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 A Test Must Be: ◦ Reliable ◦ Valid ◦ _____________________ = consistent ◦ _____ = measuring what it is suppose to measure.

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Presentation on theme: " A Test Must Be: ◦ Reliable ◦ Valid ◦ _____________________ = consistent ◦ _____ = measuring what it is suppose to measure."— Presentation transcript:

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2  A Test Must Be: ◦ Reliable ◦ Valid ◦ _____________________ = consistent ◦ _____ = measuring what it is suppose to measure

3 Reliability Validity Construct Criterion Content Interrater Face

4 Reliability and Validity Reliable but not valid

5 Reliability and Validity Neither reliable nor valid

6 Reliability and Validity Reliable and valid

7 reliability = refers to test's consistency A reliable test minimizes error and provides repeatable consistent results

8  1) low precision ◦ characteristics of the instrument used  2) state of the participants ◦ depressed, moody, irritable  3) state of the experimenter ◦ depressed, moody, irritable…  4) state of environment ◦ noise, heat, etc.

9 Scan a multitude of information and decide what is important Manage time effectively 2Manage resources effectively. 3Scan a multitude of information and decide what is important. 4Decide how to manage multiple tasks. 5Organize the work when directions are not specific. 1Manage time effectively Rating Sheet Observedscore = Trueability + Randomerror Te+

10 Correlations used Normally ranges from -1.0 to Reliability coefficient is: __________________

11 Test-retest Alternate Forms Internal Consistency Inter-rater

12  Coefficient of stability is the correlation of the two sets of test scores.

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14  Two versions of the same test with similar content  Forms must be equal

15  Split half  KR-20  Cronbach’s alpha

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17  Measures scorer reliability  Do the judges agree?

18  Scores by two independent judges and the scores are correlated  _________________________

19  research  clinical settings

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21 Reliability Validity Test-Retest IC Alternative Construct Criterion Content Convergent Discriminant Factorial Interrater Face

22 Neither Reliable or Valid Highly Reliable but Not Valid Highly Reliable and Valid

23  Definition  Face Validity  Content Validity  Criterion-Related Validity  Construct Validity

24  The extent to which a test measures a trait that it claims to measure  Involves “Validation”

25  superficial examination of domain  Does the test "look valid?“

26  Does the test assess the domain of the construct that is supposed to measure?

27  involves examination of the literature  domain must be systematically analyzed  consult with experts in the field

28  Biases ◦ Consider biases of the panelists  Level of expertise of the panelists ◦ Are they really experts?

29  relationship between test and criterion Criterion (Y) (behavior) Predictor (X) (test) - SAT GPA SAT = Scholastic Achievement Test GPA = Grade Point Average

30  Concurrent  Predictive

31  test and criterion are measured at approximately the same time

32  The extent to which a test measures a theoretical construct  Construct ◦ A scientific concept to describe a psychological trait - e.g., anxiety, depression, or intelligence

33  Validation occurs through a pattern of consistent findings with different tests across various settings Test Your Test Gold Standard

34  Convergent validation  Discriminant validation

35  A test should correlate highly with another test that is theoretically related Your Test – IQ Measure Gold Standard WAIS WAIS = Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale r = positive and strong

36  A test ought not to correlate with a theoretically unrelated test Your Test – IQ Measure Extraversion r = close to zero

37  Campbell & Fiske (1959)  Correlation of: ◦ 2 or more traits by 2 or more methods  Methods: ◦ e.g., self-report v. peer observations  Traits: ◦ e.g., Extraversion and Warmth

38  reliability  Same trait, same method  High r, ___________________  Low r, ___________________

39  Same trait, different method  Validity coefficients expected to be high  High r, __________________________  Low r, _______________________

40  Different trait, same method  Coefficients expected to be low to moderate  high r, ________________________  low r, ___________________________

41  Different trait, different method  Coefficients expected to be the lowest  high r, ________________________  low r, __________________________

42 EsEpAsAp EsMMMHHMHH EpMMHHHM AsMMMH ApMM (reliability)

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44  Basic Idea: ◦ Personality is projected onto the stimulus  Varieties ◦ TAT ◦ Inkblot ◦ Incomplete Sentence Blank

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46  Thematic Apperception Test (1935)  Henry Murray  Christina Morgan

47  Hermann Rorschach (1921)  10 inkblots  Holtzman Inkblot technique (HIT)  45 inkblots

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50  My greatest fear…  My mother…  Men…

51  Strength  1)  2)  Weakness  1)  2)

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53  Hathaway and McKinley  Assesses mental health  MMPI, MMPI-2 (1989)

54  8 MMPI clinical scales developed from 8 groups of psychiatric inpatients.  Social Introversion and Masculinity-Femininity were added later.  16 years old, grade 6 education

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56  Validity scales: ◦ L scale or lie scale ◦ F scale or Infrequency scale ◦ K scale or correction scale ◦ ? Cannot Say

57  1 Hypochondriasis (Hs)

58  2 Depression (D)

59  3 Hysteria (Hy)

60  4 Psychopathic Deviate (Pd)

61  5 Masculinity-Femininity (Mf)

62  Scale 6: Paranoia (Pa)

63  Scale 7: Psychasthenia (Pt)

64  Scale 8: Schizophrenia (Sc)

65  Scale 9: Hypomania (Ma)  tends to assess:

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67  advantages  very comprehensive  lot of literature  professional communication  computerized

68  disadvantages  somewhat out of date with existing diagnostic categories  the instrument takes about 30 minutes to one hour to complete

69  1) ___________________  2) ______________________  3) __________________

70 Life and Death a Serial Killer (Broomfield & Churchill, 2002) Case Study…

71  Jan 9, 1991 – arrested in Florida  paranoid, borderline personality disorder  admits that she lied on the stand about self defense  did it to “come clean”  killed because of robbery and to eliminate a witness  plan murders, selected the men  “there was no self-defense”

72  “the world is full of evil”  made a day as prostitute  met Tyra in bar, lesbian relationship  Tyra made a state’s witness  Tyra not charged in the murders  participated with police  sorry about her actions

73  “doing lying biz to beat the system”  her report of Richard Mallory was convincing  Mallory spent 5 years in jail for sex crimes  “you have to kill Aileen Wournos because she will kill again”  talked about conspiracies in early 1990s  tended to sabotage own defense

74  oral sex for cigarettes at age of 9  incestuous relationship with brother Keith  Aileen’s grandfather beat her with black belt  rumored that he was her biological father  Biological mother abandoned her at 6 months  “father” sent to jail for sodomizing a boy  later he committed suicide

75  Had baby boy at age 13  two years living in the woods  survived by hooking  treated poorly by neighbourhood kids  father of Aileen’s child was the local pedophile

76  Left Michigan at age 16  Doing drugs at time (LSD)  know for violent temper  knocked a man out with beer bottle and another with billiard ball

77  Married Lewis Fell age 76  restraining charges, beat Lewis with walking stick  starting dating women in late 20s  Tyra described Aileen as –fantasist, jealous and possessive who could be violent and frightening  had fantasies of being raped

78  believed police had known about the first murder but allowed her to continue  mind is being controlled by radio waves, poisoned food, threatened of rape while in prison

79  I am so burning f..in mad about how I am being…  I’ve got to wait for my execution  I want to get in the f..ing chamber tomorrow and leave  And then they play, since I waived off I have nothing but  Psychological and physical f… problems, playin with it  because I am on hold with my execution.  I’m so f..in mad I can’t see straight  And they’re just daring me to kill again  They got me pissed…United States Supreme court you f…in  I’m telling you man, you motherf….  Keep f..ing with my goddamn execution and there’s going to be blood shed.  I’m sick of this, get that f..ing warrant signed.

80  using “sonic pressure” on my head since 1997 ◦ (this was stated on Oct 8th, 2002).  Believes had eye in cell, believes that the tv or mirrors were rigged. Crushing my head, using sonic pressure.  Believes that police had surveillance, before she killed. It was the cops that made her do it.

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82         

83  Advantages  Disadvantages

84  Advantage Establish causality X causes change in Y  Disadvantage May be artificial

85  How would you establish this?  You need at least 2 groups ◦ Control ◦ Experimental

86  IQ tested before intervention  This group receives a placebo  IQ tested after receiving placebo

87 IQ test prior to administering drug This group then gets the drug IQ tested again

88 AAre there differences before testing? if yes, sample may not be random AAre there differences after testing?

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90  summarized by letter r  ranges between -1 and + 1 ◦ Under ideal conditions  closer to -1 or +1, the stronger the r

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95  X variable might cause the Y variable.  Y variable might cause the X variable.  Another variable influences both X and Y.  Strong correlation by chance.

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97  Little Albert (Watson)  Obedience (Milgram)  Stanford Prison Study (Zimbardo)

98  ethics are standards regarding the treatment of others  these standards apply to both research and clinical practice  many disciplines have ethical codes  CPA (Canadian Psychological Association)  APA (American Psychological Association)

99  Principle 1:  Principle 2:  Principle 3:  Principle 4:


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