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46-320-01 Tests and Measurements Intersession 2006.

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1 46-320-01 Tests and Measurements Intersession 2006

2 Alternative Individual Ability Tests Alternatives to Stanford-Binet and WAIS Disadvantages None superior psychometrics Can’t directly compare IQ scores Advantages: Special populations/learning disabilities Less reliant on verbal responses/reading ability Most contain performance scale

3 Compared to One Another Check: Age range What is measured Type of score Level of motor skills needed Range of abilities Target population Examiner skill level required

4 Early Individual Ability Tests Seguin Form Board – 1907 Knox – 1914 Specific populations Single Score Nonverbal performance scales

5 Infant Scales Generally poor predictors of later IQ (exception: low range) and poor construct validity Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale (BNAS) 3 days to 4 weeks of age Index of newborn’s competence 47 scores (neurological, social, behavioural) No norms available Meaning of scores unclear Good interrater reliability, poor test-retest reliability

6 More Infant Scales Gesell Developmental Schedules (GDS; 1925) Appraisal of developmental status 21.2 months to 6 years of age Based on normative sample from longitudinal study (not representative) Developmental quotient (DQ) IQ = (DQ/CA)*100 Reliability and validity poor

7 More Infant Scales Bayley Scales of Infant Development – Second Edition (BSID-II) Based on normative maturational data 1 to 42 months 2 scores: mental and motor; ratings of behaviour Standard scores (mean = 100, sd = 16) Excellent standardization Psychometrics: median split-half reliability coefficients – high.60 to low.90 (motor scale) – low.80 to low.90 (mental scale)

8 Tests for Young Children McCarthy Scales of Children’s Abilities (MSCA) 2 ½ to 8 ½ years old 18 subtests, General Cognitive Index (GCI) Scales: Verbal; Perceptual-Performance; Quantitative Both reliability and validity fair GCI reliability – low.90’s Correlations with WPPSI.71, with Stanford-Binet (L-M).81

9 More Tests for Young Children Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (K-ABC-II) 3 to 18 years of age 18 subtests Standardization and norms Reliability comparable Validity Mental Processing Composite Achievement Scale Nonverbal Scale Simultaneous Processing Sequential Processing

10 Special Populations Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test – Third Edition (PPVT-III) 2 ½ to 90 years, physical and language handicapped Multiple-choice, measures receptive vocabulary Two forms, 204 plates each, four numbered pictures/card Reliability high.8’s and above Underestimates IQ’s at extremes of range Not to be used as substitute for WISC/Binet

11 Special Populations Leiter International Performance Scale – Revised (LIPS-R) 2 to 18 years Performance scale, age scale format Deaf and language disabled Validity very good Meaning of test scores still unclear

12 Learning Disabilities Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery – III General intelligence (g), specific cognitive abilities, scholastic aptitude, oral language, achievement, interests Representative standardization sample Good psychometrics Split-half reliabilities Good support for structure of factors; adequate correlations with Wechsler scales

13 Visiographic Tests Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test (BVMGT) Ages 4 and over Copy 9 geometric figures Many norm groups Emotional problems, low intelligence, brain damage

14 Individual Achievement Wide Range Achievement Test – 3 (WRAT-3) Ages 5 and up Reading, spelling, arithmetic 2 forms Measuring?

15 Group Tests of Ability Advantages Cost-efficient Less examiner skill and training More objective and reliable scoring Broad application Psychometrically sound Disadvantages Motivation and cooperation assumed Lose individual information/observations

16 Using Group Test Scores Use results with caution Be suspicious of low scores Wide discrepancies = warning signal When in doubt, refer

17 K - 12 Group Achievement Tests Stanford Achievement Test (SAT) Grades 1 to 9 Spelling, reading comprehension, word study and skills, language arts, social studies, science, mathematics, listening comprehension Well normed and criterion-referenced

18 K - 12 Group Intelligence Tests Kuhlmann-Anderson Test – Eight Edition (KAT) Primarily nonverbal at all grade levels Scores expressed in various ways Percentile band Reliability high Split-half coefficients in low.90’s Test-retest coefficients from low.80’s to low.90’s Validity high

19 Graduate Record Examination Aptitude Test (GRE) Intended to measure general scholastic ability Verbal Abilities: Analogies Antonyms Sentence completions Reading comprehension Quantitative Ability Quantitative comparison Problem solving Data Interpretation

20 GRE Scores: Verbal (GRE-V) Quantitative (GRE-Q) Analytic Reasoning (GRE-A) Subject Tests Computer Adaptive Testing (CAT) format

21 GRE Stability of scores adequate Predictive validity poor Grade inflation and restricted range of grades Study?

22 Nonverbal Group Ability Tests Raven Progressive Matrices (RPM) Age 5 and up Minimize effects of language and culture 60 matrices 1998 revision: Raven Plus Excellent norms

23 Nonverbal Group Ability Tests Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test (G-HDT) Draw a picture of a whole man as best as can Standardized Possible 70 points Scoring: age differentiation Children under 14 or 15, younger is better Good reliability and validity

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