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Scientific Method. Steps in the Scientific Method (SM) Observation Observation Hypothesis Hypothesis Experiment Experiment Data Collection Data Collection.

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Presentation on theme: "Scientific Method. Steps in the Scientific Method (SM) Observation Observation Hypothesis Hypothesis Experiment Experiment Data Collection Data Collection."— Presentation transcript:

1 Scientific Method

2 Steps in the Scientific Method (SM) Observation Observation Hypothesis Hypothesis Experiment Experiment Data Collection Data Collection Conclusion Conclusion Publish Publish Retest Retest

3 Observations Gathered through using your senses Gathered through using your senses A scientist notices something occuring in their natural world A scientist notices something occuring in their natural world

4 Observations An example of an observation might be noticing that many deer are dying by being hit by cars driving too An example of an observation might be noticing that many deer are dying by being hit by cars driving tooFast.

5 Hypothesis A suggested solution to the problem. A suggested solution to the problem. Must be testable Must be testable (Super important) Sometimes written as If…Then… statements Sometimes written as If…Then… statements Predicts an outcome Predicts an outcome

6 Hypothesis An example of a hypothesis might be that more deer will live if the speed limit was lowered. An example of a hypothesis might be that more deer will live if the speed limit was lowered.

7 Experiment A procedure that tests the hypothesis. A procedure that tests the hypothesis.

8 Experiment Variable – factor in the experiment that is being tested

9 Experiment A good or “valid” experiment will only have ONE variable being tested!

10 Controls and Variables

11 Scientific Experiments Follow Rules An experimenter changes one factor and observes or measures what happens.

12 The Control Variable The experimenter makes a special effort to keep 1 factor the same or unchanged so that they will not effect the outcome. The experimenter makes a special effort to keep 1 factor the same or unchanged so that they will not effect the outcome. Those factors are called control variables. Those factors are called control variables.

13 What is the Purpose of a Control? Controls are NOT being tested Controls are used for COMPARISON

14 Other Variables The factor that is changed is known as the independent variable. The factor that is measured or observed is called the dependent variable.

15 You Are Already Scientists! For example, suppose you want to figure out the fastest route to walk home from school. You will try several different routes and time how long it takes you to get home by each one. Since you are only interested in finding a route that is fastest for you, you will do the walking yourself.

16 What are the Variables in Your Experiment? Different routes are the independent variable.(changing) Different routes are the independent variable.(changing) The time it takes is the dependent variable (being measured) The time it takes is the dependent variable (being measured) Keeping the same walker (yourself) throughout makes the walker a control variable.(used for comparison) Keeping the same walker (yourself) throughout makes the walker a control variable.(used for comparison)

17 One more thing… it is best to make several trials with each independent variable. The more data…the better.

18 Valid Experiments  Mr. G example  Lochsa River Madness  Class example

19 Remember: To be a Valid (Good) Experiment: Two groups are required --- the control & experimental groups There should be only one variable being tested.

20 Data Is Results (recordings) of the experiment May be quantitative (numbers) or qualitative

21 Data Must be organized Can be organized into charts, tables, or graphs

22 Conclusion The answer to the hypothesis based on the data obtained from the experiment

23 Publish and Retest In order to verify the results, experiments must be retested.

24 Publish in peer reviewed journal. Peer reviewed means that once your study is done, many other scientists with knowledge of your study go through how your experiment was performed. If they find ANYTHING wrong or untrue, the experiment is not published. Basically, a peer reviewed published study is very trustworthy. Problems with studies that aren’t peer reviewed? Hidden motives?

25 Solving a Problem 1)Identify a Problem 2) State Observations about the problem 3) Form a Hypothesis about the problem (if…then…) 4) Design an Experiment to test the hypothesis 5) Collect Data 6) Form a Conclusion 7) Retest


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