2 Introduction Why did the Compromise of 1850 come apart so quickly? How did the Fugitive Slave Act and the Election of 1852 contribute to the unraveling of the compromise?What effects did the Kansas- Nebraska Act and the fighting in Kansas have on the Whig , Democratic and Republican parties?How did the Republicans’ free soil stance bring northerners together in opposition to the South?Why did Southerners believe by 1860 that the North intended to end slavery everywhere in the nation?
3 Zachary Taylor at the Helm Encouraged California to apply for statehood as a free stateSoutherners were horrified because with the addition of California and possible New Mexico as Free States the balance of Power in Congress would be thrown off.
4 Henry Clay Proposes a Compromise Admit California as a Free StateDivide the rest of the Mexican cession into the New Mexico and Utah territories, slavery determined by residentsSettle border dispute between Texas and New Mexico in New Mexico’s favorCompensate Texas by having the federal government pay state’s public debtAllow slavery to continue in Washington DC but ban slave trading thereNew Fugitive slave law
5 Assessing the Compromise Compromise did not settle sectional differencesFugitive Slave Act backfired
6 Enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Act Federal Marshalls were required to look for runawaysThere was widespread opposition in the NorthNorthern mobs attacked Marshalls to rescue fugitivesVigilante Committees helped runaways escape to CanadaNine States passed personal liberty laws designed to interfere with enforcement of the ActSouth resented North’s refusal to live up to the terms of the Act
7 Uncle Tom’s Cabin Harriet Beecher Stowe Best seller in the North Banned in the SouthCriticism was that no one slave would endure all of those hardships, The author had never been to the SouthAroused sympathy and anti-Southern feelings in the North
8 The Election of 1852Whigs nominated General Winfield Scott to run against Democrat Franklin Pierce for PresidentDemocrats rallied behind compromise and popular sovereignty.Northern and Southern Whigs are torn apart by sectional issues
9 The Collapse of the Two Party System 1850’s issues were banking, internal improvements, tariffs and temperanceThose were pushed aside by the debate over the extension of slaveryWhigs were more internally divided that the Democrats
10 The Kansas-Nebraska Act Stephen Douglas proposed the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854Douglas wanted to promote the building of the Transcontinental RailroadTo gain Southern support for the railroad Douglas proposed that the Missouri Compromise would be repealed, Kansas and Nebraska were organized into two territories and the issue of slavery would be determined by popular sovereignty
11 The Surge of Free SoilDouglas was surprised by the opposition in the NorthNortherners saw the Act as a plot to spread slavery into the Louisiana TerritoryFree Soil sentiment grew in the NorthNortherners were not particularly anti-slave, they wanted the territories for poor white American settlement and feared that slavery would discourage free labor.
12 The Ebbing of Manifest Destiny Enthusiasm for expansion began to wane because northerners saw expansion as a plot to advance slavery and slave holding states/political powerFranklin Pierce eventually gave up plans to purchase Cuba because of opposition
13 The Whigs Disintegrate 1854-1855 Southern Whigs joined with Democrats to pass the Kansas-Nebraska ActNorthern Whigs led by William Seward and Free Soil Democrats turned to the American Party (Know Nothings) and then the New Republicans. Whig Party fell apart
14 The Rise and Fall of the Know Nothings 1853-1856 Evolved from a secret nativist society called the Order of the Star Spangled BannerAnti-Catholic, Anti-immigrant, Anti expansion of slaveryPope and Slavery were plotting to overthrow American Democratic RepublicKnow Nothings scored victories in Northern Cities and StatesNorthern nativist left the party to join the new Republican Party and the Party declinedThe Rise and Fall of the Know Nothings
15 The Republican Party and the Crisis in Kansas 1855-1856 First appeared in Northern States in protest of the Kansas-Nebraska ActFormed a coalition between the Know Nothings, Northern Whigs and Northern Democrats who wanted to restore the Missouri CompromiseFree Soilers strengthened by violence in Kansas
16 The Election of 1856Republicans nominated John C. Fremont- exclude slavery from new territoriesDemocrats nominated James Buchanan- popular sovereigntyKnow Nothings nominated Millard FillmoreBuchanan won but Republicans carried many of the Northern states
17 The Crisis of the Union 1857-1860 Dred Scott- Supreme Court ruled that blacks slave or free were not citizens of theUS. Missouri Compromise was unconstitutionalCongress had no right to exclude slavery from the territoriesAny laws denying slavery was a violation of the 5th Amendment protection of property and property holders
18 The Lecompton Constitution Proslavery constitution of the Kansas TerritoryBuchanan accepted the constitution and asked Congress to grant Kansas statehoodStephen Douglas denounced the constitution as being in violation of the Kansas-Nebraska Act and opposed Kansas gaining statehood
19 The Lincoln- Douglas Debates 1858 Stephen Douglas runs for re-electionAbraham Lincoln chosen by the Republicans to run against Douglas for the SenateLincoln attacked slavery as morally evil but denied that Congress had the right to abolish it. He stuck to the position of barring slavery from the territoriesFreeport Doctrine- Douglas said that slavery would only exist in places that supported it. Douglas won but his views split the Democratic party
20 The Legacy of Harper’s Ferry John Brown attacks arsenal at Harper’s Ferry VirginiaPlan is to collect weapons, pass them out to slave army and attack the SouthRumors in the South were that the Republicans and Abolitionists had backed the attack and were plotting to incite Slave Rebellion
22 The South Contemplates Secession Conversations of secession became more frequent as Southerners began to look for ways to protect themselvesNorthern opposition to the slavery in Kansas and Fugitive Slave Act as unconstitutional and an offense to the SouthSome argued that separation from the North would allow the South to prosper economically and grow by taking more territory in the Caribbean and West
24 Election of 1860Republicans broadened their appeal by supporting a tariff bill, internal improvements and the Homestead ActAbraham Lincoln is nominated to run for the PresidencyNorthern and Southern Democrats splitNorthern Democrats nominate Stephen Douglas, Southern Democrats nominate John C. Breckinridge who insisted that Congress must protect slavery and slaveholdersConstitutional Party nominates John Bell.Lincoln wins only 39% of popular vote but majority of electoral votes/none from the South
25 The Movement for Secession Believing that a Republican President would impose protective tariffs that the South saw as unfair and restrictions on slavery the Deep South began to secede before Lincoln took officeSouth Carolina- December 4th 1860Alabama, Mississippi, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana and Texas followFebruary 4th 1861 delegates from the seceding states meet in Montgomery Alabama to draw up the Confederate Constitution and form the Confederate States of America
26 The Search for Compromise Kentucky Senator John Crittenden proposes a compromise to bring the Deep South back into the UnionIt included Constitutional Amendments that the federal government would never interfere with slavery and renewed the Missouri Compromise to included territories added through Manifest DestinyLincoln rejected the Crittenden Compromise because he would not abandon his free-soil promise
27 The Coming of WarSoon after Lincoln’s inauguration, the US military stationed at Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor asked for reinforcements and suppliesThe Confederate officials called for US military to leave all installations in the South.Lincoln refused to allow Fort Sumter to be abandoned to the Confederate Government and attempted to resupply the fort to force the hand of the South.Confederate forces bombarded the fort from April 12-14th of 1861 until the defenders of the fort surrenderedLincoln called for 75,000 volunteers to subdue the rebellion in the SouthVirginia, North Carolina, Arkansas and Tennessee declared secession rather than send troops to fight sister southern states