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1 The Kansas-Nebraska Act and the Emergence of the Republican Party.

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1 1 The Kansas-Nebraska Act and the Emergence of the Republican Party

2 2 The Missouri Compromise The debate over the Kansas-Nebraska and the subsequent birth of the Republican Party can be traced back to the enactment of the Missouri Compromise of The debate over the Kansas-Nebraska and the subsequent birth of the Republican Party can be traced back to the enactment of the Missouri Compromise of The Missouri Compromise concerned the territory acquired from the Louisiana Purchase, which both expanded America's land holdings, while also posing a threat to the delicate balance achieved in Congress. The Missouri Compromise concerned the territory acquired from the Louisiana Purchase, which both expanded America's land holdings, while also posing a threat to the delicate balance achieved in Congress. The dilemma began with the application of Missouri as a slave- state. If admitted, Missouri would upset the even proportion of slave states and free states within the U.S. Senate. The dilemma began with the application of Missouri as a slave- state. If admitted, Missouri would upset the even proportion of slave states and free states within the U.S. Senate. Thus the Missouri Compromise was created which called for the admittance of Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state. Thus the Missouri Compromise was created which called for the admittance of Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state. The balance was maintained, yet the vast territories were suddenly a problem. The Missouri Compromise addressed such issues, prohibiting slavery above the latitude line. The balance was maintained, yet the vast territories were suddenly a problem. The Missouri Compromise addressed such issues, prohibiting slavery above the latitude line.

3 3 The New Territories and the Wilmot Proviso The expansion of the American territories grew considerably after the War with Mexico. The expansion of the American territories grew considerably after the War with Mexico. Concerned with ensuring prohibition of slavery in the newly acquired territories, David Wilmot, a politician from Pennsylvania proposed before Congress the Wilmot Proviso. Concerned with ensuring prohibition of slavery in the newly acquired territories, David Wilmot, a politician from Pennsylvania proposed before Congress the Wilmot Proviso. This provision called for a prohibition in the territories recently acquired from Mexico. This provision called for a prohibition in the territories recently acquired from Mexico. While the Wilmot Proviso was passed by the House in 1846, it was rejected by the Senate. Proposed again in 1847, the Proviso was yet again rejected by the Senate. While the Wilmot Proviso was passed by the House in 1846, it was rejected by the Senate. Proposed again in 1847, the Proviso was yet again rejected by the Senate.

4 4 Southerners were enraged with the growing abolitionist sentiment embodied in the Wilmot Proviso. In reaction, the outspoken and pro-slavery Senator from South Carolina, John C. Calhoun issued his "Southern Address". “Such then being the case, it would be to insult you to suppose you could hesitate. To destroy the existing relation between the free and servile races at the South would lead to consequences unparalleled in history.” The address, in defense of slavery, calls for a uniting of the southern states in order to defend what Calhoun deemed their "right" to own slaves. The address seems to indicate that Calhoun, representing Southern interests, viewed the southern slave states as the actual victims of the northern abolitionists. Calhoun claimed the Proviso unconstitutional, ushering in debate concerning the constitutionality of anti-slavery laws in the new territories.

5 5 The debate that followed the proposal of the Wilmot Proviso in the late 1840's was finally resolved through a series of enactments that came to be known as the Compromise of Originally drafted by Henry Clay, senator from Kentucky and ultimately revised by Stephen Douglas, senator from Illinois, the Compromise brought a temporary end to the slavery question which was causing much strain within Congress. However, this alleviation was merely temporary, as discontent over the Compromise flourished, particularly among abolitionists. The Compromise of 1850

6 6 The Compromise of 1850 began in 1849 with the newly acquired California wishing to be admitted as a free state. The Compromise of 1850 began in 1849 with the newly acquired California wishing to be admitted as a free state. This admittance, much like the earlier application of Missouri, would upset the balance of slave and free state representatives in Congress. This admittance, much like the earlier application of Missouri, would upset the balance of slave and free state representatives in Congress. To resolve the issue, Clay created a series of resolutions he wished to be adopted by Congress. To resolve the issue, Clay created a series of resolutions he wished to be adopted by Congress. While not all of his plan was not accepted in full, the subsequent Compromise of 1850, spearheaded by Douglas, was approved. While not all of his plan was not accepted in full, the subsequent Compromise of 1850, spearheaded by Douglas, was approved.

7 7 This Compromise called for the admittance of California as a free state, with slavery granted in the territories acquired recently from Mexico. Such provisions directly contradicted certain tenets of the Missouri Compromise, resulting in discontent among many northerners.

8 8 A New Party is Born Discontent was increasing as fears of further pro-slavery legislation flourished. Salmon Chase of Ohio spearheaded a movement protesting the pro- slavery Democrats. In January of 1854, Chase published his "Appeal of the Independent Democrat", in which he expresses discontent with an act recently proposed in Congress which called for the splitting of the Nebraska territory into two and allowing slavery in one of the new territories. Such sentiment led to the development of a new political party.

9 9 Social dissatisfaction with pro- slavery legislation quickly escalated into political action. Social dissatisfaction with pro- slavery legislation quickly escalated into political action. Even before the Kansas- Nebraska Act was passed in May of 1854, it was becoming evident that a new political party was necessary in order to counter the pro-slavery legislation being passed by the Southern Democrats. Even before the Kansas- Nebraska Act was passed in May of 1854, it was becoming evident that a new political party was necessary in order to counter the pro-slavery legislation being passed by the Southern Democrats. Just prior to the passing of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, on February 28, 1854, a meeting was held in Ripon, Wisconsin and organized by Alvan Bovay. Just prior to the passing of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, on February 28, 1854, a meeting was held in Ripon, Wisconsin and organized by Alvan Bovay. The meeting consisted of Conscience Whigs, Free Soil members, and Abolitionist Democrats. The meeting consisted of Conscience Whigs, Free Soil members, and Abolitionist Democrats. The meeting expressed the need for a new political party and coined it Republican. The meeting expressed the need for a new political party and coined it Republican.

10 10 The Kansas-Nebraska Act The slavery debate culminated with the proposal of the Kansas- Nebraska Act in late May of The slavery debate culminated with the proposal of the Kansas- Nebraska Act in late May of Although slavery was not necessarily the only issue at hand. Although slavery was not necessarily the only issue at hand. Proposed by Stephen Douglas, the Kansas-Nebraska Act centered on a notion proposed by Douglas, that of "Popular Sovereignty." Proposed by Stephen Douglas, the Kansas-Nebraska Act centered on a notion proposed by Douglas, that of "Popular Sovereignty."

11 11 The Kansas-Nebraska Act concerned the land which had previously been decided upon by the Missouri Compromise of The Kansas-Nebraska Act concerned the land which had previously been decided upon by the Missouri Compromise of The act succeeded in dividing the region (displayed as tan in the map below) into two territories, the Kansas Territory (south of the 40th parallel) and the Nebraska Territory (North of the 40th parallel). The act succeeded in dividing the region (displayed as tan in the map below) into two territories, the Kansas Territory (south of the 40th parallel) and the Nebraska Territory (North of the 40th parallel). Slavery was to be decided on by the people of the Kansas Territory, hence the notion of popular sovereignty. Slavery was to be decided on by the people of the Kansas Territory, hence the notion of popular sovereignty. Slavery was to be prohibited in the Nebraska Territory. Such an act clearly abolished the Missouri Compromise, which called for a complete prohibition of slavery north of the latitude line. Slavery was to be prohibited in the Nebraska Territory. Such an act clearly abolished the Missouri Compromise, which called for a complete prohibition of slavery north of the latitude line.

12 12 Douglas' role in the passing of the Kansas- Nebraska Act can be seen as an example of his keen compromising skills. Douglas' role in the passing of the Kansas- Nebraska Act can be seen as an example of his keen compromising skills. The Act was a result of a compromise with southern senators concerning the ever-growing railroad industry. The Act was a result of a compromise with southern senators concerning the ever-growing railroad industry. Douglas, senator from Illinois, desired a railroad line to pass through Chicago on its journey to the Pacific Coast. Southern senators, on the other hand, wished the railroad line to begin in New Orleans and continue on to southern California. Douglas, senator from Illinois, desired a railroad line to pass through Chicago on its journey to the Pacific Coast. Southern senators, on the other hand, wished the railroad line to begin in New Orleans and continue on to southern California. As a result, Douglas proposed the Kansas- Nebraska Act in exchange for the agreement of the southern Senators to a railroad through Chicago. As a result, Douglas proposed the Kansas- Nebraska Act in exchange for the agreement of the southern Senators to a railroad through Chicago.

13 13 Reaction to the Kansas- Nebraska Act: Opposition

14 14 The enactment of the Kansas-Nebraska Act resulted in dissent and dissatisfaction among the Northern Abolitionists. The enactment of the Kansas-Nebraska Act resulted in dissent and dissatisfaction among the Northern Abolitionists. While the Democratic Party was largely pro- slavery, anti-slavery factions did exist, as well as those abolitionists left over from the Whig party. While the Democratic Party was largely pro- slavery, anti-slavery factions did exist, as well as those abolitionists left over from the Whig party. An editorial from the Evening Journal, a New York Whig newspaper, displays the northern outrage immediately following the enactment of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. An editorial from the Evening Journal, a New York Whig newspaper, displays the northern outrage immediately following the enactment of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. “The crime is committed. The work of Monroe, and Madison, and Jefferson, is undone. The wall they erected to guard the domain of Liberty, is flung down by the hands of an American Congress, and Slavery crawls, like a slimy reptile over the ruins, to defile a second eden.” “The crime is committed. The work of Monroe, and Madison, and Jefferson, is undone. The wall they erected to guard the domain of Liberty, is flung down by the hands of an American Congress, and Slavery crawls, like a slimy reptile over the ruins, to defile a second eden.”

15 15 Abraham Lincoln, then a lawyer in Illinois, issued an address in October of 1854 in response to the Act. Abraham Lincoln, then a lawyer in Illinois, issued an address in October of 1854 in response to the Act. The rather moving speech, served to rally the northern cause against the clearly pro-slavery Kansas-Nebraska Act. The rather moving speech, served to rally the northern cause against the clearly pro-slavery Kansas-Nebraska Act. In the address, Lincoln admonishes the institution of slavery, setting the stage for the emerging abolitionist movement. In the address, Lincoln admonishes the institution of slavery, setting the stage for the emerging abolitionist movement. “Fools rush in where angels fear to tread.’” “Fools rush in where angels fear to tread.’” At the hazzard of being thought one of the fools of this quotation, I meet that argument--I rush in, I take that bull by the horns.”

16 16 Reaction to the Kansas-Nebraska Act: The New England Emigrant Aid Company Eli Thayer of Massachusetts organized The New England Emigrant Aid Company in reaction to the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Eli Thayer of Massachusetts organized The New England Emigrant Aid Company in reaction to the Kansas-Nebraska Act. The notion of popular sovereignty espoused in the act incited Thayer to create an organization that would encourage the emigration of New England abolitionists to Kansas in order to vote against slavery. The notion of popular sovereignty espoused in the act incited Thayer to create an organization that would encourage the emigration of New England abolitionists to Kansas in order to vote against slavery. The following speech by Gerrit Smith of the New England Emigrant Aid Company outlines the goals of the organization, while describing the situation that was arising in Kansas. The following speech by Gerrit Smith of the New England Emigrant Aid Company outlines the goals of the organization, while describing the situation that was arising in Kansas.

17 17 Reaction to the Kansas- Nebraska Act: Support Southern reaction to the Kansas-Nebraska Act was largely supportive. Southern reaction to the Kansas-Nebraska Act was largely supportive. Debow's Review, a southern journal largely dedicated to agricultural and political issues, printed the following article entitled "Kansas Matters" in May of Debow's Review, a southern journal largely dedicated to agricultural and political issues, printed the following article entitled "Kansas Matters" in May of The article encourages southerners to relocate to Kansas for many of the same reasons northern abolitionists wished to, largely to influence the vote on slavery. The article encourages southerners to relocate to Kansas for many of the same reasons northern abolitionists wished to, largely to influence the vote on slavery. “Missouri has done nobly, thus far, in overcoming the thousands who have been sent out by Abolition Aid Societies; we cannot hold out much longer unless the whole South will come to the rescue. We need men; we need money; send us both, and that quickly. Do not delay; come as individuals, come in companies, come by thousands.” “Missouri has done nobly, thus far, in overcoming the thousands who have been sent out by Abolition Aid Societies; we cannot hold out much longer unless the whole South will come to the rescue. We need men; we need money; send us both, and that quickly. Do not delay; come as individuals, come in companies, come by thousands.”

18 18 The Building of the Republican Party The fledgling Republican Party held its first state convention in Jackson, Michigan in July of The fledgling Republican Party held its first state convention in Jackson, Michigan in July of The Republicans easily took the state and quickly adopted a platform consisting largely of anti-slavery themes. The Republicans easily took the state and quickly adopted a platform consisting largely of anti-slavery themes. In February of 1856 the Republicans met in Pittsburgh for the first national organization meeting of the party, followed by the Republican's first nominating convention in Philadelphia on June 17, 1856 In February of 1856 the Republicans met in Pittsburgh for the first national organization meeting of the party, followed by the Republican's first nominating convention in Philadelphia on June 17, 1856

19 19 Expounding the views of the Republicans was Horace Greeley. Expounding the views of the Republicans was Horace Greeley. A newspaper editor and founder of the widely popular New York Tribune. A newspaper editor and founder of the widely popular New York Tribune. Encouraged by the ideals of the Republicans, Greeley did much to lend credibility and publicity to the Republican cause. Encouraged by the ideals of the Republicans, Greeley did much to lend credibility and publicity to the Republican cause.

20 20 Increasing Support for the Republican Party and the Assault on Charles Sumner Charles Sumner, Senator from Massachusetts and fierce critic of the Kansas-Nebraska Act addressed the Senate with his speech entitled "The Crime Against Kansas". Charles Sumner, Senator from Massachusetts and fierce critic of the Kansas-Nebraska Act addressed the Senate with his speech entitled "The Crime Against Kansas". A brilliant writer and orator, Sumner's speech specifically attacked Stephen Douglas and Senator Andrew Butler of South Carolina. A brilliant writer and orator, Sumner's speech specifically attacked Stephen Douglas and Senator Andrew Butler of South Carolina. Using graphic language, Sumner's argument was harsh and uncompromising. Using graphic language, Sumner's argument was harsh and uncompromising. “But the slave power dares any thing; and it can be conquered only by the united masses of the people. From Congress to the People I appeal.” “But the slave power dares any thing; and it can be conquered only by the united masses of the people. From Congress to the People I appeal.”

21 21 Sumner's address was not received well by southerners. On May 22, Preston Brooks, cousin of Butler and Congressman from South Carolina entered the Senate chambers, outraged by Sumner's words. Brooks proceeded to violently attack Sumner, beating him mercilessly with a cane. When the attack finally ended, Sumner was badly injured.

22 22 The assault sent shockwaves throughout the country. The assault sent shockwaves throughout the country. Outraged by the attack, Republicans solidified their base by rehashing the details of the attack exhaustively in newspapers. Outraged by the attack, Republicans solidified their base by rehashing the details of the attack exhaustively in newspapers. Increased support for the party was a direct result of the attack of Charles Sumner. Increased support for the party was a direct result of the attack of Charles Sumner. Americans were shocked by the event and many found it inappropriate for members of government to act in such ways. Americans were shocked by the event and many found it inappropriate for members of government to act in such ways. The following newspaper articles describe the attack and display the attempt of the writers to unite Republicans and would-be Republicans to their side. The following newspaper articles describe the attack and display the attempt of the writers to unite Republicans and would-be Republicans to their side. “No meaner exhibition of Southern cowardice -- generally miscalled Southern chivalry -- was ever witnessed….It is reduced to a question whether there is to be any more liberty of speech south of Mason and Dixon's line, even in the ten miles square of the District of Columbia. South of that, liberty has long since departed;” “No meaner exhibition of Southern cowardice -- generally miscalled Southern chivalry -- was ever witnessed….It is reduced to a question whether there is to be any more liberty of speech south of Mason and Dixon's line, even in the ten miles square of the District of Columbia. South of that, liberty has long since departed;”

23 23 Civil War in Kansas The Kansas-Nebraska Act resulted in the emigration of many Americans to the region in order to affect the vote concerning the legality of slavery in Kansas. The Kansas-Nebraska Act resulted in the emigration of many Americans to the region in order to affect the vote concerning the legality of slavery in Kansas. The pro-slavery and anti-slavery groups violently clashed between the time the act was passed and The pro-slavery and anti-slavery groups violently clashed between the time the act was passed and Called "border ruffians" by their Northern counterparts, southern pro-slavery factions, largely from Missouri, fought heavily with northern abolitionists, particularly those associated with the New England Emigrant Aid Company. Called "border ruffians" by their Northern counterparts, southern pro-slavery factions, largely from Missouri, fought heavily with northern abolitionists, particularly those associated with the New England Emigrant Aid Company. Of major concern was the electing of the territorial legislation in the Kansas territory. Of major concern was the electing of the territorial legislation in the Kansas territory.

24 24 R.H. Wilson, a self-proclaimed "border ruffian" published a biography in which he discusses in detail the sack of Lawrence which immediately followed the attack of Charles Sumner. R.H. Wilson, a self-proclaimed "border ruffian" published a biography in which he discusses in detail the sack of Lawrence which immediately followed the attack of Charles Sumner. The sack, which resulted in the surrender of the anti-slavery faction in Lawrence, resulted in the burning of the city, as is depicted in the picture. The sack, which resulted in the surrender of the anti-slavery faction in Lawrence, resulted in the burning of the city, as is depicted in the picture. Of special note within Wilson's account is the mention of Davy Atchison, the U.S. Senator from Missouri. Of special note within Wilson's account is the mention of Davy Atchison, the U.S. Senator from Missouri. Such a mention of Atchison's involvement in the civil war in Kansas displays the rather "wild west" atmosphere of the time; Atchison, considered to be a distinguished Senator, was also the commander of the unit which attacked Lawrence. Such a mention of Atchison's involvement in the civil war in Kansas displays the rather "wild west" atmosphere of the time; Atchison, considered to be a distinguished Senator, was also the commander of the unit which attacked Lawrence.

25 25 The Election of 1856 The Presidential election of 1856 saw the first Republican Presidential nominee on the ballot. The Presidential election of 1856 saw the first Republican Presidential nominee on the ballot. John Fremont, an ex-military officer and Senator from California from , was the first Presidential candidate to run on an abolitionist platform. John Fremont, an ex-military officer and Senator from California from , was the first Presidential candidate to run on an abolitionist platform. The Republican platform of 1856 expounds the views of the Republican party concerning the crisis in Kansas as well as the Republican's views on slavery. The Republican platform of 1856 expounds the views of the Republican party concerning the crisis in Kansas as well as the Republican's views on slavery.

26 26 While Fremont ultimately lost to the Democratic candidate James Buchanan, the returns were largely positive for the Republicans, setting the stage for an era of Republican victory. While Fremont ultimately lost to the Democratic candidate James Buchanan, the returns were largely positive for the Republicans, setting the stage for an era of Republican victory. The Kansas-Nebraska Act as well as other pro-slavery legislation led to the emergence of a strengthened Republican party, which let ultimately to the Civil War. The Kansas-Nebraska Act as well as other pro-slavery legislation led to the emergence of a strengthened Republican party, which let ultimately to the Civil War.


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