Presentation on theme: "BELLRINGER 8/27/2014 What is the “Scientific Method”? Is that the only way that scientists answer questions?"— Presentation transcript:
BELLRINGER 8/27/2014 What is the “Scientific Method”? Is that the only way that scientists answer questions?
BELLRINGER 8/27/2014 What is the “Scientific Method”? Is that the only way that scientists answer questions? BEST ANSWER: A METHOD A SCIENTIST USES TO CONDUCT RESEARCH SCIENTISTS USE 2 BASIC WAYS TO CONDUCT REASERCH Experimental Research – Observation designed to test a single variable (manipulated) Descriptive Research – Observation without manipulation or input
Safety and Lab Equipment
SAFETY APRON x Protect clothes from heat and chemical spills
FIRE BLANKET Traps O 2 and smothers flame
SAFETY GOGGLES Protect eyes from heat, debris and chemicals
RUNNING WATER Rinse materials CLEAN UP Wash Hands DO NOT PUT GLASS IN SINK or GARBAGE CAN; Broken glass must be placed in Broken Glass Container for proper disposal!
FIRE EXTINGUISHER Extinguish fire on objects and things
Graduated Cylinder Used to measure volumes of liquids. Used to measure volumes of liquids. A gra
BEAKER Beakers hold solids or liquids that will not release gases when reacted or are unlikely to splatter if stirred or heated. Measure volume of liquids
FLASK Erlenmeyer flasks hold solids or liquids that may release gases during a reaction or that are likely to splatter if stirred or heated.
TEST TUBES Heat and mix chemicals
EYE WASH STATION Rinse eyes
SAFETY SHOWER Know the location of the safety shower Used for hazardous chemical spill Notice there is no drain What could be a safety hazard after use of the shower if there is no drain?
Experimental Studies Violent Video Games Have Lower Effects on Highly-Exposed Teens. Teens who had high exposure (3hrs) to violent video games had less disrupted sleep than those teens that had low exposure (1hr). Conclusion that highly exposed teens were desensitized to the violence because of more exposure.
Experimental Scientific Method
Steps in the Experimental Scientific Method Observation Observation Hypothesis Hypothesis Experiment Experiment Data Collection Data Collection Conclusion Conclusion Retest Retest
Observations Gathered through your senses Gathered through your senses A scientist notices something in their natural world A scientist notices something in their natural world
Observations An example of an observation might be noticing that many frogs near the pond next to a chemical factory are HUGE. An example of an observation might be noticing that many frogs near the pond next to a chemical factory are HUGE.
Hypothesis A suggested reason for or solution to the problem. A suggested reason for or solution to the problem. Must be testable Must be testable Sometimes written as If…Then… statements Sometimes written as If…Then… statements Predicts an outcome Predicts an outcome
Hypothesis An example of a hypothesis might be that the frogs are HUGE due to a leaks from the nearby chemical factory. An example of a hypothesis might be that the frogs are HUGE due to a leaks from the nearby chemical factory. $
Experiment A procedure to test the hypothesis. A procedure to test the hypothesis.
Experiment Variable – factor in the experiment that is being tested A good or “valid” experiment will only have ONE variable!
Controls and Variables
Scientific Experiments Follow Rules A scientist changes one factor and observes or measures what happens. The scientist makes a special effort to keep other factors constant so that they will not effect the outcome. Those factors are called control variables.
What is the Purpose of a Control? Controls are NOT being tested Controls are used for COMPARISON
Other Variables The factor that is changed is known as the independent variable. The factor that is measured or observed is called the dependent variable.
Example of Controls & Variables For example, suppose you want to figure out the fastest route to walk home from school. You will try several different routes and time how long it takes you to get home by each one. Since you are only interested in finding a route that is fastest for you, you will do the walking yourself.
What are the Variables in Your Experiment? Varying the route is the independent variable Varying the route is the independent variable The time it takes is the dependent variable The time it takes is the dependent variable Keeping the same walker throughout makes the walker a control variable. Keeping the same walker throughout makes the walker a control variable. $
One more thing… it is best to make several trials with each independent variable.
Remember: To be a Valid Experiment: Two groups are required --- the control & experimental groups There should be only ____ variable
Data Results of the experiment May be quaNtitative (Numbers) or qualitative (Descriptive)
Data Must be organized These can be organized into charts, tables, or graphs
Conclusion The answer to the hypothesis based on the data obtained from the experiment
Retest In order to verify the results, experiments must be retested.
Solving a Problem 1)Identify a Problem 2) State Observations about the problem 3) Form a Hypothesis about the problem (if…then…) 4) Design an Experiment to test the hypothesis 5) Collect Data 6) Form a Conclusion 7) Retest
Observation vs. Inference
Observation Definition: describing something you are studying, using only facts that you can see, touch, hear or smell. An observation is not an opinion.
Inference Inference: using your observations to make a guess about an object or an outcome.
Think you’ve got it?! We can OBSERVE that the turtle is on the stump. We can OBSERVE that the stump is too high for the turtle to climb on. We can INFER that someone put the turtle on the stump. We can __________________that someone is smiling. We can _______________that they are happy. We can __________that a student is writing down their homework. We can __________that they are a successful student.
Observe this picture Observe this picture What are your observations? What do you think is happening?
Observation vs Inference An observation is made when you use our senses to gather information. An inference is the interpretation of an observation based on evidence and prior knowledge.
What are your observations? What can you infer from these observations?