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1-1 What is Science?  an organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world.  also used to describe the body of knowledge built up over.

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Presentation on theme: "1-1 What is Science?  an organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world.  also used to describe the body of knowledge built up over."— Presentation transcript:

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2 1-1 What is Science?  an organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world.  also used to describe the body of knowledge built up over the years  Always changing (Pluto, 2006) ationalgeogr aphic.com/n ews/2006/08 / pluto- planet.html

3 What are the goals of science?  investigate and understand the natural world.  Collect data/ observations  To explain events in the natural world  use those explanations to make useful predictions.

4 Thinking like a scientist…  Observation: the process of gathering information about events or processes in a careful, orderly way.

5 Thinking like a scientist…  Data: the information gathered from observations Quantitative: involve numbers/measurements Qualitative: descriptive/ not easily measured  Find patterns/trends

6 Thinking like a scientist…  Inference: a logical interpretation based on prior knowledge or experience (data)  Footprints/fossils  Scientists may use inferences at first but MUST backup with facts

7 Explaining and Interpreting Evidence  Hypothesis: proposed scientific explanation for a set of observations May be accepted or rejected  Must be able to be tested… Using controlled experiments and collecting new data  …and re-tested Validity Reliability

8 Collaboration  Scientists and researchers often work in teams  Critical analysis/sharing of ideas  Review process helps to ensure valid results

9 Science is always changing  A continuous process involving: Asking questions Observing Making inferences Testing hypotheses  A good scientist is a skeptic of both new and old ideas Men vs. women

10 Scientific Thinking  Scientists are trained to use a scientific methods as a guide to make intelligent decisions  However…

11 Other factors involved in decision making  Society/community  Economic considerations  Laws  Morals/ethics  Stem cell research?  Abortion?

12 5 questions a biologist might ask about:

13 1-2 How Scientists Work  Ask questions and test them!  Scientific Method State the problem Collect information Form a hypothesis Design and conduct an experiment Record observations and data Check results/retest Draw your conclusions Communicate your results

14 Designing a Controlled Experiment  Variables must be controlled  Dependent/responding variable  Independent/ manipulated variable  Controlled variables  Record results/analyze findings  Draw a conclusion

15 Spontaneous Generation as an Example  Spontaneous generation  What if we wanted to test it?  Francesco Redi’s hypothesis (p.9)

16 Repeating Investigations  Anton van Leeuwenhoek- “animalcules”  John Needham challenges Redi “SG just needs the right conditions”  Lazzaro Spallanzani adds his two cents Boils gravy longer- seals flask  Some argued SG needed air (a “life force”)  Pasteur settles it with his curved flask

17 The Scientific Method: State the problem Collect information Form a hypothesis Design and conduct an experiment Record observations and data Check results/retest Draw your conclusions Communicate your results

18 When Experiments Are Not Possible…  Oscar Pistorius Olympic Debate Oscar Pistorius Olympic Debate  Field studies  Ethical concerns  If they are careful, scientists are still able to discover reliable patterns to make inferences about

19 So what if your hypothesis is accepted?  Scientific Theory: a well tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations a currently acceptable idea- universally accepted to be true  NOT a fact  Scientific Law = fact (ex: gravity)

20 1-3 Studying Life  bio = “life”  logy = “the study of”  How do we know what is “living” and what is “nonliving”?

21 8 Characteristics of Living Things 1. All living things are made up of cells  Unicellular  Multicellular

22 2. All living things reproduce  Sexual  Asexual

23 3. All living things are based on a universal genetic code  DNA determined the traits you receive from your parents

24 4. All living things grow and develop  Increase in size  Cell division for specific “parts”

25 5. All living things obtain and use materials and energy  To grow and develop  To simply stay alive Metabolism: the breakdown of materials an organism uses to carry out its life processes

26 6. All living things respond to their environment  Stimulus External Internal

27 7. All living things maintain a stable environment  Homeostasis- internal feedback mechanism Shivering and sweating

28 8. All living things, viewed as a group, change over time.  evolution

29 Studying Biology  Different branches: anatomy, botany, microbiology, taxonomy, cytology, etc.  Levels of Organization Molecular Cellular Groups of cells Organisms Populations Communities Ecosystems Biosphere

30 1-4 Tools and Procedures  The Metric System- a common decimal system of units based on multiples of 10  KHDUDCM: “King Henry Doesn’t Usually Drink Chocolate Milk”  Common Metric Units Length: meter Mass: gram Volume: liter Temperature: Celcius

31 Analyzing Data  Today, computers do the bulk of biological data analysis  Tables and Graphs

32 Microscopes  Light microscope Up to 1000x magnification Compound light microscopes ○ Two lenses- light passes through an organism Dyes and stains  Electron microscope Can view very small organisms Must be used in a vacuum TEM (thru) and SEM (over surface)

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36 Laboratory Techniques  Cell cultures Single cell placed in a nutrient dish- grows into a “culture” of cells  Cell fractionation Separates the different cell parts for individual study Uses a blender and centrifuge

37 Vocabulary Review  1. This is the study of the natural world. It can also mean the body of knowledge we’ve built up based on these studies. A. biology B. anatomy C. science D. observation

38  2. This occurs when living things come from nonliving things. A. metabolism B. homeostasis C. hypothesis D. spontaneous generation

39  3. This is the process of gathering information about events/processes in a careful, orderly way. A. data B. inference C. hypothesis D. observation

40  4. This is a logical interpretation based on prior knowledge and experiences.  A. inference  B. hypothesis  C. theory  D. qualitative data

41  5. This is a well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations.  A. theory  B. hypothesis  C. stimulus  D. inference

42  6. This is a proposed scientific explanation for a set of observations. A. inference B. theory C. hypothesis D. a guess

43  7. This type of reproduction requires only one parent. A. asexual B. sexual C. unisexual D. mating

44  8. A collection of living matter enclosed by a barrier that separates it from it’s environment. It is the smallest unit of life. A. atom B. cell C. molecule D. organism

45  9. A controlled experiment occurs when you change only this in your set-up. A. responding variable B. manipulated variable C. dependent variable D. control variable

46  10. A signal to which an organism responds A. homeostasis B. stimulus C. metabolism D. trigger

47  11. This is the branch of science that studies the living world. A. science B. anatomy C. botany D. biology

48  12.This process requires an internal feedback mechanism in order to maintain internal balance in an organism.  A. metabolism  B. stimulus  C. homeostasis  D. thermostat

49  13.This is a lab technique where cells are broken down into their individual parts.  A. cell fractionation  B. cell colonies  C. cell cultures  D. electron microscopy

50  14. The two types of microscopes are: A. compound and light B. light and proton C. compound and electron D. light and electron

51  15. The combination of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up and breaks down material as it carries out it’s life processes. A. homeostasis B. stimulus C. metabolism D. evolution

52 ANSWERS:  1. C  2. D  3. D  4. A  5. A  6. C  7. A  8. B  9. B  10. B  11. D  12. C  13. A  14. D  15. C


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