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From Compromise to Secession

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1 From Compromise to Secession
Chapter 14

2 Introduction Why did the Compromise of 1850 come apart so quickly?
How did the Fugitive Slave Act and the Election of 1852 contribute to the unraveling of the compromise? What effects did the Kansas- Nebraska Act and the fighting in Kansas have on the Whig , Democratic and Republican parties? How did the Republicans’ free soil stance bring northerners together in opposition to the South? Why did Southerners believe by 1860 that the North intended to end slavery everywhere in the nation?

3 Zachary Taylor at the Helm
Encouraged California to apply for statehood as a free state Southerners were horrified because with the addition of California and possible New Mexico as Free States the balance of Power in Congress would be thrown off.

4 Henry Clay Proposes a Compromise
Admit California as a Free State Divide the rest of the Mexican cession into the New Mexico and Utah territories, slavery determined by residents Settle border dispute between Texas and New Mexico in New Mexico’s favor Compensate Texas by having the federal government pay state’s public debt Allow slavery to continue in Washington DC but ban slave trading there New Fugitive slave law

5 Assessing the Compromise
Compromise did not settle sectional differences Fugitive Slave Act backfired

6 Enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Act
Federal Marshalls were required to look for runaways There was widespread opposition in the North Northern mobs attacked Marshalls to rescue fugitives Vigilante Committees helped runaways escape to Canada Nine States passed personal liberty laws designed to interfere with enforcement of the Act South resented North’s refusal to live up to the terms of the Act

7 Uncle Tom’s Cabin Harriet Beecher Stowe Best seller in the North
Banned in the South Criticism was that no one slave would endure all of those hardships, The author had never been to the South Aroused sympathy and anti-Southern feelings in the North

8 The Election of 1852 Whigs nominated General Winfield Scott to run against Democrat Franklin Pierce for President Democrats rallied behind compromise and popular sovereignty. Northern and Southern Whigs are torn apart by sectional issues

9 The Collapse of the Two Party System
1850’s issues were banking, internal improvements, tariffs and temperance Those were pushed aside by the debate over the extension of slavery Whigs were more internally divided that the Democrats

10 The Kansas-Nebraska Act
Stephen Douglas proposed the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854 Douglas wanted to promote the building of the Transcontinental Railroad To gain Southern support for the railroad Douglas proposed that the Missouri Compromise would be repealed, Kansas and Nebraska were organized into two territories and the issue of slavery would be determined by popular sovereignty

11 The Surge of Free Soil Douglas was surprised by the opposition in the North Northerners saw the Act as a plot to spread slavery into the Louisiana Territory Free Soil sentiment grew in the North Northerners were not particularly anti-slave, they wanted the territories for poor white American settlement and feared that slavery would discourage free labor.

12 The Ebbing of Manifest Destiny
Enthusiasm for expansion began to wane because northerners saw expansion as a plot to advance slavery and slave holding states/political power Franklin Pierce eventually gave up plans to purchase Cuba because of opposition

13 The Whigs Disintegrate 1854-1855
Southern Whigs joined with Democrats to pass the Kansas-Nebraska Act Northern Whigs led by William Seward and Free Soil Democrats turned to the American Party (Know Nothings) and then the New Republicans. Whig Party fell apart

14 The Rise and Fall of the Know Nothings 1853-1856
Evolved from a secret nativist society called the Order of the Star Spangled Banner Anti-Catholic, Anti-immigrant, Anti expansion of slavery Pope and Slavery were plotting to overthrow American Democratic Republic Know Nothings scored victories in Northern Cities and States Northern nativist left the party to join the new Republican Party and the Party declined The Rise and Fall of the Know Nothings

15 The Republican Party and the Crisis in Kansas 1855-1856
First appeared in Northern States in protest of the Kansas-Nebraska Act Formed a coalition between the Know Nothings, Northern Whigs and Northern Democrats who wanted to restore the Missouri Compromise Free Soilers strengthened by violence in Kansas

16 The Election of 1856 Republicans nominated John C. Fremont- exclude slavery from new territories Democrats nominated James Buchanan- popular sovereignty Know Nothings nominated Millard Fillmore Buchanan won but Republicans carried many of the Northern states

17 The Crisis of the Union 1857-1860
Dred Scott- Supreme Court ruled that blacks slave or free were not citizens of the US. Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional Congress had no right to exclude slavery from the territories Any laws denying slavery was a violation of the 5th Amendment protection of property and property holders

18 The Lecompton Constitution
Proslavery constitution of the Kansas Territory Buchanan accepted the constitution and asked Congress to grant Kansas statehood Stephen Douglas denounced the constitution as being in violation of the Kansas-Nebraska Act and opposed Kansas gaining statehood

19 The Lincoln- Douglas Debates 1858
Stephen Douglas runs for re-election Abraham Lincoln chosen by the Republicans to run against Douglas for the Senate Lincoln attacked slavery as morally evil but denied that Congress had the right to abolish it. He stuck to the position of barring slavery from the territories Freeport Doctrine- Douglas said that slavery would only exist in places that supported it. Douglas won but his views split the Democratic party

20 The Legacy of Harper’s Ferry
John Brown attacks arsenal at Harper’s Ferry Virginia Plan is to collect weapons, pass them out to slave army and attack the South Rumors in the South were that the Republicans and Abolitionists had backed the attack and were plotting to incite Slave Rebellion


22 The South Contemplates Secession
Conversations of secession became more frequent as Southerners began to look for ways to protect themselves Northern opposition to the slavery in Kansas and Fugitive Slave Act as unconstitutional and an offense to the South Some argued that separation from the North would allow the South to prosper economically and grow by taking more territory in the Caribbean and West


24 Election of 1860 Republicans broadened their appeal by supporting a tariff bill, internal improvements and the Homestead Act Abraham Lincoln is nominated to run for the Presidency Northern and Southern Democrats split Northern Democrats nominate Stephen Douglas, Southern Democrats nominate John C. Breckinridge who insisted that Congress must protect slavery and slaveholders Constitutional Party nominates John Bell. Lincoln wins only 39% of popular vote but majority of electoral votes/none from the South

25 The Movement for Secession
Believing that a Republican President would impose protective tariffs that the South saw as unfair and restrictions on slavery the Deep South began to secede before Lincoln took office South Carolina- December 4th 1860 Alabama, Mississippi, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana and Texas follow February 4th 1861 delegates from the seceding states meet in Montgomery Alabama to draw up the Confederate Constitution and form the Confederate States of America

26 The Search for Compromise
Kentucky Senator John Crittenden proposes a compromise to bring the Deep South back into the Union It included Constitutional Amendments that the federal government would never interfere with slavery and renewed the Missouri Compromise to included territories added through Manifest Destiny Lincoln rejected the Crittenden Compromise because he would not abandon his free-soil promise

27 The Coming of War Soon after Lincoln’s inauguration, the US military stationed at Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor asked for reinforcements and supplies The Confederate officials called for US military to leave all installations in the South. Lincoln refused to allow Fort Sumter to be abandoned to the Confederate Government and attempted to resupply the fort to force the hand of the South. Confederate forces bombarded the fort from April 12-14th of 1861 until the defenders of the fort surrendered Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers to subdue the rebellion in the South Virginia, North Carolina, Arkansas and Tennessee declared secession rather than send troops to fight sister southern states

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