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1 Downloaded from Diploma in Aviation Medicine: Human Performance Revision June 11

2 Downloaded from Objectives of Aviation Psychology to enhance flight safety to improve effectiveness

3 Downloaded from Why is There Interest in Human Performance in Aviation? Aviation is a safety-critical operation Aircrew are subjected to many sources of stress High levels of human performance must be achieved (e.g., fast jet pilots) Human error is heavily implicated in aviation accidents

4 Downloaded from Equipment & tasks Environment Other personnel Human operator The Human in the Aviation System

5 Downloaded from Content of Human Performance Module General Principles Introduction to Human Performance Module Fundamentals of Human Performance Individual Differences Social Psychology and Aviation A small amount of basic theory to help you to interpret the practical studies

6 Downloaded from Content of Human Performance Module New this year! An early session on human error …to provide a context for the module

7 Downloaded from Content of Human Performance Module Personal & Environmental Factors  Stress & Workload in Aviation I  Stress & Workload in Aviation II  Perceptual Issues in Aviation  Situation Awareness  Selection of Aviation Personnel

8 Downloaded from Content of Human Performance Module Training and Simulation  Simulation and Training  Fundamentals of CRM Training  Practical Aspects of CRM & LOFT

9 Downloaded from Content of Human Performance Module Systems Factors  Aviation Ergonomics I  Aviation Ergonomics II

10 Downloaded from Content of Human Performance Module The Human Factor in Aviation Accidents  Seminar: Flight Safety –Prof Peter Jorna, former head of division at NLR Amsterdam Also an accident module at Henlow, providing a context for this module See also lectures on Sleep, Fatigue and Shift-Working

11 Downloaded from Equipment & tasks Environment Other personnel Human operator The Human in the Aviation System: Relevance of Module Topics Selection Individual Differences

12 Downloaded from Equipment & tasks Environment Other personnel Human operator The Human in the Aviation System: Relevance of Module Topics Ergonomics Workload Technical Training

13 Downloaded from Equipment & tasks Environment Other personnel Human operator The Human in the Aviation System: Relevance of Module Topics Stress Perception

14 Downloaded from Equipment & tasks Environment Other personnel Human operator The Human in the Aviation System: Relevance of Module Topics CRM Training

15 Downloaded from Equipment & tasks Environment Other personnel Human operator The Human in the Aviation System: Relevance of Module Topics ‘Situation Awareness’ and ‘Human Error’ encompass all these interactions

16 Downloaded from Human Information Processing

17 Downloaded from Cognition Processes involved in the input, storage, transformation, and output of information by humans Main topics: Memory Attention Skills

18 Downloaded from Memory Three major memory systems: Sensory memory Short-term memory Long-term memory

19 Downloaded from Summary of properties of memory systems (inferred from classic experiments on memory) learn this! SensoryShort-termLong-term CapacityHigh7  2 chunksno known limit Duration1 sec10-15 secpermanent? Type of storagePhysicalacousticsemantic characteristics Nature of retrievalparallelserialhierarchy? Nature of forgettingdecay/maskinginterferencefailure of retrieval

20 Downloaded from Attention Selective attention: attend to one of several competing sources of information Divided attention: attempt to attend to more than one information source or task at the same time

21 Downloaded from Shadowing task Can detect physical changes on the unattended channel, but not semantic content Dichotic listening task Performance very poor Subjects tended to organise their recall by ear, not by recency of presentation Led Broadbent to propose Filter Theory. But, later shown that subjects tend to hear their own name on the unattended channel subjects tend to follow the message, even if it switches ears hence, there is semantic processing on the unattended channel However, we can assume that recognition of unattended information is less likely than recognition of attended material Make sure that you understand this!

22 Downloaded from Divided attention Key question: Does man have a single information-processing channel (all tasks compete for the same ‘resources’ or ‘capacity’) or specialised resources for particular types of activity? (tasks performed concurrently compete only if they draw upon the same resources)

23 Downloaded from Some support for the multiple resource theory: often, the degree of task interference depends upon the similarity of the tasks But: sometimes tasks that are dissimilar are found to interfere Baddeley’s working memory model is a compromise between extreme single-channel and multiple-resource views Central Executive Visuo-spatial scratchpad Articulatory loop

24 Downloaded from Skills (obviously relevant to training lectures!) Characteristics typically a sequence of activities goal-directed behaviour use of feedback Skill acquisition Three phases are sometimes distinguished: Early or cognitive phase Intermediate or associative phase Final or autonomous phase In the final phase, behaviour becomes automatic; delegated to the control of ‘motor programs’ that do not require conscious attention and do not place heavy demands for mental resources Many everyday errors (actions not as planned) are associated with overlearned behaviour These errors involve well-practised behaviour, but are inappropriate Some aircrew errors are of this type

25 Downloaded from Issues in skill acquisition Whole versus part learning Massed versus spaced learning Transfer of training very important aspect of simulator-based training

26 Downloaded from Individual Differences

27 Downloaded from Two major types of individual difference covered: l Intelligence/ability/aptitude l Personality l Factor Analysis: make sure that you have a good intuitive grasp of this: you don’t need to know the underlying mathematics! l Basic psychometric criteria

28 Downloaded from Intelligence/ability/aptitude These are the key issues l Intelligence: Innate or learned? l Intelligence: How many abilities? There is evidence for a general ability factor However, specific abilities also appear to exist l Intelligence: The Intelligence Quotient (IQ) l Aptitudes l Test Fairness l Intelligence: Are IQ tests valid?

29 Downloaded from Personality key issues l Types of personality test: l Interview (not reliable) l Projective tests l Personality questionnaires l (discussed examples of each) l Is there a ‘pilot personality’? l Does personality influence success in flying training? l Is there an ‘accident-prone’ personality’?

30 Downloaded from Social Psychology

31 Downloaded from Types of social influence (can use this info for CRM questions) Compliance: behaviour consistent with direct request foot-in-the-door phenomenon door-in-the-face phenomenon Conformity: behaviour consistent with group norms size of group (up to about four) attractiveness and status of group members Informational influence (trusting others’ judgements) and normative influence (seeking group acceptance) Obedience to authority Milgram experiment 62.5% of the 40 subjects administered shocks to the highest level factors affecting obedience, such as status of experimenter, proximity to ‘student’ Think about how this applies to small groups of interest to us, such as flight crew or teams of maintenance engineers

32 Downloaded from Group Decision Making: Polarisation Was thought that group decision making was more risky than individual DM (‘risky shift’) — but became apparent that there is a shift in the direction of the pole that, on average, the group favours as individuals (polarisation) Stoner’s experiments Normative and informational influences produce group polarisation

33 Downloaded from Group Decision Making: Groupthink Work of Janis. Based on real-life examples such as Bay of Pigs (or, more recently, UK MPs’ expenses!) Desire for consensus overrides group members’ motivation to assess risk and consider alternative courses of action Groupthink occurs under the following conditions: High cohesiveness of the group Uncertainty of approval Insulation of the group Directive leadership High stress situations Symptoms include Illusion of invulnerability Stereotypes of out-group ‘Mindguards’ Direct pressure on dissenters Collective rationalisation Effects on decision making: Incomplete survey of alternatives Incomplete survey of objectives Incomplete analysis of risks associated with course of action No contingency plans

34 Downloaded from Aeronautical Decision Making (ADM) Work of Jensen: decision error is cause of most fatal aviation accidents; argued that decision making can be improved through training Decisions have two components: Rational judgement (‘Headwork’) Motivational judgement (‘Attitudes’) Hazardous attitudes: Anti-authority Resignation Impulsivity Invulnerability Macho ADM courses aim to provide: Ability to recognise hazardous attitudes Knowledge of effects of these attitudes Skills to overcome the effects Methods Self assessment tools Examination of case studies Practical Exercises

35 Downloaded from Perceptual Issues in Aviation

36 Downloaded from Perception is the process of acquiring, selecting, and organising sensory information The most important perceptual processes for aviation are those associated with vision and hearing 1 The ear and the auditory system –balance and the vestibular system –localisation of sound and identification of source 2The visual system –bottom-up processing –top-down processing –cues to depth perception

37 Downloaded from The ear and the auditory system  Balance. The vestibular system of the inner ear detects angular and linear accelerations of the head  Hearing. To detect sounds, to determine the location of their sources and to recognise the identity of these sources The ear serves two main functions:

38 Downloaded from Practical implications Balance and the vestibular system Accelerating aircraft The situation is aggravated if the pilot attempts to compensate for an incorrect percept. Although feedback from the vestibular system can be compelling, a pilot needs to learn to trust instrumentation. With regard to the otolith, the weight force in a climbing aircraft operates similarly to the resultant force in an accelerating aircraft. Without visual feedback, pilots can mistake acceleration for pitch. Ascending aircraft Weight force Inertia force Resultant  

39 Downloaded from Localisation of sound Auditory perception Interaural differences: Intensity. Most suited to localising high frequencies Time/phase. Most suited to localising low frequencies. Sounds emanating from directly in front and behind the head produce the same interaural differences.

40 Downloaded from Practical implications  Cockpit design –The cockpit relies heavily on the presentation of visual information. Adoption of auditory signals may reduce the workload experienced by pilots in the visual domain.  Localisation of auditory warnings –Similar sounding warnings emanating from similar areas may cause confusion –Adoption of white noise bursts within ambulance sirens Auditory perception

41 Downloaded from What you see is what you get? Visual modality is obviously extremely important in aviation. But can we always trust our eyes? The visual scene is captured by the eye as a poor quality, two-dimensional representation What is perceived is determined by:  ‘Bottom-up’ processes. The percept of a stimulus is determined by features of the stimulus as processed by the visual cortex  ‘Top-down’ processes. The interpretation (consciously or not) of a stimulus can be determined by our experience and knowledge Important distinction ! Visual perception

42 Downloaded from  If the percept is generated deterministically (bottom-up processing) from the visual cortex... ... how can one distal (real world) stimulus produce two percepts?  By a mental model: Our own experience and expectations help to determine what we see (top-down processing) Old or young women? Thirteen or ‘B’? Necker cube Lincoln or women? Top-down processes Visual perception

43 Downloaded from  Convergence –of the eyes.  Stereopsis –disparity between the two images.  Accommodation –of the lens.  Retinal versus actual size –for known objects.  Overlap –a near object will occlude the view of a far object.  Position in visual field –objects nearer the horizon are farther away.  Aerial Perspective –clarity of objects is reduced at distance.  Relative motion –angular velocity greater for near objects. All require both bottom-up & top-down processing. Depth perception: learn this! Visual perception

44 Downloaded from 44 Position in visual field objects nearer the horizon are farther away Textual Gradient Surfaces will have a finer texture with distance Stereopsis Binocular disparity between the two images Convergence of the eyes Occlusion a near object will occlude the view of a far object Perceptual constancy Retinal versus actual size Relative motion angular velocity greater for near objects All require both bottom-up & top-down processing. How we perceive depth Know this

45 Downloaded from  Featureless surfaces, or those with textures of unknown sizes, can produce inaccurate judgements of size. –Sea. –Beehives for caravans.  Can produce an inaccurate mental model of the situation which overrides the correct perception of the instruments. –Top-down influences. –Exacerbated by fatigue and workload. Some perceptual problems Visual perception

46 Downloaded from  Pilots may have to visually judge the glide slope without any cues other than those from the surface of the world.  The ‘aspect’ (retinal shape) of the runway is not very useful.  However, the visual touchdown point is a constant and unchanging cue, relative to the horizon.  If the horizon cannot be seen, its location must be implied, –The runway’s sides meet at the horizon. –The terrain’s texture gradients. –The relative position of the aircraft’s canopy. Practical implications: visual approach Visual perception: know the practical implications (next few slides)

47 Downloaded from Visual touchdown point HORIZON A B Angle of Approach A = B Practical implications: visual approach (2) Visual perception

48 Downloaded from  = angle of approach Visual impact point  Actual touchdown point  Practical implications: visual approach (3) Visual perception

49 Downloaded from  Identification of a colliding aircraft is confounded by; –Constant relative bearing. Unique characteristic. Periphery of retina detects sensitive to movement. –Non-linear increase in retinal size. Retinal image doubles with each halving of closure distance. –Uneven visual acuity across the retina. Maximal acuity at the fovea. Detection only if pilot is looking directly at it. Implications for visual scanning to acquire proximal image on the fovea. Practical implications: mid-air collisions Visual perception

50 Downloaded from  Aircraft A Impact  Aircraft B Relative Bearing Practical implications: mid-air collisions (2) Visual perception

51 Downloaded from 3 secs / 0.5 degree 1.5 secs / 1 degree 0.1 secs / VERY BIG Practical implications: mid-air collisions (3) Visual perception

52 Downloaded from  Bottom-up (information from our senses) and top-down (expectations and experiences) processes affect the way we perceive the world.  The resultant perception is often not a true reflection of the external world.  This can be advantageous when it is in our interest for differences between features in the external world to be exaggerated but potentially catastrophic when perceptual illusions lead us to take inappropriate behaviour. Summary Perception

53 Downloaded from Ergonomics

54 Downloaded from Why ‘Ergonomics’? – Murrell

55 Downloaded from The HSI Framework – seven domains –Manpower –Personnel –Training –Human Factors Engineering (aka Ergonomics) Workplace design Anthropometry Critical Dimensions –System Safety –Health Hazards –Social & Organisational  HSI often called Human Factors Integration (HFI) – HFI is really the process by which HSI is applied to equipment procurement Some people adopt a strict definition of ergonomics; others treat all of HSI as being within the scope of ergonomics. You would not be penalised for adopting the latter definition!

56 Downloaded from

57 Tragic consequences Kegworth USS Vincennes Herald of Free Enterprise Chernobyl Three Mile Island

58 Downloaded from HSI Domains KNOW THESE Manpower: numbers of personnel required to operate, maintain, sustain, & train to deliver capability (e.g. aircrew complement) Personnel: cognitive/physical capabilities required to train for, operate, maintain, sustain system Training: instruction/education/ training to provide job skills, knowledge, values, and attitudes (different methods summarised) Human Factors Engineering (aka Ergonomics) Workplace design Anthropometry Critical Dimensions Systems Safety: applying HF expertise into programme Safety Management Process Health hazards: conditions inherent in the system that may cause injury or reduce performance or well-being Social/organisational factors: applying techniques from organisational psychology, social sciences, information science, and system of systems

59 Downloaded from Human Factors Engineering (aka Ergonomics) focused on the integration of human characteristics into system definition, design, development, and evaluation to optimise human machine performance under operational conditions.

60 Downloaded from Workplaces & interfaces  Cockpits  Workstations  Control rooms  Offices  Transport systems  Factories  Controls  Displays  Computer hardware  Computer software  Protective clothing  Other people

61 Downloaded from Physical workplace design  Inputs required from –EHFA –Task analysis –Link analysis –Allocation of function  Consider –Operational and environmental context –Human dimensions –Biomechanics and physiology

62 Downloaded from Functional factors  Task issues –Procedures –Critical elements  Responsibilities of organisation and individuals  Communications –Verbal –Non-verbal  Visual issues, such as sight lines  Flows of materials and personnel  Access and clearance –Normal –Emergency –Maintenance  Protection –Protective clothing & equipment –Barriers & guards

63 Downloaded from Anthropometry  Physical human dimensions  Population specific  Linear dimensions, for example: –Stature –Functional reach –Sitting height  Girth dimensions, for example: –Waist –Head circumference  Each dimension is expressed in terms of percentile

64 Downloaded from Be careful with percentiles when applying anthropometry  Requirements often state …must accommodate the 5th percentile and the 95th percentile human…  But, these people do NOT exist!

65 Downloaded from Critical dimensions  Choose dimensions relevant to the workstation, posture, and task –Sitting, standing, reach, fit, walking, crouching  5th percentile (smaller) dimensions considered for: –Seat adjustment, reach, vision, control movement, foot rests  95th percentile (larger) dimensions considered for: –Seat adjustment, ingress, fit, access, clearance

66 Downloaded from Clothing  Clothing increases most dimensions through the addition of bulk –e.g. stature, sitting height, chest depth, shoulder breadth But  Decreases the reach dimensions due to restriction of movement –e.g. functional reach, vertical functional reach

67 Downloaded from When to integrate Human Factors (Eurocontrol, 1999)

68 Downloaded from HSI “Designed” to Fit MoD’s Acquisition Operating Framework (AOF) Policy and Good Practice  CADMID cycle  System Readiness Levels (DEF STAN May 2008; ; )http://www.aof.mod.ukwww.hfidtc.com  MoD JSP to be introduced later this year ConceptAssessmentDemonstrationManufactureIn service Disposal Initial GateMain GateSystem Acceptance Has now happened

69 Downloaded from Summary  HSI covers all aspects of applied human factors  Human Factors Engineering is just one element that needs to be integrated  HSI comprises tools and processes that fit with systems engineering  HSI is widely applicable  Early inclusion is so much better than late intervention

70 Downloaded from Stress and Workload

71 Downloaded from Types of stress Life stress less important than the others in this context, but be aware of it Environmental stress Cognitive stress

72 Downloaded from Life stress Typically measured by questionnaire Some correlation between questionnaire scores and illness Some evidence that life stress is associated with accidents

73 Downloaded from Level of arousal Performance Yerkes-Dodson law: Know this Inverted U relation between arousal and performance Performance declines as arousal increases or decreases from the optimal level The optimal arousal level is inversely related to task difficulty Difficult task Easy task Environmental stress

74 Downloaded from Fear disruption of manual dexterity disruption of secondary task performance Noise greater effect on difficult tasks effect on error increased attentional selectivity effect on arousal (increases initially, then returns to normal) Sleep loss periodic lapses decreased attentional selectivity greater decrement on ‘easy’ tasks decreased arousal Hypoxia performance affected at over 10,000 ft some evidence that task learning is affected at only 8,000 ft Combined stressors Sleep loss and noise each impair performance in isolation However, noise improves the performance of sleep-deprived individuals Know this

75 Downloaded from Patterns of effects of stressors (from Hockey) StressorArousalSelectivitySpeedAccuracySTM Noise++0-- Anxiety++0-- Incentive+++++ Stimulants+++0- Heat++0-0 Alcohol-+--- Sleep loss----0 Fatigue-+--0 Depressants increase -decrease 0no effect no need to memorise all this, but know that each stressor has its own pattern of effects (cannot be explained by Yerkes-Dodson law)

76 Downloaded from Personality and stress Know this Two major dimensions of personality are: neuroticism (trait anxiety) introversion-extraversion Introverts are chronically over-aroused Extraverts are chronically under-aroused An arousing stressor (caffeine) has different effects on these individuals Trait anxiety comprises worry and emotionality Worry appears to interfere with task performance Performance of high-anxiety subjects impaired under high workload Evidence that personality influences success in flying training

77 Downloaded from Is the Yerkes-Dodson law adequate? Know this For: Can explain effects of combined stressors Can explain some effects of personality Can explain some effects of task difficulty (e.g. greater effect of sleep loss on easy tasks) Against: Does not explain specific patterns of effects of individual stressors Does not explain effects on attention Too flexible: does not lead to firm predictions

78 Downloaded from Factors influencing the effects of stressors know this Task difficulty Task duration Personality Intensity of the stressor Motivation Importance of the task component Presence of other stressors

79 Downloaded from Workload (cognitive stress) know this Types of workload measure Subjective Example: NASA Task Load Index easy to obtain face valid unobtrusive subjects can readily quantify their experience Physiological Example: heart rate variability do not disrupt performance often provide continuous record Performance-based Primary task or secondary task (e.g. time estimation) provide direct measure of operator performance difficult to establish which questions to ask (dimensions of workload) difficult to compare different types of task ratings may not be correlated with task performance equipment may be physically intrusive only indirect indication of performance operator may invest more effort to maintain primary-task performance choice of secondary task is important

80 Downloaded from Effects of high workload operator is prone to actions not as planned: unable to monitor activity fully increased attentional selectivity may respond quickly but inaccurately may shed some sub-tasks completely

81 Downloaded from Strategies for workload reduction [know this] Change the task: apply sound ergonomic principles automate some functions use new technologies Change the operator provide extensive training, to produce motor programs (overlearning) Personnel selection for example, low trait anxiety may confer better ability to cope with high task demands

82 Downloaded from Selection

83 Downloaded from Aims: Deciding What to measure How to measure Effectiveness of measures

84 Downloaded from Stages in Selection System Specify selection criteria Specify assessment methods Evaluate (After Hunter & Burke 1995) The Systems Approach to developing selection processes. 1.Job / Competency analysis — Identify Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes (KSAs) required 2. Use KSAs to identify appropriate selection methods. 3. Establish the reliability and fairness of the process 4. Validate

85 Downloaded from Job Analysis Person Requirements Aptitudes Predictors Person Specification Job Requirements Task Competencies Criteria Job Description Prediction (After Hunter & Burke 1995)

86 Downloaded from Job Analysis Aim — Identify critical competencies required for successful job performance Outputs — What does the job holder do? Inputs — what skills, knowledge, abilities does the job holder need? Result is a competency framework identifying critical success factors associated with successful performance Why? 1.To achieve the best possible prediction of job performance (put the right people in the job) 2.Legal requirement – test fairness

87 Downloaded from Types of Job Analysis 1. Hierarchical task analysis (Annett, Duncan et al 1971) 2. Functional Analysis (Fletcher 1991) Techniques: Critical incidence technique (CIT) (Flanagan 1954*) Identify key roles and functions of job Identify critical behaviours (related to success or failure) Classify into similar behaviours Summarise Validate using other SME Other techniques include Repertory grid

88 Downloaded from Classifying Aptitudes Fleishman’s Taxonomy of Skills Abilities were classified into: Cognitive: Information processing and problem solving Perceptual/spatial: Attention and spatial orientation Physical: Flexibility, strength and stamina Psychomotor: Coordination and reaction time NATO Study: Aptitude dimensions for military fast-jet pilots (Bydorf 1993) Situational awareness: Perceptual closure + reaction time Spatial orientation Time sharing Aggressiveness Divided attention Psychomotor coordination Perceptual speed Selective attention Visualisation

89 Downloaded from Weighting Aptitudes Determining priorities Need to identify relative importance of aptitudes in job performance DIF Analysis. Ratings of: Difficulty Importance Frequency

90 Downloaded from Choice of Measure Life Experiences Ability MotivationTemperament Performance CV; Biodata Interview Personality Questionnaire Group exercises Occupational Interest Inventories; Measures of personal values Interview Psychometric tests Work sample tests Physical tests

91 Downloaded from Types of aptitude measure Paper & pencil measures Computer-based testing: BARB (British Army); OASC (RAF); MicroPat (AAC, RN, BA, Cathay); TASKOMAT (Commercial); BAT (USAF) Ease of administration Experimental testing Dynamic measures possible Measure processing capacity Multi-tasks Sophisticated measures such as response latency Work sample RAF Flying Grading Simulation based Advantages of CBT & work sample Lower costs Example: Canadian Automated Pilot Selection System Biodata Personality measures see other lectures

92 Downloaded from Effectiveness of measures

93 Downloaded from Evaluating Selection: Reliability and Validity Reliability Accuracy and stability of the test Internal consistency reliability Split-half reliability Parallel forms Test-retest reliability Inter-rater reliability ValidityDoes the test really measure what it claims to measure? Construct validity Content validity Predictive validity See other lectures as well!

94 Downloaded from Predictor score Performance score False Positives True Negatives True Positives False Negatives Cut-off score ‘Pass Mark’ Error in allocation

95 Downloaded from Predictor score Performance score TP FP FN TN Higher Correlation reduces error

96 Downloaded from Predictor score Performance score Cut-off score 1 ‘Pass Mark’ Cut-off score 2 Effect of setting Cut-off scores

97 Downloaded from Average Correlation between competency ratings and job performance Interpreting scores Norm referenced — most cognitive/ability tests Self referenced — Attitude/Personality measures Criterion-referenced — job skills

98 Downloaded from Validity of Different Methods Selection Method Mean Validity Co-efficient Interview - Unstructured 1 Interview - Structured Biodata 1.37 References 3/1.17 to.26 Cognitive ability testing 4/1.25 to.53 Personality testing 1/5 Work-sample tests 1 Trainability tests 6.10 to

99 Downloaded from Example: RAF Aircrew Selection READY TO CHANGE YOUR LIFE? Your visit to OASC will take several days and includes: an initial briefing; aptitude tests; an aptitude test review; the exercise phase; an interview; an occupational medical; and fitness assessments. (from OASC brochure)

100 Downloaded from Example: RAF Aircrew Selection ADPO10369 EVOLUTION OF APTITUDE TESTING IN THE RAF M. Bailey, RAF Cranwell Before 1940: main method was unstructured interview About 50% pilot training failure rate at start of WWII First set of Aircrew Selection Board tests included Essay writing Elementary maths General intelligence Early developments need recognised for separate tests of skills and personality shift to testing for specific roles (e.g. electromechanical coordination) 1944: With help from USAAF, series of objectives measures (e.g. 24 aptitude tests for six aircrew categories) – waste down from 48% to 25% use of specially trained staff

101 Downloaded from Example: RAF Aircrew Selection 1944–84 Many more tests created – but at the end of this period tests were not markedly different Preliminary Flying School closed 1974 – selection then relied purely on aptitude tests. For various reasons validities dropped; for example, to.14 for training results Second generation selection tests: exploited increased computing capability: at first, computerised versions of existing tests later, new tests (based on abilities required, using Fleishman’s system) – Air Traffic and Fighter Controller Test Battery produced Nine weighted test scores used Good predictive validity Issues No formal job analysis Tests driven by theory and test availability Hence 1990s: Shift to domain-centred framework

102 Downloaded from Example: RAF Aircrew Selection :

103 Downloaded from Simulation and Training

104 Downloaded from Information from skill lecture simulation and training lecture (technical skills) CRM lecture (non-technical skills) Human error lecture etc

105 Downloaded from Key Issues Training needs analysis (organisational, occupational, individual) — focus on Knowledge, Skills, Abilities/ Attitudes (KSAs) Design of training programme Develop Instruction by Objective Select Instructional Strategy Select/ organise element to be trained Identify training aids Organise materials/resources Apply learning principles Develop Evaluation Instruments Implementation (who, where, when) Evaluation (Reaction, Learning, Behaviour, Results) Note DIF analysis (difficulty, importance, frequency) — helps to decide whether not to train, to train, or to over-train

106 Downloaded from Training issues (see also Human Information Processing lecture): Massed versus distributed practice Whole- versus part-task approach Phases of learning Feedback Media and technology Simulation — very important in aviation, where the objective is to maximise the transfer of learning from simulator to aircraft; fidelity is a key issue: do not need physical fidelity (simulator does not need to resemble the aircraft), but functional fidelity is important Internet-based — increasingly important; can be accessed even in the field Traditional — still some role for classroom-based instruction

107 Downloaded from Situation Awareness

108 Downloaded from Topics  Definitions  Models  Theory  Metrics  Applications  Limitations

109 Downloaded from Leading causal factor in a review of 175 aviation mishaps Hartel, Smith and Prince (1991) Major causal factor in 88% of accidents associated with human error in a review of major aircraft carrier accidents ( ) Endsley (1994) Controlled Flight Into terrain (CFIT) accidents killed 5000 people between 1978 and % of these accidents were due to loss of flight crew SA Woodhouse and Woodhouse (1995) Why is Studying Situation Awareness Important?

110 Downloaded from  SA popularised to describe the psychological processes of: –Attention –Memory –Perception –Prediction –Pattern Matching Historical Origins of SA ‘Mental Model’ of the situation

111 Downloaded from Definitions of SA 1 McMillan (1994) “... Knowledge of current and near-term disposition of both friendly and enemy forces within a volume of airspace.” McMillan (1994) Haines & Flateau (1992) “... One’s ability to remain aware of everything that is happening at the same time and to integrate that sense of awareness into what one is doing at that moment.” Haines & Flateau (1992) Hamilton (1987) “... A pilot’s continuous perception of self and aircraft in relation to the dynamic environment of flight, threats, and mission, and the ability to forecast, then execute tasks based on that perception.” Hamilton (1987)  Situation Awareness is...

112 Downloaded from A Working Definition of SA  Situation Awareness is... Endsley (1988) –“The perception of the elements in the environment within a volume of time and space, the comprehension of their meaning, and the projection of their status in the near future” Endsley (1988) –It is derived from the aircraft instrumentation, the out-the- window view, and his or her senses –The quality of an operator’s SA is moderated by individual capabilities, training, experience, objectives, and the ability to respond to task workload –The term ‘SA’ should only ever be applied to dynamic environments

113 Downloaded from Summary know this  When all is said and done we know that Situation Awareness refers to an operator’s knowledge and Understanding of the dynamic environment in which he/she is operating  It is knowledge of the ‘Big Picture’  SA provides the basis for subsequent decision making and performance in the operation of complex, dynamic systems PERCEPTION OF ENVIRONMENT COMPREHENSION OF CURRENT SITUATION PROJECTION OF FUTURE STATUS

114 Downloaded from A Model of SA Level 3 Level 2 Level 1 Endsley (1995) PERCEPTION OF ENVIRONMENT‘Perceiverelevantinformation’ COMPREHENSION OF CURRENT SITUATION ‘Integrate with task goals’ PROJECTION OF FUTURE STATUS ‘Predict future events / states based on understanding’

115 Downloaded from Endsley’s Model be aware of main elements Model of SA in dynamic decision making (from Endsley, 2000)

116 Downloaded from SA Environmental State E.g. Temperature Time Pressures Day/night Noise Lethality Operator Traits E.g. IQ Cognitive Abilities Conscientiousness Experience Personality Training Risk Taking Real World/System Information Salience of info Availability of info Info complexity Info quantity Automation Quality of HMI Operator State E.g. Frightened Confused High Workload Fatigued Aggressive Goals Mission Goals System Goals Personal Goals QinetiQ’s Model of The SA Process

117 Downloaded from The SA ‘PROCESS’ The SA Process  A series of complex cognitive processes, including: Perception, Working Memory, Pattern Matching, Attention and Long Term Memory  NOT ‘task’ or ‘individual’ specific  Also referred to as Situation Assessment (SAS)  Will be influenced by a multitude of ‘SA Factors’

118 Downloaded from  These factors WILL BE ‘task’ AND ‘individual’ specific  Each factor will have different weightings or importance attached to it for differing military domains  The number of such factors is vast Operator Traits E.g. IQ Cognitive Abilities Conscientiousness Experience Personality Training Risk Taking Environmental State E.g. Temperature Time Pressures Day/night Noise Lethality Goals/Doctrine /SOPs Mission Goals System Goals Personal Goals Directives ROE Commander Intent Knowledge/ Information Salience of info Availability of info Info complexity Info quantity Automation Quality of HMI Factors Affecting the SA Process Know the main headings!

119 Downloaded from  The output of the SA PROCESS will be a number of ‘Situation Models’ (or dynamic mental models)  These situation models are essentially knowledge and understanding  The quality of a person’s SA is defined by the match between these situation models and reality Situation Model Real World The difference between these represents the quality of one’s SA SA as a Product

120 Downloaded from  The person will have a situation model for each of the relevant ‘SA Information Domains’ associated with a specific task or job  Each SA information domain will comprise a number of ‘SA Elements’  Example: Endsley (2001) illustrates this for the task/job of piloting a civil aviation aircraft Geographical SA own aircraft other aircraft terrain features airports cities waypoints navigation fixes position relative to designated features path to desired location runway and taxiway assignments climb/descent points System SA system status functioning and settings radio altimeter transponders flight modes and automation deviations from correct settings ATC communications present fuel impact of degrades and settings on performance time and distance available on fuel Spatial/Temporal SA attitude altitude heading velocity vertical velocity Gs flight path actual values relative to assigned projected flight path projected landing time Environmental SA weather formations and movement temperature icing ceilings fog Turbulence, winds sun visibility IFR/VFR conditions areas to avoid flight safety projected weather conditions SA Elements

121 Downloaded from In Summary  The development and maintenance of SA occurs within an individual’s head  The SA process (or SAS) is a generic continuous process/cycle that is impacted upon by many factors  These factors will vary in their importance and influence depending upon the specific task and the individual undertaking that task  An individual will continuously cycle through the SA process for each SA Information Domain, developing a situation model for each  These situation models will be task-specific  All situation models will be continually updated and revised as new information becomes available or as the factors affecting the SA process change in importance or in state

122 Downloaded from Team SA  SA can be applied to teams as well as to individuals  Caution needed here, as SA cannot be shared (it resides inside the individual’s head), but information can be shared  We could be talking about: –1) The overlap in SA for the team –2) The SA of the team as moderated by the primary decision maker –3) The collective SA of the entire team

123 Downloaded from Measuring Situation Awareness  SA has become a major design driver –Developing operator interfaces to enhance SA –Developing automated systems without resulting in a loss of SA –Training techniques are designed to develop better SA  Development of SA metrics for evaluation purposes –Development of metrics since the late 1980s –Varying degrees of maturity / validation –Various forms of metrics Subjective Vs Objective Self-report Vs Third-Party rating Simulator-based Vs Test flight

124 Downloaded from SA Metrics  Crew SA  SA Global Assessment technique (SAGAT)  Snapshots  SA Flight Training Evaluator (SAFTE)  China Lake SA Scale (CLSA)  SA Rating Technique (SART)  SA Supervisory Rating Form (SASRF)  Physiological Measures: Eye Activity

125 Downloaded from SA Metrics – Summary  Know at least SAGAT/SART in a little detail, plus names of a few others

126 Downloaded from SA Metrics – Summary  Most SA measures have been designed using a particular SA definition, and with a specific application in mind –Keep this in mind when selecting an SA measure  In practice, 2 of the SA measures outlined previously are used far more than the others: –SART (subjective) –SAGAT (objective)  This is probably due to the extensive validity data that accompanies these measures (we ‘know’ they are measuring SA)

127 Downloaded from  There are three main military applications for SA research: –1) System/interface design, development, assessment and evaluation Operator interfaces designed to enhance SA Automated systems must switch without losing operator SA –2) Training operators to have better SA –3) Selecting operators who are predisposed to having high SA So, of What Use is SA Research?

128 Downloaded from Limitations of SA  SA is a theoretical construct –Practical difficulties in measuring and predicting SA –For those who do not understand the theoretical basics of what SA is all about, there can be an element of perceived circularity ‘Why did the aircraft crash?’ Because of lack of pilot SA ‘How do we know there was a lack of pilot SA?’ Because he crashed  Immature concept –Still much debate over definitions and measures

129 Downloaded from Crew Resource Management (CRM)

130 Downloaded from Introduction  Need for effective interaction  Aviation accidents: most have human error component CRM Evolution  Evolution of CRM to fifth-generation CRM Training

131 Downloaded from Objectives of CRM  Knowledge, skills, attitudes to promote safe, efficient operations: –Effective decision making –Good crew communication –Understanding/acceptance of role and responsibilities  CRM focuses broadly on training transportable teamwork skills CRM Training

132 Downloaded from  Types of CRM course  Foundation Course –Wide range of topics covered –Focus on discussion and video  Continuation Courses –In depth coverage of topic areas –Skills practice (low fidelity)  LOFT/MOST – Skills practice (high fidelity) – Crew-centred debrief CRM Training

133 Downloaded from  Topics in typical CRM courses –Human information processing –Personality and attitudes –Communications –Teamwork structures –Teamwork behaviours –Leadership style –Decision making –Stress management –Human error –Situation awareness –Automation on the flight deck –Fatigue and workload –Case studies & research findings –Be able to list the main topics CRM Training

134 Downloaded from Leadership issues  Effects of captain’s attitudes  Authority Gradient CRM Training

135 Downloaded from  Communication –US ASRS: most accidents involved failure of information transfer –Low-error crews demonstrate different patterns of comms  Communication skills know them! –Inquiry –Advocacy –Listening –Conflict resolution –Critique –Feedback  Barriers to communication –Physical; word usage; interpersonal; mental –Cultural and language barriers –Subordination problems –‘Power-distance’ barriers CRM Training

136 Downloaded from  Core teamwork behaviours –Monitoring –Feedback –Backing up CRM Training

137 Downloaded from  Ad hoc teams –Frequently arise in airline ops –73% of accidents occur on first day crew flying together  Situation awareness –Important topic in CRM –See lecture on SA! CRM Training

138 Downloaded from  CRM training resources –Self-study –Classroom awareness training –Modelling –Classroom skills training –Skills practice in simulators –Practice/coaching during flying CRM Training

139 Downloaded from  LOFT –Run in a high fidelity simulator –Realistic sortie/real time –Crew and facilitator ‘in role’ –Few failures –Non-technical focus –Focus on choice dilemmas –Non jeopardy –Crew-centred debrief using video CRM Training

140 Downloaded from  CRM Issues –What is ‘best practice’? –Does it work? –Those needing most help from CRM most resistant to change –May change attitudes but not behaviour –Needs management commitment –CRM skill fade occurs over time –Cultural issues should be considered CRM Training

141 Downloaded from Error and Accidents (See Accident module) The following may help you structure your Knowledge of this topic – drawn from work of John Chappelow

142 Downloaded from Perception Intention Action Task Disruptive factors Enabling factors Predisposition s ENVIRONMENT SYSTE M OPERATOR personality talent fatigue alcohol overarousal underarousal ergonomics training briefing social context noise heat cold vibration threat task demand Be able to list/ describe the main factors

143 Downloaded from

144 Social context 9% Social factors 11% Personality 21% Cognitive failure 17% Disorganised response 26% Ergonomics Training Briefing Admin. support ~ 40% Inexperienc e 23 % Summary: major factors

145 Downloaded from Introverted Extraverted Stable Neurotic Anxious Impulsive You’ve seen this before...

146 Downloaded from Expanded data set Major causal factors: Human factors

147 Downloaded from Expanded data set Sensitivity: Human factors Social context Sensory limitations Supervision Lack of airmanship Briefing Administrative support Inexperience High task demand Distraction Social factors This graph shows benefit of eliminating the factor, and cost of an increase in its severity Social factors are seen to be more important when we conduct sensitivity analysis: these problems are soluble

148 Downloaded from Error: Examples of Possible Remedies know this Administrative support Organisational interventions Inexperience More (or improved) training High task demand Selection (e.g., some personality types cope better with high workload) Training creates more ‘spare capacity’ The system can be modified to reduce workload (automation, better ergonomics etc) Distraction May be able to select individuals less prone to distraction Social factors Personnel selection CRM training


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