compromise.
After 9 months of debate, it passed, but everyone was angry about it. Because of this, the Republican party was created as an anti-slavery, anti-South, strong central gov’t party in 1854.
The Republicans drew support from Free Soilers, Whigs, anti-slavery Democrats, and abolitionists.
Senator Stephen Douglas of Illinois introduced the Kansas- Nebraska Act.
The act supported the practice of popular sovereignty--letting the people in the territory decide whether slavery wold be allowed there.
The Kansas- Nebraska Act brought violence between free soilers and pro- slavery.
Bleeding Kansas On May 21, 1856, open violence erupted when pro-slavery Southerners looted newspaper offices and homes in Lawrence, KS.
John Brown, an evangelical anti-slavery CT native, believed that he was God’s chosen instrument and responded by gathering some men and killing 5 pro-slavery settlers with swords while their families watched. This would not help matters.
Rep. Preston Brooks (D-SC) beat Sen. Charles Sumner (R-MA) senseless, because of some anti-slavery remarks he had made.
Brooks resigned from the House, but South Carolina immediately re- elected him. He was presented with numerous canes as gifts from well- wishers. Sumner suffered severe neurological damage and spent years recovering in Europe.
Dred Scott Scott v. Sanford
The Politics of Slavery In the election of 1856, the Democrats nominated James Buchanan, who had been out of the country and was not associated with an opinion on Kansas, but their party platform favored the Compromise of 1850.
The Republicans ran John C. Freemont, a Mex/Am war hero with no political experience. They supported a free Kansas. The American (Know-nothing) party ran Millard Filmore. They didn’t talk much about slavery. The whole election was about Kansas.
Buchanan won the election and promised to stop the North’s “agitation of slavery”. He hoped that the Supreme Court would do this, but they only made things worse. Two days after Buchanan’s inauguration, they handed down the Dred Scott decision.
Newspaper about the SC decision. Dred Scott and his wife are at the bottom.
In Scott v. Sanford, the slave Dred Scott sued his owner in Missouri, saying that since they had once lived in free states that they were free. The SC ruled that slaves were property and that people could not be deprived of property without the due process of the 5th Amendment.
Northerners were outraged! This meant that Congress had no power to ban slavery anywhere. So the MO Compromise was illegal, and the Compromise of 1850 was illegal. “Slavery follows the flag!” Buchanan thought this would be the end of the slavery issue.
Kansas was unwilling to accept any SC ruling as law. In 1857, a small proslavery group elected a Constitutional Congress to apply for KS statehood. The “LeCompton Constitution” was so offensive that anti-slave people refused to participate in the vote.
Remember kids, the LeCompton Constitution is evil! And say no to drugs!
Buchanan, hoping to end the debate on slavery, urged Congress to approve the LeCompton Constitution. This was too much even for Northern Democrats. Stephen Douglas (D-IL) spoke out against it. Congress sent it back to KS for a vote where it was defeated.
The Lincoln-Douglas debates.
Lincoln - Douglas Debates (1858) Series of seven debates over slavery in new territories Illinois sharply divided on slavery Lincoln and Douglas were fighting for seat in Senate
Stephen Douglas “Little Giant” Thought whites superior to blacks Denounced Lecompton Constitution
Abraham Lincoln Born log cabin in Kentucky Taught himself - studied law Worked as postmaster, railsplitter Settled in Springfield, Illinois
Debates Focused on two principles of government - majority rule and minority rights
Douglas Beliefs Majority of people in state or territory can do what want Popular sovereignty Make own decision on slavery
Lincoln Beliefs Common man Didn’t believe majority had right to infringe on minority’s right to life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness
Views on Slaves Both didn’t think Federal gov. had power to stop slavery Lincoln favored containing it to sectional areas until die out Lincoln viewed as moral issue
“A house divided within itself cannot stand” Abraham Lincoln
Election Results for Senate Lincoln lost election Began to get larger following because of moral values
John Brown’s Raid October 16, 1859 John Brown (and 22 others) raided a Federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry. Wanted to get weapons to give to enslaved blacks in Virginia.
Response to Raid Col. Robert E. Lee sent to subdue raid. Killed half of Brown’s men. After surrendering, Brown tried found guilty for treason.
Aftermath of Raid Many northerners praised him as tool of justice against slavery Deepened distrust and anger between North and South
Nov. 6, 1860 Lincoln elected Pres. Without the support of the southern states
In the winter of the southern states started to secede and they formed the Confederate States.
In Feb. 9, 1861 Jefferson Davis was elected pres. of the Confederacy.