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Scientific Method Discovering and learning… To be the FIRST person in the world to know something new!

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Presentation on theme: "Scientific Method Discovering and learning… To be the FIRST person in the world to know something new!"— Presentation transcript:

1 Scientific Method Discovering and learning… To be the FIRST person in the world to know something new!

2 Steps in the Scientific Method Curiosity and Observation Curiosity and Observation Develop Hypothesis Develop Hypothesis Design Experiment Design Experiment Data Collection Data Collection Analyze Results Analyze Results Conclusion Conclusion Present Results Present Results

3 Be Curious and Observe Be Curious! Be Curious! Observe things using your senses. Observe things using your senses. Wonder at the why & how of things. Wonder at the why & how of things. This is what a scientist does. This is what a scientist does.

4 Examples of Observations After leaving that pan of seawater in the sun all day, all that was left was white crystal residue. After leaving that pan of seawater in the sun all day, all that was left was white crystal residue. I always feel better after I talk with my friend. I always feel better after I talk with my friend.

5 Turn your Curiosity of an Observation into a Question I wonder if the size of the residue crystals can change? I wonder if the size of the residue crystals can change? I wonder if something about me changes when talking with my friend? I wonder if something about me changes when talking with my friend?

6 Build a Hypothesis Propose an explanation for your question. Propose an explanation for your question. Must be testable and repeatable! Must be testable and repeatable! Sometimes written as If…Then… statements Sometimes written as If…Then… statements Predicts an outcome Predicts an outcome

7 Examples of Hypotheses The longer it takes the seawater to evaporate the bigger the crystals grow in the residue. The longer it takes the seawater to evaporate the bigger the crystals grow in the residue. My heart rate drops when I talk with my friend so I’m more relaxed and feel better. My heart rate drops when I talk with my friend so I’m more relaxed and feel better.

8 Design an Experiment Think of a procedure to test the Hypothesis. Think of a procedure to test the Hypothesis. Identify variables Identify variables Control Variables Control Variables Experiment Variable Experiment Variable Identify list of materials Identify list of materials

9 The Experiment Variable Experiment Variable The factor in the experiment that is being tested. The factor in the experiment that is being tested. A good or “valid” experiment will ONLY have ONE variable! A good or “valid” experiment will ONLY have ONE variable!

10 The Control Variables The experimenter makes a special effort to keep other factors constant so that they will not effect the outcome. The experimenter makes a special effort to keep other factors constant so that they will not effect the outcome. Those factors are called control variables. Those factors are called control variables.

11 The Crystal Experiment Experimental Variable – Vary evaporation time of seawater by using different exposures to air. Experimental Variable – Vary evaporation time of seawater by using different exposures to air. Control Variables Control Variables Same volume of seawater Same volume of seawater Conduct experiment with two jars at same temperature/location. Conduct experiment with two jars at same temperature/location. Materials Materials Two same size and shaped jars. One with lid with penny sized hole in it. Two same size and shaped jars. One with lid with penny sized hole in it. Seawater Seawater Pencil and paper Pencil and paper

12 The Heart Experiment Experimental Variable - Check heart rate before and after talking with friend. Experimental Variable - Check heart rate before and after talking with friend. Control Variables Control Variables Call same time of day. Call same time of day. Be in same place doing same thing such as sitting alone on bed at home during call. Be in same place doing same thing such as sitting alone on bed at home during call. Do same activity one hour before every call. Do same activity one hour before every call. Talk for same length of time each call. Talk for same length of time each call. Materials Materials Cell phone Cell phone Friend Friend Pencil and paper Pencil and paper

13 Doing Experiment and Collecting Data Repeat experiment multiple times Evaporate seawater from same two cleaned jars several times. Call Friend every day for a week. Record experiment results Note time it takes seawater to completely evaporate from each jar and compare the size of the resulting crystals. Note heart rate before and after each call.

14 Analyze Data Tabulate/Chart Data to help you understand and see patterns in the Results of the experiment.

15 Conclusion The answer to the hypothesis based on the data obtained from the experiment Remember some of the most important discoveries were made when conclusions did not match hypothesis.

16 Engineering Process An Engineer takes what the Scientist discovers and turns it into something that can be used by you and me.

17 Steps in the Engineering Process Define a Need Define a Need Do Background Research Do Background Research Establish Design Criteria Establish Design Criteria Prepare Preliminary Designs Prepare Preliminary Designs Build and Test a Prototype Build and Test a Prototype Redesign & Retest as Necessary Redesign & Retest as Necessary Present Results Present Results

18 Observe a Need Look for better ways to do something! Look for better ways to do something! Listen to things people complain about doing. Listen to things people complain about doing. Develop an idea on how to do it better. Develop an idea on how to do it better. This is what a engineer/inventor does. This is what a engineer/inventor does.

19 Background Research Find out what others have already learned about your idea. Find out what others have already learned about your idea. Gather information that will help you design your invention. Gather information that will help you design your invention. Don't reinvent the wheel. Don't reinvent the wheel.

20 Establish Design Criteria List design requirements. List design requirements. Target cost of product Target cost of product Form factor (size) Form factor (size) Functions and features Functions and features Make decisions about how to manufacture the product. Make decisions about how to manufacture the product.

21 Do Preliminary Designs Good engineers look at a variety of different possible designs. Good engineers look at a variety of different possible designs. It's faster and cheaper to improve designs on paper than making changes to something already being built. It's faster and cheaper to improve designs on paper than making changes to something already being built.

22 Build and Test Prototype A prototype is an initial working model of your idea. A prototype is an initial working model of your idea. Often it is impossible to meet all your design criteria and you need to compromise on choices of materials and features. Often it is impossible to meet all your design criteria and you need to compromise on choices of materials and features.

23 Redesign & Retest as Needed Almost every prototype has unexpected flaws Almost every prototype has unexpected flaws Engineers redesign their products to "get the bugs out“ and improve the idea. Engineers redesign their products to "get the bugs out“ and improve the idea.

24 Present Results Scientific Method/Engineering Process Share your excitement for your design with others! Share your excitement for your design with others! Learn from others so you can do better with your next idea and the one after that… and after that… Learn from others so you can do better with your next idea and the one after that… and after that…

25 So… Be curious! Be curious! Observe with your senses! Observe with your senses! Think about things and try to understand how and why things work the way they do! Think about things and try to understand how and why things work the way they do! HAVE FUN! HAVE FUN!

26 Need Help? Questions about your project? Email napacoscifair@gmail.com Questions about the Science Fair on May 17, 2014? Contact Seana Wagner, 265-2351, swagner@napacoe.org


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