3Stowe wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin. The book became an instant bestseller and sold millions of copies in the U.S. and abroad.The story is set in the pre-Civil War South.Uncle Tom’s Cabin had powerful an effect during this time period.When Stowe met President Lincoln during the Civil War he said, “So this is the little lady who made this big war?”Stowe’s novel presented northern readers with a vivid picture of both slavery and the South that they could adopt as accurate, even if it was in fact exaggerated.
4Southerners view of slavery was the plantation was like a large and happy family. Southerners thought that Uncle Tom’s Cabin was insulting and lies about the South.Southerners said that northern industrialists took no personal responsibility for their workers.Northerners thought that slavery would ruin America.
5Population North South 21.5 million 9 million North was becoming more urban and more industrial than the South.The North was more than twice the size of the South.By 1860, nine of the country’s ten largest cities were located in the North.
6Railroad miles Factories North--21,700 110,100 South--9,000 20,600 The biggest technological change was appearance of the railroads.In 1860 the North had 70% of the railroad track in the United States.
8Samuel F. B. Morse invented the telegraph in 1844 Samuel F. B. Morse invented the telegraph in Telegraph wire was stung along railroad tracks.If the wire was strung along railroads, who do you think had the advantage in communicating? North
9Compromise of 1850-two laws favored the North, two the South, and one law allowed the territories to decide.Laws that favored the North-Congress would admit California as a free state.Congress wold abolish the sale of enslaved people inWashington D.C.Laws that favored the South-Slavery itself wold remain legal in Washington, D.C.A Fugitive Slave Act wold order all citizens of the U.S. toassist in the return of enslaved people who had escaped fromtheir owners. It wold also deny a jury trial to escaped slaves.Allowed the people of the territories of New Mexico and Utah wold decide for themselves whether slavery wold be legal.
11The Coming of WarAfter the Compromise of 1850, the Whig party will never again win a presidential election. Other political parties are created:Free Soil Party-abolitionists American Party-anti-Catholic and anti-immigrant
12The American party was frequently called the “Know-nothings”. They did very well in local elections.
13Kansas-Nebraska ActIn order to split up the disputed territory of Kansas/Nebraska in 1854, Stephen Douglas of Illinois proposed that they be allowed popular sovereignty. This would force the repeal of the Missouri Compromise.
14After 9 months of debate, it passed, but everyone was angry about it After 9 months of debate, it passed, but everyone was angry about it. Because of this, the Republican party was created as an anti-slavery, anti-South, strong central gov’t party in 1854.
15The Republicans drew support from Free Soilers, Whigs, anti-slavery Democrats, and abolitionists.
16Senator Stephen Douglas of Illinois introduced the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
17The act supported the practice of popular sovereignty--letting the people in the territory decide whether slavery wold be allowed there.Douglas hoped the act would make North and South happy, but it turned out ugly for Douglas and the territories.
18The Kansas-Nebraska Act brought violence between free soilers and pro-slavery. Read the captions.
19Bleeding KansasOn May 21, 1856, open violence erupted when pro-slavery Southerners looted newspaper offices and homes in Lawrence, KS.
20John Brown, an evangelical anti-slavery CT native, believed that he was God’s chosen instrument and responded by gathering some men and killing 5 pro-slavery settlers with swords while their families watched. This would not help matters.
21Rep. Preston Brooks (D-SC) beat Sen Rep. Preston Brooks (D-SC) beat Sen. Charles Sumner (R-MA) senseless, because of some anti-slavery remarks he had made.
22Brooks resigned from the House, but South Carolina immediately re-elected him. He was presented with numerous canes as gifts from well-wishers.Sumner suffered severe neurological damage and spent years recovering in Europe.
23Dred Scott Scott v. Sanford Have one student read what the outcome of the case was.Page
24The Politics of Slavery In the election of 1856, the Democrats nominated James Buchanan, who had been out of the country and was not associated with an opinion on Kansas, but their party platform favored the Compromise of 1850.
26The Republicans ran John C The Republicans ran John C. Freemont, a Mex/Am war hero with no political experience. They supported a free Kansas. The American (Know-nothing) party ran Millard Filmore. They didn’t talk much about slavery. The whole election was about Kansas.
27Buchanan won the election and promised to stop the North’s “agitation of slavery”. He hoped that the Supreme Court would do this, but they only made things worse. Two days after Buchanan’s inauguration, they handed down the Dred Scott decision.
28Newspaper about the SC decision Newspaper about the SC decision. Dred Scott and his wife are at the bottom.
29In Scott v. Sanford, the slave Dred Scott sued his owner in Missouri, saying that since they had once lived in free states that they were free. The SC ruled that slaves were property and that people could not be deprived of property without the due process of the 5th Amendment.
30Northerners were outraged Northerners were outraged! This meant that Congress had no power to ban slavery anywhere. So the MO Compromise was illegal, and the Compromise of 1850 was illegal. “Slavery follows the flag!” Buchanan thought this would be the end of the slavery issue.
31Kansas was unwilling to accept any SC ruling as law Kansas was unwilling to accept any SC ruling as law. In 1857, a small proslavery group elected a Constitutional Congress to apply for KS statehood. The “LeCompton Constitution” was so offensive that anti-slave people refused to participate in the vote.
32Remember kids,the LeComptonConstitution is evil!And say no to drugs!
33Buchanan, hoping to end the debate on slavery, urged Congress to approve the LeCompton Constitution. This was too much even for Northern Democrats. Stephen Douglas (D-IL) spoke out against it. Congress sent it back to KS for a vote where it was defeated.
35The Lincoln-Douglas debates. Where are these statues at?What is Douglas’ nick name? Little GiantDouglas very important Senator.Lincoln- from Kentucky, postmaster, rail splitter, later moved to Springfield IL.--Practiced law.Debate covered all over the country.
36Lincoln - Douglas Debates (1858) Series of seven debates over slavery in new territoriesIllinois sharply divided on slaveryLincoln and Douglas were fighting for seat in Senate
37Stephen Douglas “Little Giant” Thought whites superior to blacks Denounced Lecompton Constitution
38Abraham Lincoln Born log cabin in Kentucky Taught himself - studied lawWorked as postmaster, railsplitterSettled in Springfield, Illinois
39DebatesFocused on two principles of government - majority rule and minority rights
40Douglas BeliefsMajority of people in state or territory can do what wantPopular sovereigntyMake own decision on slavery
41Lincoln Beliefs Common man Didn’t believe majority had right to infringe on minority’s right to life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness
42Views on SlavesBoth didn’t think Federal gov. had power to stop slaveryLincoln favored containing it to sectional areas until die outLincoln viewed as moral issue
43“A house divided within itself cannot stand” Abraham Lincoln
44Election Results for Senate Lincoln lost electionBegan to get larger following because of moral values
45John Brown’s RaidOctober 16, 1859 John Brown (and 22 others) raided a Federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry.Wanted to get weapons to give to enslaved blacks in Virginia.
46Response to Raid Col. Robert E. Lee sent to subdue raid. Killed half of Brown’s men.After surrendering, Brown tried found guilty for treason.
47Aftermath of RaidMany northerners praised him as tool of justice against slaveryDeepened distrust and anger between North and South
48Nov. 6, 1860 Lincoln elected Pres Nov. 6, 1860 Lincoln elected Pres. Without the support of the southern states