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Basic issues in measuring gender attitudes Ko Oudhof Statistics Netherlands.

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Presentation on theme: "Basic issues in measuring gender attitudes Ko Oudhof Statistics Netherlands."— Presentation transcript:

1 Basic issues in measuring gender attitudes Ko Oudhof Statistics Netherlands

2 workshop UNDP/UNECE gender statistics 2004 What will I tell you? Just for a start: your own contribution Subjective indicators What are attitudes Measurement issues Analytic issues Here and there: gender/ international comparability

3 workshop UNDP/UNECE gender statistics 2004 Before I tell you anything Think of one short statement on the role of women or men in decision making that according to yourself would make it possible to distinguish respondents into advocates and opponents of gender equality by looking at their (dis)agreement with your statement

4 workshop UNDP/UNECE gender statistics 2004 Introductory vocabulary Indicator Cognitive Evaluative Affective Item Scale One digit, evaluating, goal- related About seeing, knowing and thinking About good or bad About like or dislike Statement or question List of items

5 workshop UNDP/UNECE gender statistics 2004 Policy and role of indicators  Selection policy goals  Assessing policy process  Evaluate policy results

6 workshop UNDP/UNECE gender statistics 2004 Subjective indicators and policy-1  Selection policy goals  what do people (not) want? (Worries, aspirations, satisfactions)  what do people need or get rid off? (immaterial needs, happiness)  Assessing policy process  Public support (trust, support)  Assess course of policy (predictions, prognosis)  Evaluate policy results  Goal attainment (health, inequality, perceived safety, xenophobia)

7 workshop UNDP/UNECE gender statistics 2004 Subjective indicators and policy-2  No ‘objective’ observation?  Subjective condition real policy objective  Direct measurement  Both subjective and objective indicators depart from implicit assumptions on each other in some implicit psychological model on behavior!  Vague? Limits to aggregation!  Measuring all possible wrongs?  Indicators with a large mandate needed  Statistical weaknesses  No money and no counting  Monetary value or size of subjective condition?  Specific measure and methodology  Experts needed

8 workshop UNDP/UNECE gender statistics 2004 Subjective indicators Policy-relevance (issues) Need- or Behavior-related (predictability) Variability (daily fluctuations versus almost invariable states) – Now – indicators – In these times – indicators – Long term perspective - indicators

9 workshop UNDP/UNECE gender statistics 2004 Subjective conditions and the world Needs and wants Emotions Perception Experience Learning Motives Goals Etc. Fysical environment Social environment Now - response Structured stable behavior? Now - feedback

10 workshop UNDP/UNECE gender statistics 2004 Attitudes (common elements in most definitions) Oriented on object, person, institution or event Evaluative component Cognitive component Affective component Stable condition or construct Intermediary between object stimulus and behavioural response: consistency

11 workshop UNDP/UNECE gender statistics 2004 Relatives with likeness  Opinions (now)  stability less  more cognitive and not always evaluative  behavioral relation weaker  Values (long term)  general and less object-oriented  stability higher  behavioral relation more indirect  Norms (derivative)  prescription of behavior  stability higher  behavioral relation stronger and more direct  less cognitive and less affective

12 workshop UNDP/UNECE gender statistics 2004 Relation subjective elements Abstraction Time opinion attitude value

13 workshop UNDP/UNECE gender statistics 2004 Model Theory Planned Behaviour (Ajzen)

14 workshop UNDP/UNECE gender statistics 2004 General Model (Van der Pligt & De Vries)

15 workshop UNDP/UNECE gender statistics 2004 Ajzen & Fishbein, 2004 Relation attitude – behavior ( reasoned action approach in 2004)

16 workshop UNDP/UNECE gender statistics 2004 Attitudes and gender policy  Hardly any NSI  Why gender attitudes?  Attitude change as objective?  Defensive in discussion?  Same question elsewhere?  Macro-economy: confidence consumers/producers  Business world: marketing  Politics : voting behavior  Health: perceived health  Crime: feeling of insecurity

17 workshop UNDP/UNECE gender statistics 2004 Gender attitude research and tools in practice  Mainly academic or ad hoc research  Few international research projects  Gender role (labor market or household) main topic  Hardly any standardisation  Example: attitudes on female decision making  Support preferential policies  Attitudes among decision makers  Acceptance of female management  Effects of leadership styles

18 workshop UNDP/UNECE gender statistics 2004 Engendering attitudes Objects Explaining behavior Measurement tools Analysis Interpretation Presentation Gender Issues Engendered concepts Gender validity By sex or more*? More = differences compared to other non-gendered research as consequence of earlier steps

19 workshop UNDP/UNECE gender statistics 2004 Measurement of attitudes  Explicit measurement (under conscious control respondent)  one item  multi-item  Implicit measurement (without conscious control respondent)  observation of behavior (non-obtrusive)  bodily response  response latency  Academic research and less relevant for statistical offices etc.

20 workshop UNDP/UNECE gender statistics 2004 Quality of measurement - reliability –equal outcomes of tool when measuring the same? –random error –inter-items reliability –test-retest / split-half –interobserver reliability –quality measure versus external factors

21 workshop UNDP/UNECE gender statistics 2004 Quality of measurement - validity –Similar results from other tools when measuring the same –Systematic error –Construct validity – convergent validity – what should – divergent validity - not what should not –Predictive validity –Multitrait-multimethod matrix as solid validity- testing design

22 workshop UNDP/UNECE gender statistics 2004 Survey? Insight in own attitude/opinion Can they express the attitudes/opnions: – personal conditions (e.g. ability) – situational conditions (e.g. individual interview?) Plausibility true answering – personal conditions (e.g. strategic response) – situational conditions (e.g. interviewer interaction) Alternative informants/ assessing documents General considerations on survey design

23 workshop UNDP/UNECE gender statistics 2004 Single item or multi-item measurement? Quick  Cheap all or nothing, also in time- series one-dimensional sometimes quite high and reliable how do you assess psychometric properties Response time  Expensive Shortening scale generally possible Multidimensional Scale properties can be assessed International comparability and standardisation of scales (or subscales)

24 workshop UNDP/UNECE gender statistics 2004 Multi-item variants  Osgood scale  Thurstone scale  Likert scale  Guttman scaling  multi-object measuring  monetary methods (WTP) General dimensions Pretested dichotomous scaled items Addition of multi-point (3-100) items Scaled statements Conjunct / dominance/ similarity Simulated markets/ hedonic price analysis/ contingent valuation (CV) or ranking (CR)

25 workshop UNDP/UNECE gender statistics 2004 Likert scale Rather simple List of items expressing positive and negative opinions on attitude object Selection of relevant items by content Choice of answering categories – Number – meaning of scores – middle category – don’t know: yes or no Scale rating by summing item values (after recoding) Self-made or standard?

26 workshop UNDP/UNECE gender statistics 2004 Selection of items Relevant for all groups (e.g. young + old) Clear and unequivocal interpretation No multiple question items No double negations No questions but statements (response set) No confirmation bias  pos + neg Time spans: now/these days/whole life Suggestive expression (most people…) Biased or suggestive answering categories Personalised or public statements (Hakim)

27 workshop UNDP/UNECE gender statistics 2004 More possible interferences Character of survey (crime or labour?) Interviewer Order of topics in questionnaire Introduction of scale Interference of different topics in one scale Order of items No repeats or redundancy Social desirability  overreporting or underreporting

28 workshop UNDP/UNECE gender statistics 2004 So you’ve got your data Assessing or reassessing quality of scale? 1.Reliability aspects 2.Validity aspects Deciding what to do considering –Objectives (employer/ supervisor) –Tools (standards?) –Methodological explanations –Explanation of results

29 workshop UNDP/UNECE gender statistics 2004 Item and scale analysis Assessing reliability of scale as given – Depending on design – Without any validity analysis of scale (re)assessing items + scale(s) – linearity and other assumptions? – multidimensional? – dropping items possible? – selection of techniques to assess scale Consistency/ homogeneity items Analysis content via Princ.Comp./ factoran./ scaling

30 workshop UNDP/UNECE gender statistics 2004 Scale ratings Which ratings should be used? – sum – weighted sum (only part of items needed?) – factor scores To be used for what? – is level relevant? (breakdowns or time series) – is level confusing? (comparability) – nature of audience (general public or scientists)

31 workshop UNDP/UNECE gender statistics 2004 Gender & international Which issue or topic? Which concept? Which measurement tool? Main problem for both: validity – reduction or prevention of systematic error Analysis: extra = validity analysis Interpretation = plus restraint by validity Presentation = including reserves by limited validity?

32 workshop UNDP/UNECE gender statistics 2004 More to learn In hand-out suggestions for further reading Standard handbooks for students social psychology Look on the internet by using searching machines: attitude, gender, survey (e.g. Ajzen) Search for sites on international surveys (e.g. European Social Survey) and research databases

33 workshop UNDP/UNECE gender statistics 2004 Evaluating both scales Gender dimension Inter-item consistency? Homogeneity? Valid multidimensionality? Quality of separate items? Scale quality Etc.


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