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Chapter 8teen * Presented By: Isabella and Steven.

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1 Chapter 8teen * Presented By: Isabella and Steven

2 President Taylor had helped the cause of Concession (as by granting something as a right, accepting something as true, or acknowledging defeat) by dying It took Congress 7 months to pass the Compromise of 1850 "Fire-eaters" of the south hated the idea and had boycotted Northern goods. Breaking the Congressional Logjam

3 Defeat and Doom for the Whigs Franklin Pierce accepted into the slavery wing of the Democratic party His platform revived the Democrats’ commitment to territorial expansion as pursued by President Polk and endorsed the Compromise of 1850 Compromise of 1850 – California is a free state, New Mexico and Utah to popular sovereignty, ended the slave trade in Washington DC, and introduced a more stringent fugitive slave law The Whig platform praised the Compromise of 1850 as a lasting arrangement, less enthusiastically than the Democrats though Antislavery Whigs of the North had accepted Scott as their nominee but absolutely deplored or disapproved his platform – which endorsed the hated Fugitive Slave Law

4 Defdeat and Doom for the Whigs ( continuation ) Southern Whigs doubted Scott’s loyalty ti the Compromise of 1850 and the Fugitive Slave Law, accepted the platforn but spat on the candidate – unlike the northerners who spat on the platform but accepted the candidate The election of 1852 was fraught with frightening significance, it marked the effective end of the disorganized Whig party Whigs had won only to presidential elections (1840 and 1848) & both with wat heroes, but finally ended with the disgrateful Fugitive Slave Law Henry Clay and Daniel Webster who were both leaders and statesmen died during the 1852 campaign but the good they had done to the nation lived long after their death – the preservation of a united United States.

5 The Senate’s deliberations over the Compromise of Henry Clay of Kentucky, Daniel Webster of Massachusetts, and John C. Calhoun of South Carolina. Webster called for a compromise to preserve the Union while Calhoun argued that the Union could only be preserved if Northerners respected the Southern institutions including slavery. In this painting Clay has the floor, Calhoun stands third from the right, and Daniel Webster, head in hand sits on the left.

6 Expansionist Stirrings South of the Border After the victory over the Mexican War, Gold had been discovered in California o Led to the California Gold Rush o Atlantic-to-Pacific was the only route o This troubled the two American continents because whoever held imperial control had control over all maritime nations of the united nations New Granada and the United States had felt unsecured by the British appearance within the area in the port of San Juan del Norte o It guaranteed the American right to transport across the isthmus in return for Washington's pledge  This provided a legal cover for the assertion of American control over the Panama Canal Zone in 1903

7 Expansionist Stirrings South of the Border (cont.)  Also led to the construction of the First "Transcontinental" railroad The Clayton-Bulwer Treaty of 1850 avoided a "full-blown" confrontation by stating that neither America nor Britain would fortify or seek exclusive control over any future isthmian waterway o This was later rescinded by the Hay Paunceforte Treaty of 1901  negotiated in 1899 and 1901 by Secretary of State, John Hay and British Ambassador, Julian Paunceforte Southern "slavocrats" strive for southward expansion for new slave trade

8 Expansionist Stirrings South of the Border (cont. II) President Polk offered $100,0000 for the land of Cuba o Cuba was sugar-rich o Spaniards rejected the offer and said they would rather see the island sink into the sea rather than have it in the hands of the hated Yankees

9 Pacific Railroad Promoters and the Gadsden Purchase Another legacy of the Mexican War was transportation problems with California and Oregon being eight thousand miles west of the nation's capitol Sea routes to and from the Isthmus of Panama were too long and traveling by wagon was slow and dangerous Land transportation was so imperative or absolutely necessary / required, that camels were being used as their way of transportation from the west to the east, but that didn't work out as planned Decisions were made to have railroad routes to the Pacific Coast put in the north, since they'd reap rich rewards in wealth, population and influence The southerners then were eager to extend railroads through the southwestern territory all the way to California

10 Pacific Railroad Promoters and the Gadsden Purchase ( continuation ) The best railway route ran slightly south of the Mexican border Secretary of War Jefferson Davis appointed James Gadsden as minister of Mexico, in 1853 he negotiated a treaty ceding to the United States the Gadsden Purchase. The Gadsden Purchase acquired additional land from Mexico for $10 million to facilitate the construction of a southern transcontinental railroad Many schemes proposed in Congress for organizing territories were denied by the Southerners - they didn't want to help or facilitate northern railroads

11 Douglass Kansas-Nebraska Scheme Senator of Illinois, Stephen A. Douglas wanted to pass the Kansas-Nebraska Act o This would divide the Nebraska Terr. into two sections; Kansas and Nebraska o His goal was to break the North-South over deadlock over westward expansion o The status of slavery would depend on popular sovereignty  Kansas would remain a Slave-State while Nebraska would become a Free-State The Missouri Compromise of 1820 had forbidden slavery in the Nebraskan Terr. which was located North of the 36°30' line

12 Douglass Kansas-Nebraska Scheme (cont.) Douglass` foes accused him of angling for presidency in 1856 He declared repeatedly that he didn't care whether slavery was voted up or down the territories Northerners felt the Missouri Compromise as an intolerable breach of faith, that they'd resist to tall future southern demands for slave territories As Abraham Lincoln had said, North wants to give the West " a clean bed, with no snakes in it. " Northerners saw Douglass as a traitor for not doing much to stop slavery, but his population still remained in the Democratic Party and in Illinois as a stronghold of population sovereignty - the belief that the legitimacy of the state is created by the will of its people

13 Congress Legislates a Civil War The Kansas-Nebraska Act was a "curtain-raiser to a terrible drama" o It wrecked the Compromises of 1820 and 1850 o It led to a Civil War The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 caused more tension between the North and South The new Republican Party had sprung up in the Middle- West, mostly in Wisconsin and Michigan o The party protested against slavery In result, the Republican Party was not allowed in the Southern areas of the Mason-Dixon Line

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