Presentation on theme: "Scientific Method Discovering and learning…"— Presentation transcript:
1 Scientific Method Discovering and learning… To be the FIRST person in the world to know something new!
2 Steps in the Scientific Method Curiosity and ObservationDevelop HypothesisDesign ExperimentData CollectionAnalyze ResultsConclusionPresent Results
3 Be Curious and Observe Be Curious! Observe things using your senses. Wonder at the why & how of things.This is what a scientist does.
4 Examples of Observations After leaving that pan of seawater in the sun all day, all that was left was white crystal residue.I always feel better after I talk with my friend.
5 Turn your Curiosity of an Observation into a Question I wonder if the size of the residue crystals can change?I wonder if something about me changes when talking with my friend?
6 Build a Hypothesis Propose an explanation for your question. Must be testable and repeatable!Sometimes written as If…Then… statementsPredicts an outcome
7 Examples of Hypotheses The longer it takes the seawater to evaporate the bigger the crystals grow in the residue.My heart rate drops when I talk with my friend so I’m more relaxed and feel better.
8 Design an Experiment Think of a procedure to test the Hypothesis. Identify variablesControl VariablesExperiment VariableIdentify list of materials
9 The Experiment Variable The factor in the experiment that is being tested.A good or “valid” experiment will ONLY have ONE variable!
10 The Control VariablesThe experimenter makes a special effort to keep other factors constant so that they will not effect the outcome.Those factors are called control variables.
11 The Crystal Experiment Experimental Variable – Vary evaporation time of seawater by using different exposures to air.Control VariablesSame volume of seawaterConduct experiment with two jars at same temperature/location.MaterialsTwo same size and shaped jars. One with lid with penny sized hole in it.SeawaterPencil and paper
12 The Heart ExperimentExperimental Variable - Check heart rate before and after talking with friend.Control VariablesCall same time of day.Be in same place doing same thing such as sitting alone on bed at home during call.Do same activity one hour before every call.Talk for same length of time each call.MaterialsCell phoneFriendPencil and paper
13 Doing Experiment and Collecting Data Repeat experiment multiple timesEvaporate seawater from same two cleaned jars several times.Call Friend every day for a week.Record experiment resultsNote time it takes seawater to completely evaporate from each jar and compare the size of the resulting crystals.Note heart rate before and after each call.
14 Analyze DataTabulate/Chart Data to help you understand and see patterns in the Results of the experiment.
15 ConclusionThe answer to the hypothesis based on the data obtained from the experimentRemember some of the most important discoveries were made when conclusions did not match hypothesis.
16 Engineering ProcessAn Engineer takes what the Scientist discovers and turns it into something that can be used by you and me.
17 Steps in the Engineering Process Define a NeedDo Background ResearchEstablish Design CriteriaPrepare Preliminary DesignsBuild and Test a PrototypeRedesign & Retest as NecessaryPresent Results
18 Observe a Need Look for better ways to do something! Listen to things people complain about doing.Develop an idea on how to do it better.This is what a engineer/inventor does.
19 Background ResearchFind out what others have already learned about your idea.Gather information that will help you design your invention.Don't reinvent the wheel.
20 Establish Design Criteria List design requirements.Target cost of productForm factor (size)Functions and featuresMake decisions about how to manufacture the product.
21 Do Preliminary Designs Good engineers look at a variety of different possible designs.It's faster and cheaper to improve designs on paper than making changes to something already being built.
22 Build and Test Prototype A prototype is an initial working model of your idea.Often it is impossible to meet all your design criteria and you need to compromise on choices of materials and features.
23 Redesign & Retest as Needed Almost every prototype has unexpected flawsEngineers redesign their products to "get the bugs out“ and improve the idea.
24 Present Results Scientific Method/Engineering Process Share your excitement for your design with others!Learn from others so you can do better with your next idea and the one after that… and after that…
25 So… Be curious! Observe with your senses! Think about things and try to understand how and why things work the way they do!HAVE FUN!
26 Need Help? Questions about your project? Email firstname.lastname@example.org Questions about the Science Fair on May 17, 2014?Contact Seana Wagner, ,
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