Presentation on theme: "Teacher/Coach’s Professional Development Workshop October 2012 Dr. John Carpinelli Levelle Burr-Alexander Center for Pre-College Programs New Jersey Institute."— Presentation transcript:
Teacher/Coach’s Professional Development Workshop October 2012 Dr. John Carpinelli Levelle Burr-Alexander Center for Pre-College Programs New Jersey Institute of Technology Newark, New Jersey
Agenda What is Engineering & Engineering Design Process What is Energy Conservation of Mechanical Energy Design Constraints & Criteria Attributes for Consideration Engineering Design Activity – “On-the-Grid” – Dual-Controlled System “Off-the-Grid” – Car Design Questions & Answers
What is Engineering? "Scientists study the world as it is, engineers create the world that never has been. " -- Theodore Von Karman
What is Engineering? "A scientist can discover a new star but he cannot make one. He [She] would have to ask an engineer to do it for him." -- Gordon L. Glegg
What is Engineering? ENGINEERING is …. The “development of ways to utilize, economically, the materials and forces of nature for the benefit of humankind”. Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET)
What is Engineering? ENGINEERING is …. The art of applying scientific and mathematical principles, experience, judgment, and common sense to make things that benefit people.
What is Engineering? ENGINEERING examples are …. Cell phones, highways and buildings, cars, spacecrafts, computers and networks, robots, pacemakers, television, telescopes, cameras, and everything else around you.
What is Engineering Design? ENGINEERING DESIGN is …. A decision-making process using available resources (material and people) to meet a desired, measurable goal (usually resulting in a product or system). To meet this goal, the design process combines many things –Basic sciences (chemistry, physics, biology) –Mathematics (algebra, geometry, calculus) –And the engineering sciences (aerospace, biomedical, chemical, civil, computer, electrical, manufacturing, mechanical) We use engineering design to: Define solutions to problems not solved before, or Find new or improved solutions to problems with existing solutions
Research the Problem –Gather Information Analysis of the Problem - Design Constraints Gathering Analysis of the Problem - Design Constraints Gathering Communicate Final Design e.g. Presentation Communicate Final Design e.g. Presentation Identification of the Problem Testing and Evaluation Model/Prototype Testing and Evaluation Model/Prototype Modeling “Best” Solution Brainstorm Alternative Design Solutions Refine and Retest Model/Prototype Refine and Retest Model/Prototype Engineering Design Process The Cyclic Design Process
Engineering Design Process “ Defining and Understanding the Problem” Identify the Problem –What does the customer need? –What problem needs to be solved? –Not always clear Analyze the Problem – Design Constraints –What preliminary information is provided in the presentation of the design problem? –What limitations or parameters or constraints, if any, are required for the physical design? Performance? Cost? Human Resources?…
Engineering Design Process “ Defining and Understanding the Problem” – cont’d Remember to constantly & consistently… Document! Document! Document! Use the Panasonic CDC - Engineer’s Logbook
Engineering Design Process “ Defining and Understanding the Problem” – cont’d Research the Problem – learn as much as you can –What background information is needed before we can start developing possible solutions? –What sources do we need to obtain that information –How reliable are those sources? –What previous work has been done on this or similar problems that could be used?
Engineering Design Process “ Analyzing the Problem and Brainstorming” Design constraints –Technology, economic, human interface problems, government regulations, usability, conversation of energy Develop initial specifications - design constraints Discuss ground rules and conduct brainstorming Design the alternative solutions and analyze each to determine its fit within the requirements of the design problem –Simulation vs. real product model or mock-up –Many times this is just feasibility, thus not final design
From previous step, determine best solution –Which alternative design has “best” fit to the requirements? –Need constraints and initial specifications to determine why best solution Model selected solution, and determine if the choice is the “best” from a design perspective –Calculations, computer simulation, physical model Iterative step – might not have picked the best solution initially –Might not know this until next step Engineering Design Process “ Selecting the Best Solution”
Engineering Design Process “ Testing, Evaluating, and Refining the Design” Develop more detailed design specification and test protocol –Test for failure, not success Build and test prototype –May not be final production methodology –Might not work (pick alternative solution) or cancel project Redesign and retest until satisfied –Need establish a finite end Now, closer to real production product than early prototype –Alpha vs. beta testing
Engineering Design Process “Communicating the Final Design” Remember to constantly & consistently… Document! Document! Document! Use the Panasonic CDC - Engineer’s Logbook
Engineering Design Process “ Communicating the Final Design” Engineering Documentation –Requirements document, specifications document, testing documents (supported by Engineer’s Logbook) Technical material –Schematics, blueprints, operating and technical manual –Service manual Marketing material –Why the product is terrific! Sales presentation material –Cost, distribution, availability
What is Energy?
“Energy is a quantitative property of a system that depends on the motion and interactions of matter and radiation within that system.” NRC (2012). Next Generation Science Standards (Draft) ≡ an ability to perform work ≡ a measure of the state of a system where energy is continually transferred from one object to another and between its various possible forms at the macroscopic and microscopic levels. SI units of joules (J) or in calorie, where 1 J = kg · m 2 / s 2 = N · m
Forms of Energy Heat (thermal) Light (radiant) Motion (kinetic) Electrical Chemical Nuclear Geothermal Gravitational
Motion Energy Kinetic Energy ≡ energy of an object due to its motion and is proportional to the mass of the moving object and grows with the square of its speed. (a)
Stored Energy Gravitational Potential Energy ≡ stored energy of an object due to its position relative to the surface of the earth. Elastic Potential Energy ≡ stored energy of an object due to displacement, stretch, or compression (x), i.e. spring or rubber band Food for Thought: Is there a relationship between the length or width and # turns possible for stored energy?
Conservation of Mechanical Energy
Motion Energy –Kinetic Energy (KE) Stored Energy –Gravitational Potential Energy ( PE Gravity ) –Elastic Potential Energy ( PE Elastic ) Total Mechanical Energy E TOTAL = KE + PE Gravity + PE Elastic = ½mv 2 + mgh + ½kx 2
Design Constraints & Criteria
Design Criteria Integrity –Ex. Design does not fall apart Accuracy –Ex. Functions precisely Functionality –Ex. Performs functional tasks Repeatability –Ex. Conducts the same function on repeated attempts
Design Criteria Reproducibility –Ex. Conducts the same function in any environment or by any person Ergonomic –Ex. Interface between human-device is easy to use Efficiency –Ex. Minimal waste (energy), maximum operation
Design Characteristics Strength –Ex. All components connect securely Speed –Ex. Motors’ axle rotates as quickly as needed Power –Ex. Motor’s axle rotates to transfer energy in a given amount of time Minimalism & Agility –Ex. Least # of components for performance
Design Characteristics Compactness –Ex. Efficient use of space for components Stability –Ex. Center of gravity prevents tipping over Robustness –Ex. Performs in diverse environments Modularity –Ex. Design has subunits to form whole device
Things to Consider: Product Attributes in Engineering Design Power. The amount the product produces or consumes. Speed. How fast does it operate? How long will it take to manufacture? Cost. The price to the consumer to purchase, the cost to the company to manufacture, and the cost its implementation will have on society in general. Reliability. How well does it operate? How long will it last? Is it a quality product? Safety. Are there any health risks? Functionality. Does it perform the desired tasks effectively? Ease of use. Can the customer operate it easily and intuitively? Aesthetics. Is it pleasing to see, feel, touch, or hear. Ethics and social impact. Will it benefit or harm people and the social or physical environments in which they live? Maintainability. How easily and cost-effectively can it be kept in good working order? Testability. How easily and effectively can it be tested by the manufacturer prior to volume production for the market? Manufacturability. What issues must be addressed in the manufacture of the product? From
More Things to Consider: Non-Product Attributes in Engineering Design Personal interests of the engineer Company interests and values Size of company Needs of the community Economics and marketability Political climate Familiarization with the technology
Analysis of the Problem - Design Constraints Analysis of the Problem - Design Constraints Research the Problem -Information Gathering Communicate Final Design e.g. Presentation Communicate Final Design e.g. Presentation Identification of the Problem Testing and Evaluation Model/Prototype Testing and Evaluation Model/Prototype Modeling “Best” Solution Brainstorm Alternative Design Solutions Refine and Retest Model/Prototype Refine and Retest Model/Prototype Engineering Design Process
Engineering Design Process Summary Determine the problem to be solved –Not as easy as it sounds!!! Determine possible solutions –Brainstorming Evaluate potential solutions –Choose a solution to implement Design model of the “best” solution Test, revise, test… –May require several iterations Communicate final design
Engineering Design Activity 1 “On-the-Grid” – Dual Control System End-Effector
“On-the-Grid” Design Challenge – Dual Control System Divide into groups of 4 people How do system components communicate in devices? i.e. think about the effect of making a change in one part of a system on the system as a whole. Model a dual controlled end-effector system of a simulated robot arm (Note: no thumbs used) GOAL: Complete task on index card Controller 1 (person A) operates end-effector 1 (person B) Controller 2 (person C) operates end-effector 2 (person D)
Engineering Design Activity 2 “Off-the-Grid” – Elastic Potential Energy Car Elastic Potential Energy Gravitational Potential Energy Kinetic Energy Total Mechanical Energy
“Off-the-Grid” Design Challenge – Elastic Potential Energy Car Design Challenge Build a device that uses elastic potential energy, i.e. rubber band car, that will travel down a path with the greatest degree of accuracy to stop on the red target in the fastest time. Task 1: Build a Rubber Band Car - use the Design Squad directions Task 2: Refine or change the design car Criteria: Use only materials provided. The device can not travel outside of the “track”, e.g. if at least 1 wheel touches or crosses the line of the track then the trial is over. Final score is “best” of three trials.
Content Contributors Levelle Burr-Alexander, Project Manager – Education and Training Institute, Center for Pre-College Programs, NJIT John Carpinelli, Director, Center for Pre-College Programs and Professor, Electrical and Computing Engineering, Newark College of Engineering, NJIT Howard Kimmel, Executive Director, Center for Pre-College Programs and Professor, Chemical Engineering, Newark College of Engineering, NJIT