2KEY TERMS Compression test Cranking vacuum test Cylinder leakage test Dynamic compression testIdle vacuum testPaper testPower balance testRestricted exhaustRunning compression testVacuum testWet compression test
3TYPICAL ENGINE-RELATED COMPLAINTS Drive-ability problems cannot be solved by replacing ignition and/or fuel related parts if the engine is in poor condition.Typical engine mechanical-related complaints include the following:Excessive oil consumptionEngine misfiringLoss of powerSmoke from the engine or exhaustEngine noiseFIGURE 22–1 Blowby gases coming out of the crankcase vent hose. Excessive amounts of combustion gases flow past the piston rings and into the crankcase.
4ENGINE SMOKE DIAGNOSIS The color of engine exhaust smoke can indicate what engine problem might exist.Blue = oilBlack = fuelWhite (steam) = coolantFIGURE 22–2 White steam is usually an indication of a blown (defective) cylinder head gasket that allows engine coolant to flow into the combustion chamber where it is turned to steam.
5THE DRIVER IS YOUR BEST RESOURCE The driver of the vehicle knows a lot about the vehicle and how it is driven.Before diagnosis is started, always ask the following questions.When did the problem first occur?Under what conditions does it occur?Cold or hot?Acceleration, cruise, or deceleration?How far was it driven?What recent repairs have been performed?
6VISUAL CHECKSThe first and most important “test” that can be performed is a careful visual inspection.OIL LEVEL AND CONDITIONCOOLANT LEVEL AND CONDITIONOIL LEAKSFIGURE 22–3 What looks like an oil pan gasket leak can be a rocker cover gasket leak. Always look up and look for the highest place you see oil leaking; that should be repaired first.
7VISUAL CHECKSMost aftermarkets sell dye and UV light kits to diagnose vehicle leaks.Add the appropriate dye to the suspected system.Do NOT cross-contaminate dyes.
8Look for the highest leak. FIGURE 22–5 Using a black light to spot leaks after adding dye to the oil.Look for the highest leak.
9ENGINE NOISE DIAGNOSIS An engine knocking noise is often difficult to diagnose. Several items that can cause a deep engine knock include:Valves clickingTorque converterCracked flex plateLoose or defective drive belts or tensionersPiston pin knockPiston slapTiming chain noiseRod-bearing noiseMain-bearing knock
10Engine Noise and CostA light ticking noise often heard at one-half engine speed and associated with valve train noise is a less serious problem than many deep-sounding knocking noises. Generally, the deeper the sound of the engine noise, the more the owner will have to pay for repairs. A light “tick tick tick,” though often not cheap, is usually far less expensive than a deep “knock knock knock” from the engine.
11A scan tool can be used to “short” each cylinder. Engine NoiseA scan tool can be used to “short” each cylinder.If the knock goes away or is drastically reducedYou have found the bad cylinderUsually bottom end
12An inexpensive stethoscope can be used to zero in on the location.
13OIL PRESSURE WARNING LAMP The red oil pressure warning lamp in the dash usually lights when the oil pressure is less than 4 to 7 PSI, depending on vehicle and engine.The oil light should not be on during driving.If the oil warning lamp is on, stop the engine immediately.Always confirm oil pressure with a reliable mechanical gauge before performing engine repairs.The sending unit or circuit may be defective.the oil pressure sending (sender) unit usually located near the oil filter. Screw the pressure gauge into the oil pressure sending unit hole.
14OIL PRESSURE WARNING LAMP Common causes of low oil pressure are:Bad bearingsIneffective oil pumpClogged oil pump pick-upClogged oil filter
15COMPRESSION TESTAn engine compression test is one of the fundamental engine diagnostic tests that can be performed.For smooth engine operation, all cylinders must have equal compression.An engine can lose compression by leakage of air through one or more of only three routes.Intake or exhaust valvePiston rings (or piston, if there is a hole)Cylinder head gasketFIGURE 22–10 A two-piece compression gauge set. The threaded hose is screwed into the spark plug hole after removing the spark plug. The gauge part is then snapped onto the end of the hose.
22WET COMPRESSION TESTIf the compression test reading indicates low compression on one or more cylinders, add three squirts of oil to the cylinder and retest.This is called a wet compression test, when oil is used to help seal around the piston rings.A significant increase indicates bad rings.FIGURE 22–12 Badly burned exhaust valve. A compression test could have detected a problem, and a cylinder leakage test (leak-down test) could have been used to determine the exact problem.
23RUNNING (DYNAMIC) COMPRESSION TEST Running compression at idle should be PSI (about half cranking compression). Snap throttle compression should be about 80% of cranking compression
24The Paper TestA soundly running engine should produce even and steady exhaust at the tailpipe. You can test this with the paper test. Hold a piece of paper or a 3 5 index card (even a dollar bill works) within 1 in. (25 mm) of the tailpipe with the engine running at idle. The paper should blow out evenly without “puffing.” If the paper is drawn toward the tailpipe at times, the exhaust valves in one or more cylinders could be burned. Other reasons why the paper might be sucked toward the tailpipe include the following:1. The engine could be misfiring because of a lean condition that could occur normally when the engine is cold.2. Pulsing of the paper toward the tailpipe could also be caused by a hole in the exhaust system. If exhaust escapes through a hole in the exhaust system, air could be drawn in during the intervals between the exhaust puffs from the tailpipe to the hole in the exhaust, causing the paper to be drawn toward the tailpipe.3. Ignition fault causing misfire.
25The Paper TestFIGURE 22–9 The paper test involves holding a piece of paper near the tailpipe of an idling engine. A good engine should produce even, outward puffs of exhaust. If the paper is sucked in toward the tailpipe, a burned valve is a possibility.
26CYLINDER LEAKAGE TESTOne of the best tests that can be used to determine engine condition is the cylinder leakage test.This test involves injecting air under pressure into the cylinders one at a time.The amount and location of any escaping air helps the technician determine the condition of the engine.The air is injected into the cylinder through a cylinder leakage gauge into the spark plug hole.
27CYLINDER LEAKAGE TEST If leaking air is heard through the: throttle body = bad intake valveexhaust system = bad exhaust valveDipstick or valve cover = bad ringsFIGURE 22–13 A typical handheld cylinder leakage tester.
28CYLINDER LEAKAGE TESTFIGURE 22–14 A whistle stop used to find top dead center. Remove the spark plug and install the whistle stop, then rotate the engine by hand. When the whistle stops making a sound, the piston is at the top.
29CYLINDER POWER BALANCE TEST Most large engine analyzers and scan tools have a cylinder power balance feature.The purpose of a cylinder power balance test is to determine if all cylinders are contributing power equally.It determines this by shorting out one cylinder at a time.If the engine speed (RPM) does not drop as much for one cylinder as for other cylinders of the same engine, then the shorted cylinder must be weaker than the other cylinders.
30VACUUM TESTS CRANKING VACUUM TEST IDLE VACUUM TEST LOW AND STEADY VACUUMFLUCTUATING VACUUMFIGURE 22–16 An engine in good mechanical condition should produce 17 to 21 in. Hg of vacuum at idle at sea level.Vacuum Test Video
31Cranking VacuumYou can get a quick basic appraisal of engine condition by connecting a vacuum gauge to the manifold and a tachometer to the ignition to check vacuum and rpm at cranking speed. Warm up the engine first, then shut it down and connect your test equipment. Close the throttle and disable the ignition, or use a remote starter so the engine won't start. Crank the engine for 10 to 15 seconds and observe the vacuum and tach readings.Note that different engines produce different cranking vacuum readings. Some carmakers publish specifications; others don't. Again, experience will be your best guide. What you're looking for, most importantly, is steady vacuum and cranking speed.If the cranking speed is steady (about 200 rpm) and vacuum also is steady (around 5 inches), the engine most likely is in good mechanical condition. If rpm and vacuum are uneven, the cylinders aren't pumping equally.
32VACUUM TESTSFIGURE 22–17 A steady but low reading could indicate retarded valve or ignition timing.Note: A vehicle with a high performance camshaft will exhibit low idle vacuum.
33VACUUM TESTSFIGURE 22–18 A gauge reading with the needle fluctuating 3 to 9 in. Hg below normal often indicates a vacuum leak in the intake system.FIGURE 22–19 A leaking head gasket can cause the needle to vibrate as it moves through a range from below to above normal.
34VACUUM TESTSFIGURE 22–20 An oscillating needle 1 or 2 in. Hg below normal could indicate an incorrect air-fuel mixture (either too rich or too lean).FIGURE 22–21 A rapidly vibrating needle at idle that becomes steady as engine speed is increased indicates worn valve guides.
35VACUUM TESTSFIGURE 22–22 If the needle drops 1 or 2 in. Hg from the normal reading, one of the engine valves is burned or not seating properly.FIGURE 22–23 Weak valve springs will produce a normal reading at idle, but as engine speed increases, the needle will fluctuate rapidly between 12 and 24 in. Hg.
36VACUUM TESTSFIGURE 22–24 A steady needle reading that drops 2 or 3 in. Hg when the engine speed is increased slightly above idle indicates that the ignition timing is retarded.FIGURE 22–25 A steady needle reading that rises 2 or 3 in. Hg when the engine speed is increased slightly above idle indicates that the ignition timing is advanced.
37VACUUM TESTSFIGURE 22–26 A needle that drops to near zero when the engine is accelerated rapidly and then rises slightly to a reading below normal indicates an exhaust restriction.
38EXHAUST RESTRICTION TEST If the exhaust system is restricted, the engine will be low on power, yet smooth.Common causes of restricted exhaust include the following:Clogged catalytic converterClogged or restricted mufflerDamaged or defective piping
39TESTING BACK PRESSURE WITH A VACUUM GAUGE A vacuum gauge can be used to measure manifold vacuum at a high idle (2000 to 2500 RPM).If the exhaust system is restricted, pressure increases in the exhaust system.This pressure is called back pressure.Manifold vacuum will drop gradually if the engine is kept at a constant speed if the exhaust is restricted.
40TESTING BACK PRESSURE WITH A PRESSURE GAUGE Exhaust system back pressure can be measured directly by installing a pressure gauge into an exhaust opening.This can be accomplished in one of the following ways.With an oxygen sensorWith the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valveWith the air-injection reaction (AIR) check valve
41TESTING BACK PRESSURE WITH A PRESSURE GAUGE FIGURE 22–27 A technician-made adapter used to test exhaust system back pressure.
42DIAGNOSING HEAD GASKET FAILURE Several items can be used to help diagnose a head gasket failure.Exhaust gas analyzerChemical testBubbles in the coolantExcessive exhaust steamFIGURE 22–28 A tester that uses a blue liquid to check for exhaust gases in the exhaust, which would indicate a head gasket leak problem.
43COOLANT TEMPERATURE LIGHT DASH WARNING LIGHTSMost vehicles are equipped with several dash warning lights often called “telltale” or “idiot” lights.These lights are often the only warning a driver receives that there may be engine problems.OIL (ENGINE) LIGHTCOOLANT TEMPERATURE LIGHT
44Misfire DiagnosisIf a misfire goes away with propane added to the air inlet, suspect a lean condition.
45SUMMARYThe first step in diagnosing engine condition is to perform a thorough visual inspection, including a check of oil and coolant levels and condition.Oil leaks can be found by using a white powder or a fluorescent dye and a black light.Many engine-related problems make a characteristic noise.Oil analysis by an engineering laboratory can reveal engine problems by measuring the amount of dissolved metals in the oil.A compression test can be used to test the condition of valves and piston rings.A cylinder leakage test fills the cylinder with compressed air, and the gauge indicates the percentage of leakage.A cylinder balance test indicates whether all cylinders are working okay.Testing engine vacuum is another procedure that can help the service technician determine engine condition.
46REVIEW QUESTIONSDescribe the visual checks that should be performed on an engine if a mechanical malfunction is suspected.List three simple items that could cause excessive oil consumption.List three simple items that could cause engine noises.Describe how to perform a compression test and how to determine what is wrong with an engine based on a compression test result.Describe the cylinder leakage test.Describe how a vacuum gauge would indicate if the valves were sticking in their guides.Describe the test procedure for determining if the exhaust system is restricted (clogged) using a vacuum gauge.
47CHAPTER QUIZ1. Technician A says that the paper test could detect a burned valve. Technician B says that a grayish white stain on the engine could be a coolant leak. Which technician is correct?Technician A onlyTechnician B onlyBoth Technicians A and BNeither Technician A nor B
48CHAPTER QUIZ2. Two technicians are discussing oil leaks. Technician A says that an oil leak can be found using a fluorescent dye in the oil with a black light to check for leaks. Technician B says that a white spray powder can be used to locate oil leaks. Which technician is correct?Technician A onlyTechnician B onlyBoth Technicians A and BNeither Technician A nor B
49CHAPTER QUIZ3. Which of the following is the least likely to cause an engine noise?Carbon on the pistonsCracked exhaust manifoldLoose accessory drive beltVacuum leak
50CHAPTER QUIZ4. A good engine should produce how much compression during a running (dynamic) compression test at idle?150 to 200 PSI100 to 150 PSI60 to 90 PSI30 to 60 PSI
515. A smoothly operating engine depends on ________. CHAPTER QUIZ5. A smoothly operating engine depends on ________.High compression on most cylindersEqual compression between cylindersCylinder compression levels above 100 PSI (700 kPa) and within 70 PSI (500 kPa) of each otherCompression levels below 100 PSI (700 kPa) on most cylinders
526. A good reading for a cylinder leakage test would be ________. CHAPTER QUIZ6. A good reading for a cylinder leakage test would be ________.Within 20% between cylindersAll cylinders below 20% leakageAll cylinders above 20% leakageAll cylinders above 70% leakage and within 7% of each other
53CHAPTER QUIZ7. Technician A says that during a power balance test, the cylinder that causes the biggest RPM drop is the weak cylinder. Technician B says that if one spark plug wire is grounded out and the engine speed does not drop, a weak or dead cylinder is indicated. Which technician is correct?Technician A onlyTechnician B onlyBoth Technicians A and BNeither Technician A nor B
548. Cranking vacuum should be ________. CHAPTER QUIZ8. Cranking vacuum should be ________.2.5 in. Hg or higherOver 25 in. Hg17 to 21 in. Hg6 to 16 in. Hg
55CHAPTER QUIZ9. Technician A says that a leaking head gasket can be tested for using a chemical tester. Technician B says that leaking head gasket can be found using an exhaust gas analyzer.Technician A onlyTechnician B onlyBoth Technicians A and BNeither Technician A nor B
5610. The low oil pressure warning light usually comes on ________. CHAPTER QUIZ10. The low oil pressure warning light usually comes on ________.Whenever an oil change is requiredWhenever oil pressure drops dangerously low (4 to 7 PSI)Whenever the oil filter bypass valve opensWhenever the oil filter anti-drainback valve opens