Presentation on theme: "APA Format Educational Video Part 1: Appearance, In-Text Citations The APA Manual 6 th edition Using the APA Manual (6 th edition) in the College Setting."— Presentation transcript:
APA Style Difficult to learn—at first Mastery comes with repeated use Important to learn, for several reasons Credit to sources Connecting to professional community Aids in communication
Changes in the Sixth edition (Second printing) updated “running head” (See pp. 229; 41-59) different “Author” line in reference entry for sources with more than six authors (see p. 51; p. 198) Ayer, C., Bye, E., Carr, T. W., Freed, R. T., Gary, I. R., Hunn, C. E., Jay, R. T., …Zenn, R.E. less necessary to cite Retrieval date for Internet source (see pp. 200-201) use DOI when available for articles obtained online (see 198-199; 187-192) Other changes—see handouts on “Help with APA” page of NMC’s WAC Website
Two Different Uses for the APA Manual Manuscripts for publication of research projects Student Papers
Two Sides of the Student Paper 1. Overall appearance One-inch margins Double spacing APA-style title page (see p. 41) ALL-CAP “Running head” throughout paper (see pp. 41- 59); the phrase “Running head:” on title page only 2. Reference Citations Running head: A STUDY OF FLU IN MALE MEMBERS 1 A Study of Flu in Male Members of the Polynesian Population, Age 55-80, Observed in 2010 Jill Jones Nebraska Methodist College- The Josie Harper Campus A STUDY OF FLU IN MALE MEMBERS 2
Two Sides of the Student Paper 1. Overall appearance Double spacing, one-inch margins, “Running head” APA-style title page Listing items (“seriation”—see pp. 63-65) Form of sub-headings (see pp. 62-63) Block quotations (40 words or more—p. 171) Standard abbreviations (p. for “page”; pp. for “pages”; para. for “paragraph”) 2. Citing References
Citing References: Different Rules In-text citations (see pp. 174-179) in the body of a paper or on PowerPoint slides “The list at the end” of a paper or presentation (see pp. 180-192; Chap. 7, “Reference Examples ”)
Goals for In-Text Citations COMPLETE: TWO KEY COMPONENTS: Author, Year of Publication “Specific Part”: add page(s) or paragraph numbers for direct quotations-- use p. pp. para. (see p. 179) Fourth element: Section of Internet source (see p. 172) ACCURATE: Exact quotations Accurate summaries, spelling, date, page numbers SMOOTH TO READ Parenthetical info short, varied SAME AS REF. LIST: CHECK!
In-text Citations: Examples (see pp. 174-179)... why Frawley claims that “The truth is ugly” (1991, p. 645).... why one nurse claims that “The truth is ugly” (Frawley, 1991, p. 645).... why Frawley (1991) claims, “The truth is ugly” (p. 645).
Number of Names in Parentheses See chart, p. 177 1-2 authors: Same for every citation 3,4,5 authors: All 3,4, or 5 in the first citation, FIRST AUTHOR’s LAST NAME et al., for subsequent citations 6 authors: FIRST AUTHOR’s LAST NAME et al., for all citations
Form of Author in In-Text Citation Last Name(s) ONLY (exception: two authors with same surname, such as P. J. Smith and A. R. Smith) Use ampersand (&) before last author in a list of multiple authors; separate with commas Separate multiple sources for one reported finding with semicolon (Johnson, 2007; Hall & Thomas, 2006) Spell out the entire name of a corporate or institutional author, and capitalize all content words (nouns, adjectives, etc.): (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007) If NO author, use shortened title in place of author: (“Study Finds,”… (see Section 6.15, pp. 176-177)
The Reference List Title: References (centered, top line) Follows all other APA dictates for margins, font size, double-spacing, running head (see pp. 49-51 and p. 59) Includes all sources cited in the body of a paper (but no added ones!) General form: Alphabetized, “Hanging Indent” Like these lines! Refer to Chapter 7’s list of model reference entries often!..and also to the rules on pp. 180-192
Essential Info/Order Author (if not known, alphabetize by title) Date Titles(s) Publication Information Only two exceptions
Author Format (p. 184) Person? or Organization? If author is institution, association, or corporation, spell words out. Last name(s), followed by initials of first, middle names given, but no “titles” like MS, MD, PhD (End in a period) See pp. 198-201 as well as model reference entries on pp. 49-51 and p. 59. Write up to seven authors’ names; if eight or more authors, write first six, plus comma, plus three ellipsis points, and then the very last author listed. No author? Start with TITLE, not Anonymous. (unless “Anonymous”)
Date Format In parentheses (and end with a period) Example: (2010). Few complications: NO DATE? (n.d.). monthly magazine, newspaper, meeting? ADD MONTH (2008, June). Daily publication? ADD MONTH AND DAY (2009, August 3). SAME AUTHOR, SAME YEAR? (2008a).; (2008b). (see p. 182)
Title Format Italics only for titles of book-length works, titles of journals, newspapers, newsletters, brochures, reports, theses/dissertations, unpublished papers, poster sessions, motion pictures, TV shows, massive websites Capitalize first letter of only proper nouns and the first word in a title or subtitle (Exception: Periodicals like journals and magazines)
Title Complications Articles within edited books: Entry requires two titles “Main title” begins with a new “Sentence” starting: In Next: Editor’s name(s); “(Ed.), “ or “(Eds.), ”; Title and page numbers Johnson, G.H. (2006). Lipid management. In B. H. Simon (Ed.), The benefits of appropriate treatment (pp. 28-34). New York, NY: Norton. (See p. 202)
Titles of Journal Articles (see p. 198-199) Articles within journals: Entry also requires two titles Italicized Journal Title begins right after period after article title; add comma Next: “Volume” number (italics). + “Number” number in parentheses (not italicized) only if each issue begins with p.1, + comma + Page numbers (no “p.”) doi if known Ex.: Wilson, A L. (2007). Walking saves lives. Journal of Health, 37(2), 22-27. doi:10.736/87by776
DOIs: “Direct Object Identifiers” (see examples, pp. 198-199; discussion, pp. 188-192) Beginning with Sixth Edition of APA manual A unique identifying code for each article published If you know the “doi,” use it! See database, see first page of printed article, but also use http://www.crossref.org/guestquery/ At end of reference entry, type “doi” in lowercase, and then a colon before code: doi:10.9n38878d/98m88
Publication Information Required Info. depends on source (browse through pages 198-210 especially) Keep goal in mind: Lead reader to your source
Publication Info: Books (see model entries, pp. 202-205) Required: City and Publisher First City listed only State is reported with postal abbreviation: NE NY CA (NO ending period) Separate city & publisher with a colon : End “sentence” with a period. Info on “editions” or on page numbers of articles within books appears in parentheses after title of book.
Publication Info: Internet Month and day of publication, if known, in “Date” section, OR (n.d.). Internet sources require a Retrieved from intro to the URL (CAN use Home Page only if source readily accessible from this page) Ex: Retrieved June 28, 2009, from http://nursingworld.org/member2.htm Like DOI, the URL has no period at the end!
Complicated source? See the APA Manual Books in 2nd, Revised editions Info from interviews, government documents, other sources out of the mainstream Expect to synthesize the rules you see from various models and discussions! You may not see your exact source discussed! See resources on NMC’s WAC Website, including lists of the changes from the 5 th to the 6 th editions
Editing Checklist Each entry complete? Author/Date/Title(s)/Pub. Info Each element in order? Each entry using right form? Patterns of Capitalizing/ Italicizing/ Abbreviating/ Indenting—Use hanging indent! List matches in-text citations?