3John Steuart Curry painted the mural “Tragic Prelude” in the State Capital in Topeka, depicting John Brown and the anti-slavery movement in the Kansas Territory
4John Brown- Iconic Figure University of KansasKansas State University
5Bleeding Kansas“God sees it. I have only a short time to live – only one death to die, and I will die fighting for this cause. There will be no more peace in this land until slavery is done for. I will give them something else to do than to extend slave territory. I will carry the war into Africa.” ~ John Brown to his son, while seeing Osawatomie burn, August 30, 1856
6John Brown ( )Abolitionist willing to use violence to end slaveryAfter leaving Kansas Terr., he led raid on the federal arsenal in Harper’s Ferry in VirginiaConvicted and hanged for murder, treason and slave insurrection against the state of Virginia.Became a martyr for the abolitionist cause
7Missouri Compromise of 1820 Allowed two new states to enter UnionMaine become a free state; Missouri a slave stateBanned slavery in the lands of the Louisiana Purchase, including the land that would become Kansas
9Compromise of 1850California entered Union as free state; but the Fugitive Slave Act would be adopted.Fugitive Slave Act – all citizens were required to assist in the recovery of slaves and fugitive slaves were denied the right of jury trial.
11Stephen Douglas US Senator from Illinois known as the “Little Giant” Helped pass Compromise of 1850 and Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854He was an expansionist and promoted popular sovereignty
12Popular sovereignty - people who lived in the territories were given the right to decide on the issue of slaveryExpansionist - the US should expand boundaries to include much of the continent
13Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) One of the most important documents in US history; consequences led to the Civil War ( )Repealed the Missouri Compromise ban on slaveryOpened up the Kansas and Nebraska territories for settlement.Those opposed to slavery opposed K-N Act.
14Proslavery or Antislavery Abolitionists - people who thought slavery immoral and should be abolished without delayFree-Staters – people who did want slavery to expand into the territoriesProslavery settlers founded Atchison
15Name Calling!Border ruffians – Missourians who crossed over the border to influence outcome of the slavery issue in the Kansas TerritoryBushwhackers - Missourians who jumped the border to make raids on antislavery settlementsJayhawkers - Kansans who raided Missouri
16The Kansas Emigrant Song by John Greenleaf Whittier Whittier wrote poetry to campaign against slaveryWrote The Kansas Emigrant Song to persuade antislavery people to settle in Kansas Terr.
17The Kansas Emigrant Song We cross the prairie as of old, The pilgrims crossed the sea, To make the West, as they the East, The homestead of the free. We go to the rear of a wall of men On Freedom’s Southern line. And plant beside the cotton tree, The rugged Northern pine!
18The Kansas Emigrant Song Unbearing, like the ark of old,The Bible in our vanWe go to test the truth of GodAgainst the fraud of man.No pause, nor rest, save where the streamsThat freed the Kansas run,Save where our Pilgrim [banner]Shall flout the setting sun!
19Kansas Emigrant Song What imagery and symbols does Whittier use? What are the references to North and South?What does the word “van” mean in this context?Assignment: Write a verse trying to persuade people to come to Kansas
20Bleeding KansasNational attention focused on the violence over slavery, giving rise to the name Bleeding KansasAbout 50 people lost their lives during the territorial period
21Bleeding Kansas The Wakarusa War and the Siege of Lawrence Lawrence was under siege for a weekAttack on Lawrence made national news
22Bleeding KansasIf any man or woman stand in your way, blow them to [h#**] with a cold chunk of lead!” ~ Sen. Atchison , urging on proslavery forces as they pillaged Lawrence
23Bleeding Kansas The Pottawatomie Massacre (May 24-25, 1856) Reacting to the sacking of Lawrence by pro-slavery forces and the caning of Senator Sumner, Brown and other abolitionists killed five pro-slavery activists in Pottawatomie Creek in Franklin County by hacking them to death.Brown emerged as national figureThis brutal act plunged the Kansas Territory further into civil war
24Bleeding Kansas and John Brown “He [John Brown] said if a man stood between him and what he considered right, he would take his life as coolly as he would eat his breakfast. His actions show what he is. Always restless, he seems never to sleep. With an eye like a snake, he looks like a demon.” ~ Affidavit quote of Mahala Doyle, widow of James P. Doyle
25Timeline1820 – Missouri Compromise bans slavery in what would be the Kansas Terr.1850 – Compromise of 1850 allows California to enter Union as a free state . The Fugitive Slave Act is passed.1854 – Kansas- Nebraska Act creates two new territories and allows settlers to choose whether slavery will be allowed there1855 – Bogus Legislature meets. The Wakarusa War erupts. The Topeka Constitutional Convention is held1856 – Attack on Lawrence and Pottawatomie Massacre1857 – Dred Scott Decision. Supreme Court rules slaves are not citizens of the US. Lecompton Constitutional Convention is held.
26Slavery in KansasUnderground Railroad - a series of secret safe houses that assisted escaping slavesAnn Clark – a slave from Lecompton who escaped on the Underground Railroad.
27Bleeding Kansas Marais des Cygnes Massacre (May 19, 1858) Proslavery forces captured 11 men and shot them. Five died, five were wounded and one escaped by pretending to be deadLast major violent act in Kansas Territory
28Pony ExpressRan between St. Joseph, MO, and Sacramento, CA, for about 2,000 miles; 11 stations in Kansas TerritoryEach rider rode about 33 milesLasted 18 months, from April 1860 until October (Closed days after transcontinental telegraph connected Omaha to Sacramento)
30James Lane ( )Antislavery supporter who organized 400 settlers from northern states to come to Kansas Terr.Lane’s Army of the NorthOne of the first U.S. senators from Kansas
31James LaneBefore moving to Kansas Territory, Lane voted for the Kansas-Nebraska Act as a U.S. representative from IndianaLane called slave owners “wolves, snakes, devils”
32David Rice Atchison (1807-1886) US senator from Missouri who encouraged proslavery forces to come to the Kansas Terr. and vote illegallyNamesake of Atchison, Kansas, a town originally settled by slaveholding pioneersHe said, “The prosperity of the whole South depends on the Kansas struggle.”
33Charles Robinson ( )Antislavery advocate; led settlers to Kansas from Massachusetts with the New England Emigrant Aid CompanyElected governor at Topeka and Wyandotte conventionsFirst Governor of the state of Kansas
34Charles Robinson“It is for us to choose for ourselves, and for those who shall come after us, what institutions shall bless or curse our beautiful Kansas. Shall we have freedom for all her people, and consequent prosperity, or slavery for a part, with the blight and mildew inseparable from it?”~ Charles Robinson
35Samuel Jones ( )Proslavery sheriff of Douglas County attacked Lawrence and burned down newspaper offices and other buildings Referring to the destruction of Lawrence, Jones was quoted as saying, “This is the happiest day of my life, I assure you.”
36Clarina Nichols ( )Abolitionist who fought for the rights of womenCame to Kansas Terr. with the New England Emigrant Aid SocietyGuest of the Wyandotte Constitutional ConventionHelped women get right to vote in local school board elections
37Andrew Reeder ( )President Franklin Pierce appointed him first governor of Kansas TerritoryBelieved in popular sovereigntySided with the free-staters, which angered proslavery forcesEnemies charged him with treason and forced to escape in disguise
38Topeka Constitution (1855) First ConstitutionWritten by Free-Staters and prohibited slaveryApproved by large majority; (Proslavery forces refused to vote)Failed to pass in the U.S Senate by two votes
39Lecompton Constitution (1857) Second ConstitutionWritten by proslavery people; (Free-Staters refused to vote)President James Buchanan submitted Lecompton Const. to U.S. Congress and recommended Kansas be admitted as a slave stateU.S. Congress voted against
40Leavenworth Constitution (1858) Third constitutionWritten by Free-State forces opposed to slaveryAll men (white, black, Indian) would have the right to vote but not womenPassed in Kansas Terr., but U.S. Congress voted against
41Wyandotte Constitution (1859) Fourth and final ConstitutionWyandotte Const. made Kansas a free stateRestricted voting rights and militia service to white men (but women gained property rights)Kansas did not (could not) join Union until southern states began seceding prior to the Civil War.The Wyandotte Const. passed Oct. 4, 1859, and Kansas became the 34th state on Jan. 29, 1861
42From Territory to Statehood To become the state of Kansas,The people of the Kansas Territory had to write a constitutionThe U.S. Congress had to accept the constitution.Constitutional conventions took place in Topeka, Lecompton, Leavenworth and finally Wyandotte
43Bleeding Kansas and Election Fraud “About one thousand Missourians arrived in Lawrence to vote, and vote. Mrs. Robinson says: ‘they were armed with guns, pistols, rifles and bowie-knifes. They brought two cannon loaded with musket balls.”~ From the Annals of Kansas, Daniel W. Wilder, 1875
44Bleeding Kansas“We will before six months rolls around have the Devil to play in Kansas…We are organizing to meet their organization. We will be compelled to shoot, burn an hang, but the thing will soon be over.”~ Senator Atchison to U.S. Secretary of War Jefferson Davis, Sept. 24, 1854
45~ Abraham Lincoln ~ Thoughts on John Brown “ Old John Brown has just been executed for treason against the state. We cannot object, even though he agreed with us in thinking slavery wrong. That cannot excuse violence, bloodshed, and treason. It could avail him nothing that he might think himself right.” ~ Abraham Lincoln, speaking in Leavenworth , Kansas Territory, Dec. 3, 1859
46Sen. Charles Sumner: The “Crime Against Kansas” In 1856 Sen. Charles Sumner of Massachusetts spoke about the “Crime against Kansas” - opening up the slavery issue in the Kansas TerritoryHe called Sen. Stephen Douglas of Illinois a “noise-some, squat, and nameless animal… not a proper model for an American senator.” Sumner also verbally attacked Sen. Andrew Butler of South Carolina for being proslavery.Rep. Preston Brooks of South Carolina (the nephew of Butler) entered the Senate days later and hit Sumner with a cane so severely, he beat unconscious Sumner, who did not recover for nearly three years.
48Slavery and The Dred Scott Case A slave named Dred Scott sued the US Government for his freedomSupreme Court ruled in 1857 that Scott and others of African ancestry (free or slave) were not US citizensCourt ruled it unconstitutional for the US Gov. to prohibit slavery in the territories, incl. the Kansas Terr.The decision alarmed mostly antislavery peopleDred Scott
49Slavery and the Underground Railroad Underground Railroad – Network of safe houses that helped slaves escapeSuccess of Underground Railroad depended on secrecyAnn Clark – slave from Lecompton, Kansas, who escaped on the Underground Railroad
50Why Emigrate to Kansas? Isaac and Ellen Goodnow Motivated to fight against slavery, the Goodnows and their company of 200 settlers came to Kansas TerritoryIsaac founded the college that became Kansas State UniversityBuilt in what became Manhattan, their house is a State Historic Site
51Why Emigrate to Kansas?Most people came to Kansas for cheap land and economic opportunities (not for pro or anti-slavery causes)Preemption Act - a person could claim up to 160 acres; obligated to pay $1.25 per acre after public land surveyThousands came to Kansas seeking fortunes in goldOthers came to Kansas to push their proslavery and antislavery beliefs
52Why Emigrate to Kansas?Thousands came to Kansas Territory to seek fortune in goldWestern boundary extended to the Rocky Mountains“Pike’s Peak or Bust”Mr.Henke likes Mary best!
53Why Emigrate to Kansas? New England Emigrant Aid Company Antislavery group; received financial and moral support from New England abolitionistsUnder guidance from the NEEAC, Charles Robinson led settlers from Massachusetts to Kansas TerritoryClarina Nichols came to Kansas Territory with the NEEAC
54“Beecher Bibles”Henry Ward Beecher – abolitionist preacher from ConnecticutAntislavery forces used rifles sometimes called “Beecher Bibles” because the rifles were shipped to Kansas in boxes labeled “bibles”