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Psychometrics of the Heterosexist Attitudes in Sport – Lesbian Scale Elizabeth M. Mullin, Ph.D., CC-AASP, CSCS Physical Education & Health Education Department,

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Presentation on theme: "Psychometrics of the Heterosexist Attitudes in Sport – Lesbian Scale Elizabeth M. Mullin, Ph.D., CC-AASP, CSCS Physical Education & Health Education Department,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Psychometrics of the Heterosexist Attitudes in Sport – Lesbian Scale Elizabeth M. Mullin, Ph.D., CC-AASP, CSCS Physical Education & Health Education Department, Springfield College Purpose To provide evidence of criterion, convergent, and factorial validity, as well as test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the Heterosexist Attitudes in Sport – Lesbian (HAS-L) scale. Introduction Researchers have reported the following correlates of homophobia: Gender (Bouton et al., 1987; Harry, 1995; Henley & Pincus, 1978; Herek & Glunt, 1993; Hinrichs & Rosenberg, 2002; Lim, 2002; Morrison & Morrison, 2011; Raja & Stokes, 1998; Sakalli, 2002; Wright et al., 1999) Sexist (Henley & Pincus, 1978; Morrison & Morrison, 2011; Sakalli, 2002) and traditional sex role beliefs (Hinrichs & Rosenberg, 2002; Kurdek, 1988; Whitley, 1987) Religious involvement (Haddock et al., 1993; Henley & Pincus, 1978; Herek & Glunt, 1993; Hinrichs & Rosenberg, 2002; Morrison & Morrison, 2002, 2011) Republican/Conservative values (Sakalli, 2002; Morrison & Morrison, 2011; Whitley, 1987) Number of LGBT Individuals known (Herek & Capitano, 1996; Herek & Glunt, 1993; Raja & Stokes, 1998; Sakalli & Uğurlu, 2001) Sport has consistently demonstrated itself as a hyper-masculine, homophobic, and heterosexist domain (Anderson, 2011; Cahn, 1993; Gill et al., 2006; Hawes, 2001; Hemppill & Symons, 2009; Jacobson, 2002; Lenskyj, 1986, 1991, 1997; Roper & Hallloran, 2007) but no researcher has used a sport- specific questionnaire to investigate heterosexism Mullin (2013) developed and reported initial evidence of reliability and validity for a 14-item questionnaire to measure heterosexist attitudes in women’s athletics, the HAS-L. Further evidence of reliability and validity of the HAS-L is needed. Method Female collegiate athletes (N = 239) from eight different sports and representing colleges in the Mid-Atlantic region participated Instrumentation: HAS-L (Mullin, 2013) Attitudes towards Lesbians and Gay Males-Short Form (ATLG; Herek & McLemore, 2011) Attitudes toward Women Scale-Short Form (ATWS; Spence & Helmrich, 1973) Religious Attitudes Inventory (RAI; Ausbel & Schpoont, 1957) Marlowe-Crowne Social-Desirability Scale (MC-SDS, Crowne & Marlowe, 1960) Demographic questionnaire Participants completed all questionnaires during session 1 Participants completed the HAS-L during session 2, approx. 4 weeks after session 1 Results Fit statistics (CFI, TL, RMSEA) demonstrated acceptable fit of the model at both sessions 1 and 2. All items loaded significantly (p <.05) onto keyed domains. Discussion Taken together, the HAS-L continued to demonstrate evidence of reliability and validity as a measure of heterosexist attitudes in women’s college athletics. The Avoidance of the Lesbian Label continues to be the weakest performing subscale and warrants consideration of edits or removal. Limitations included use older questionnaires and participant fatigue during session 1. Variables (bold: p <.05) Cognitive/ Affective Language Behaviors Inclusion Behaviors Avoidance of the Lesbian Label ATL.67.22.28.34 ATG.60.17.26.32 RAI-.33-.12-.07-.03 MC-SDS-.09-.20.04-.11 ATWS-.33-.20-.18-.20 Age-.08.01 -.15 Semesters-.06.00-.12 No. LGBT-.18-.01-.10-.13 Politics.20-.02.24.12 Kinsey-.40.08.06-.14 Heterosexist Attitudes in Sport Scale – Lesbian (HAS-L; Mullin, 2013) Affective/Cognitive subscale Internal Consistency:.81,.85 Test-Retest:.91 (.88-.93) Language Behaviors subscale Internal Consistency:.72,.83 Test-Retest.80 (.73-.86) Inclusion Behaviors subscale Internal Consistency:.60,.78 Test-Retest:.64 (.52-.74) Avoidance of the Lesbian Label subscale Internal Consistency:.50,.54 Test-Retest:.70 (.59-.78)


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