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What are Concepts and Variables? Book #2

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DEVELOPING CONCEPTS EVENT OF INTEREST NOMINAL CONCEPT INDICATOR OPERATIONAL DEFINITION ELEMENTS EXAMPLE - 1 SOME PEOPLE HAVE MORE “THINGS” THAN OTHERS WEALTH SALARY SELF REPORT ON W-2 INCOME RECEIVED VARIABLEDOLLARS PER YEAR

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EVENT OF INTEREST NOMINAL CONCEPT INDICATORS OPERATIONAL DEFINITION ELEMENTSEXAMPLE - 2 ROMANTIC FEELINGS LOVE ATTRACTION, RESPECT COMMITMENT, SUPPORT VARIABLE SCORE ON SCALE ATTITUDINAL SCALE DEVELOPING CONCEPTS

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Levels of Measurement I Non-Quantitative A. Nominal B. Ordinal II Quantitative A. Interval B. Ratio Categorizing Ordering Categories Scale of Measurement Scale with Absolute Zero

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Describing Non-Quantitative Data I Frequency Distributions A. Percentages B. Ratios C. Rates II Grouping and Graphing A. Real Limits and Midpoints B. Bar Graphs and Pie Charts C. Histograms and Frequency Polygons D. Line Charts and Pictograms

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I. Measures of Central Tendency A. Mode B. Median C. Mean II. Measures of Dispersion A. Range B. Mean Deviation C. Variance Most Frequent Score Score at Middle Position Sum of Values / N Highest – Lowest Score +1 Sum of Absolute Deviations / N Sum of Squared Deviations / N D. Standard Deviation Square Root of Variance Describing Quantitative Data

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Reliability and Validity I Reliability A. Test-Retest B. Split Half II Validity A. Face B. Content C. Criterion 1. Concurrent 2. Predictive

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