Motivation Concerns the conditions responsible for variations in intensity, quality, and direction of ongoing behavior. Wide variation in motivational theories Weiner (1991, 1992) suggested the use of metaphors to categorize theories. Person as machine Pushed by internal needs Pulled by environmental stimuli Persona as Godlike Person as scientist Person as judge Person as intentional
Importance of Motivation in the Workplace Performance – Clear connections between productivity, performance, and motivation. Viteles (1953)- The method by which an employer “aroused the cooperation of individual workers”. Work-life balance- Interaction between satisfaction at work and in home life. Motivation is influenced by occurrences in each domain.
Attitudes- Relatively stable feelings or beliefs directed toward specific persons, groups, ideas, jobs, etc. Importance of Morale. Personality- Can be a predictor of motivation and work performance. Judge & Ilies (2002)- Meta-analysi examining the relationship between measures of the Big Five and indicators of motivation. Found strong, consistent relationships.
Early Approaches Earliest theories based on instincts Inborn tendencies thought to direct behavior Instincts later replaced by needs or drives. Internal motivation thought to be inborn and universally present in humans. Drives are the animal equivalents of needs.
Behaviorist approaches emphasized environmental factors as causes of behavior. Field Theory proposed that various forces in the psychological environment interact and combine to yield a final course of action. Known as group dynamics in industrial settings.
Person as Machine Theories Maslow’s Need Theory- All humans have a basic set of needs that express themselves over the lifespan as internal drives. Five Basic need sets Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory: Hygiene needs Motivator needs Self-Actualizati on Needs Esteem Needs Love Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs
Scott Adams’s Hierarchy of Needs More Money False Hope of Advancement Recognition Thrill of Empowerment Artificial challenge created by poor planning and inadequate resources Coffee, donuts, caffeinated soft drinks
Reinforcement Theory- (Behaviorism- Skinner)- Behavior depends on three simple elements: Stimulus Response reward Contingent reward, Intermittent or continuous reward- have been used in numerous industrial applications.
Person as Godlike Theories- Scientist Dissonance Theory- Festinger (1957)- Tension exists when individuals hold dissonant cognitions. Individuals will seek the absence of tension, and will be motivated to act in ways to reduce it. Path-goal theory- Georgopolus et al. (1957)- If a worker saw high productivity as a path to the goal of desired rewards or personal goals, that worker would likely be a high producer.
V.I.E. Theory- Vroom- More elegant version of path-goal. Valence- Assumes individuals will rationally estimate the relative attractiveness/unattractiveness of different rewards or outcomes Instrumentality- performance will lead to particular outcomes or rewards, and Expectancy- effort will lead to performance.
Equity Theory- Adams (1965)- Individuals view their world in terms of comparative inputs and outcomes. They compare their inputs and outcomes with those of their peers by developing an input/outcome ratio. Workload vs. pay rates. Will be motivated to correct discrepancies between ratios of self and peers.
Person as Godlike- Intentional Theories Goal-setting Theory- Goal setting adapted to the work setting. Goals as motivational forces. Individuals who set specific, difficult, but achievable goals will perform better than individuals who adopt a “do your best” goal, or no goal. Goal Commitment Goal Acceptance Money Participation Direction Intensity Persistence S trategies Ability Goal Specificity Performance Knowledge of Results
Control Theory- Alternate view of goal-setting based on the principle of feedback loops, which assume that an individual compares a standard to an actual outcome and adjusts behavior to bring the outcome into agreement with the standard. Action Theory- Rubicon theory- Considers the broad role of intention in motivated behavior as well as the connection between intention and action. Phases of active goal pursuit: Predecisional Postdecisional Actional Evaluative
Instruments Motivational Trait Questionnaire (MTQ)- Kanfer et al.- Measures six dimensions of “general motivation”. Focuses on personality in the context of performance. 48- item questionnaire Psychometrics Test-retest reliability >.80 Strong construct validity Internal consistency Subscales: α ≥.85 Overall: α =.83 for overall scale.
Meta-Motivation Inventory (MMI) Designed to assist people in assessing their progress in personal and managerial development by making them aware of where they stand in relation to a normative population. The scores provide feedback on personal and managerial styles. 60-item test Self-administered and self-scored Four major scales- Determinism, Motivation to Achieve, Need to Control Others, and Concern for People Eight additional scales: Self-Actualization, Stress, Repression, Anger Judgmental, Creativity Growth Potential, and Fun.
MMI Psychometrics Test-retest reliability: Subscales:.54 to.90 with a mean of.77. Major scales:.84 to.87. Concurrent validity is strong Convergent validity- Correlated with 12 scales that are shared with an established inventory. Discriminates between management levels, between female managers and female non-managers, and between top and bottom sales people.
Work Motivation Inventory (WMI) Assesses the importance an individual places on four goals and values: Accomplishment, Recognition, Power, and Affiliation. Bias scale to measure a tendency to present oneself in a positive light. Designed for use with individuals age 16 and above, is self- administered, and should take 10-15 minutes to complete. 65 items scored on 5-point Likert-type scales.
WMI Psychometrics Acceptable internal consistencies for the four main scales:.81 for Accomplishment,.82 for Recognition,.82 for Power, and.84 for Affiliation. The Bias scale has poor internal consistency, yielding an alpha of.33 and.45, in two studies. Use in interpreting other responses is questionable. Test-retest coefficients were.80 for Accomplishment,.59 for Recognition,.66 for Power, and.64 for Affiliation. Acceptable construct validity generated by cross-validtion with MBTI scores.
Interventions Contingent rewards- Identify target behaviors and offer workers rewards contingent on their engagement in these behaviors. Effective interventions result in long-term changes in behavior. Sales personnel.
Interventions Job Enrichment- (Maslow)- Based on the idea that jobs that satisfy higher order needs are capable of motivating individuals. Jobs that are more “enriched” and interesting than those that are tedious and boring offer motivation for employees to perform well. Can also be extended to the act of enriching jobs to increase worker motivation. Skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and task feedback
Interventions ProMES- Productivity Measurement and Enhancement System- Productivity improvement plan intended to maximize motivation primarily through cognitive means. Productivity is defined as how well a system uses its resources to achieve its goals Assumes the real issue in productivity is knowing how to allocate time and energy across possible actions or tasks. Multiple steps Form a design team Identify objectives Identify indicators Define contingencies Design feedback system Give and respond to feedback Monitor system