3 RICE NESHAP Market Enacted May 2010 Compliance deadlines (possibly extended pending delayed publication of proposed rule change on May 19, 2012) –CI May 3, 2013 –SI October 19, 2013 Proposed rule change to potentially include increasing non- revenue generating demand response hours to 60 Hours annually The Reality- Many have already moved ahead with retro-fits –The deadline is approaching –Capacity will be an issue –Installation will be a bottleneck
4 Rule Focus –Reduce the amount of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPS) from existing reciprocating internal combustion engines (RICE) –Stationary Compression ignition (CI), Spark Ignition (SI) and dual fuel engines –Existing and new/rebuilt stationary engines built before 2006 –Carbon Monoxide (CO) is used as a surrogate Source Classifications –Major Source: 10 tons/year or more of any one HAP Or 25 tons/year or more of a combination of HAPS –Area Source: Any site that is not a major source Full Compliance Timing: –Compression Ignition (CI):May 3, 2013 –Spark Ignition (SI):October 19, 2013 –Dual Fuel engines follow the CI timing and rule Hazardous Air Pollutants (Air Toxics) 187 Chemicals & Compounds EPA RICE NESHAP – Requirements for Major and Area Sources
5 EPA NESHAP Summary – Compression Ignition (CI) Engines HP Major Source Area Source 1) Emission Standards (@ 15% O 2 ) 100 < hp < 300 301 < hp < 500 > 500 hp 230 ppmvd CO 49 ppmvd CO or 70% CO reduction 23 ppmvd CO or 70% CO reduction - 49 ppmvd CO or 70% CO reduction 23 ppmvd CO or 70% CO reduction 2) Testing300 < hp < 500 > 500 hp Initial Compliance Verification with Oxidation Catalyst Initial Verification; retest after 8,760 hrs or 3 years Initial Compliance Verification with Oxidation Catalyst Initial Verification; retest after 8,760 hrs or: Ltd. Use Engine: 5 yrs (< 100 hrs/yr) Not Ltd. Use Engine: 3 yrs (>100 hrs/yr) 3) Reporting and Monitoring (CPMS) 300 < hp < 500 > 500 hp None Continuous Monitoring: Catalyst Inlet Temp Monthly Monitoring: Pressure Drop Across Catalyst None Continuous Monitoring: Catalyst Inlet Temp Monthly Monitoring: Pressure Drop Across Catalyst 4) Other> 300 hpClosed Crankcase Vent or Crankcase Vent Filter System Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel (15 ppm sulfur max.) Closed Crankcase Vent or Crankcase Vent Filter System Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel (15 ppm sulfur max.) SUMMARY: For both sources a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) will be the prime path to meet the 70% CO reduction requirement
6 EPA NESHAP Summary – Spark Ignition (SI) Engines Spark Ignition (CI) HP Major Source Area Source 1) Emission Standards (@ 15% O 2 ) 100 < hp < 500 2SLB 4SLB 4SRB Landfill/Digester > 500 Hp 4SRB 4SLB 225 ppmvd CO 47 ppmvd CO 10.3 ppmvd HCHO 177 ppmvd CO - 2.7 ppmvd HCHO or 76% HCHO Reduction 47 ppmvd CO or 93% CO Reduction 2) Testing100< hp < 500 > 500 hp Initial verification test; retest after 8,760 hrs or 3 years None Initial Verification; retest after 8,760 hrs or 3 years 3) Reporting and Monitoring (CPMS) 100 < hp < 500 > 500 hp Continuous Monitoring: Catalyst Inlet Temp Monthly Monitoring: Pressure Drop Across Catalyst Continuous Monitoring: Catalyst Inlet Temp Monthly Monitoring: Pressure Drop Across Catalyst None Continuous Monitoring: Catalyst Inlet Temp Monthly Monitoring: Pressure Drop Across Catalyst 4) Other> 100 hp Oil/filter Changes at Various Intervals System Inspection and replacement: Spark plugs, belts and hoses Oil/filter Changes at Various Intervals System Inspection and replacement: Spark plugs, belts and hoses
7 AFR 1-9 Simple controllers for field MEC-R for rich burn natural gas engines MEC-L for lean-burn natural gas engines MEC-RMEC-L Air-Fuel Ratio Controller Products
8 Catalyst Performance 3-Way Catalyst –750°F – 1250 ° F inlet temperatures required for NO x, CO and HC reductions –1350°F maximum outlet temperature Catalyst degradation occurs above this point NG Oxidation Catalyst –550°F – 1250 ° F inlet temperatures required for CO reductions –HC reduction is completely temperature dependent The higher the exhaust temperature the better the reduction –1350°F maximum outlet temperature Catalyst degradation occurs
9 Major SourceArea Source Oxidation catalyst inlet temperature must be monitored to assure sufficient exhaust temperature Must be maintained between 450-1350 F Differential pressure (Δp) across oxidation catalyst must be monitored to ensure pressure drop remains within allowable limits Delta does not change +/- 2 inches of WC from measurement during initial compliance test Semi- Annual Testing Required Testing required every 8760 hours / 3 years ( 5 years for limited use applications) RICE NESHAP – Monitoring & Testing Requirements
10 Metal Catalyst Substrate Understanding the Future of element manufacturing means understanding exhaust flow. What is Laminar Flow? What is Turbulent Flow?
11 Diesel Oxidation Catalyst – HC, CO, PM reduction Features Up to 30% PM reduction Up to 90% HC and CO reduction Integrated and non-integrated Durable metal substrates Serviceable Place in front of SCR when no DPF Product Offering – DOC (PM/HC/CO Control)
13 Tier 4i & f Stationary Emission Regulations New Engines – EPA NSPS Tier 4…….
14 NSPS for Stationary Diesel Engines Distinction between “non-emergency” and “emergency” –Emergency engines are used during a power outage or conditioned power events –Emergency engines are limited to 100 hours per year for maintenance and testing / no limit on operation during actual outage Some state or local agencies will require fewer hours for maintenance and testing States have ability to allow additional operating hours and will likely require emissions control of some variation –Emergency engines must labeled as such at the factory –Non-Emergency is anything that doesn’t qualify as “Emergency” –Demand response, storm avoidance, rental units, etc. would be classified as “Non-Emergency” –EPA proposed rule change allowing 60 Hrs/Yr demand response
15 Compliant vs Certified Solution Much confusion in the market place has been generated by the common specification calling for a Tier 4 (Interim or Final) engines by end users or engineering houses. Major engine manufacturers do not have completed engine model line- up of certified equipment ready for Tier 4i. The EPA’s position is still “certified” for revenue generating applications, yet business will go on and the states will have to make determinations on compliant solutions. Some state non-attainment areas will require emission targets more stringent than Tier ratings and target specific exhaust aftertreatment solutions will need to be provided.
16Confidential SCR System (Closed Loop – NOx reduction > 90%) Options: Stainless Steel Housings Insulation Urea tanks Controller A/C Delta P Measurement CO Measurement (4) 4-20mA Outputs Over temp monitoring Pressure/Temp Monitoring Redundant booster pump Features: ACIS Controller Web based monitoring SCR Operation (300-500C) Sulfur tolerant to 1,000 ppm Data Log – local/internet NH 3 controlled to 10-20 ppm Cable labeling Serviceability built in Warranty – 2 years Product Offering – SCR (NOx Control)
18 Diesel Particulate Filter – PM reduction Options CARB Verified Insulation Stainless Steel housings Delta P Measurement Active or Passive Features 85% + reduction Sulfur tolerant to 1,000 ppm No NO 2 formation Passive system where Carbon steel housings Silicon carbide filters Sound (25-30 dBa) Serviceable Warranty – 2 years Clean Exhaust Engine Exhaust DPF (PM Control)
19 SCR Catalysts Length and Cell Pitch Optimized –Length selected for best combination of reduction/cost/pressure drop –Cell Pitch selected for best resistance to soot and ash build-up Catalyst formulations tailored to specific temperature ranges –Allows higher and lower temperature applications –Minimum 572°F up to max 986°F
20 Injection Control Systems Open Loop Injection Controllers: –Injection rate based on field programmed load vs. urea injection curve –Requires a portable load bank for constructing curve –Not able to compensate for changes in engine operation, catalyst degradation, and ambient conditions –Less efficient with regard to reducing agent Closed Loop Injection Controllers: –Injection rate based on actual exhaust gas NOx concentrations –Not load dependant –Able to compensate for changes in engine operation, catalyst degradation, and ambient conditions –Conserves reactant by continuously optimizing reducing agent injection rate to minimize over injection resulting and eliminating excessive ammonia slip
21 Reducing Agents SCR Process requires injecting a Reducing Agent into the Exhaust –The reducing agent provides a reaction partner for NO x to turn into Nitrogen (N 2 ) and Water (H 2 0) Aqueous Urea or Ammonia may be used –Urea is safe to handle and transport, non-toxic –Ammonia is less expensive, but requires special handling, safety considerations, and permits Urea breaks down in the Exhaust into Ammonia (NH 3 ) and Caron Dioxide (CO 2 ) –Heat and Moisture in the exhaust cause Urea to break down –NOx reactions occur with the Ammonia
22 Questions? Steve Rethmeyer email@example.com CELL 918-629-4754 WWW.MIRATECHCORP.COM