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Decoding For All Ages A Reading Instructional Program by Alan M. Hofmeister, Ph.D Presented by Jennifer Izatt & Emilee Midget

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Presentation on theme: "Decoding For All Ages A Reading Instructional Program by Alan M. Hofmeister, Ph.D Presented by Jennifer Izatt & Emilee Midget"— Presentation transcript:

1 Decoding For All Ages A Reading Instructional Program by Alan M. Hofmeister, Ph.D Presented by Jennifer Izatt & Emilee Midget

2 We will focus on: Using the program Teacher Presentation Student Response Rate Teacher Praise Rate Corrective Feedback

3 Format # 1 Teaching Sounds Sound Cards: i f d m a c u n s r A – Model one correct answer for the learner B – Test the learner C – Retest the Learner and sort the Sound Cards

4 Format # 2 Teaching Words Teaching New Regular Words –Point to each letter as it is sounded, and say –“my turn. Listen to me sound out this word the slow way sssaaamm” –“My turn listen to me say the word the fast way. Sam” –Ask the learner to say it the slow way –Ask the learner to say it the fast way.

5 Format # 2 Teaching Words Teaching New Irregular Words –Sound out the word with the learner –“Our turn. Say this word the slow way WWAASS” –“When we say this word the fast way, we say it differently my turn. This word is was (Wuz)” –“Your turn. Say this word” –“Your turn again. Sound out the word the Slow way.” –“Well done. You said the word the slow way but when we say it fast we say it differently” –“Your turn. Say the word the fast way” (Wuz)

6 Format #3 Spelling and Writing The learner reads the each word that is to be spelled within the time listed The learner then identifies “buddy” words to demonstrate an understanding of the meaning

7 Format # 4 Sentence Practice This format teaches oral reading to a minimum, rate of 120 words per minute. The sentences are designed to reduce dependency on guessing from content and to increase dependency on decoding skills. Remember, the goal is application of decoding skills to achieve reading independence.

8 We will focus on: Using the Program Teacher Presentation

9 “Of Commonly used school-based interventions, focused academic interventions and behavioral instruction show the highest effect in preventing school dropout or nonattendance.” (Lehr, Hansen, Sinclair, & Christenson, 2003)

10 Teacher Presentation Cues Cue: –A. Correct Cue: a word, phrase, or question used to focus students attention on the task (e.g., “and”, “together”, “what word?”, “next word”, “get ready”, “what did he buy?”) –B. Typical Errors: No cue is provided; teacher models during cue and format doesn’t indicate this should be done; instruction provided to individual is phrased as a question (e.g., “can you spell mother?”) rather than a direction (e.g., “spell mother, please”)

11 Teacher Presentation Pause Pause: –A. Correct Pause: At least 1 –second waiting time (preferably 2 –seconds) –B. Typical Errors: Insufficient wait or think time provided for the task. **Marchant/Martella, Lignugaris/Kraft, Pettigrew and Leishaman, Rev 9/5/95

12 Teacher Presentation Signals Signal: –A. Correct Signal: Hand, touch,or auditory response presented by teacher to initiate a pupil response. Hand signal: An extension of the arm in front of the body and a quick dropping of the finger/hand/arm to signal pupils’ response. The signal should be visible to all pupils (i.e., not obstructed by classroom objects or clothing). Touch signal: The use of a finer/pencil, pointer on a visual aid. The teacher’s finger should be in front of or on the desired object, but should not obstruct its view. Auditory Signal: A tap (e.g., hand, finders, pencil, clap) when eyes are on their own material (word list, book, etc.)

13 Teacher Presentation Signals -B. Typical Errors: -Auditory signal is not audible to pupils. -Hand or touch signal covers word or picture. -Teacher mouths or says response with pupils at time of signal or when pupils respond. -Teacher uses hand signal when pupil’s eyes are on their own visuals (e.g., book, workbook) **Marchant/Martella, Lignugaris/Kraft, Pettigrew and Leishaman, Rev 9/5/95

14 PracticePractice Teacher Presentation CuePauseSignal

15 We will focus on: Using the program Teacher Presentation Student Response Rate

16 Student Response Rate Responses need to average at least four responses per every minute of instruction. “If academic opportunities to respond increase, problem behavior decreases. However, observational data suggests that teachers in classrooms for ED/BD students rarely provide adequate opportunities to respond.” (Sutherland Wehby, 2001)

17 Student Response Rate Group Response –A. Correct Group Response: The group responds simultaneously and correctly following the teacher signal. Response may be one –word/number or multi – word/number. –B. Typical errors: The group responds correctly, but not simultaneously.

18 Student Response Rate Individual response –A. Correct individual response: The pupil responds correctly after the cue and/or signal. Response may be one –word/number or multi –word/number. –B. Typical errors: The pupil responds correctly before the cue or signal. **Marchant/Martella, Lignugaris/Kraft, Pettigrew and Leishaman, Rev 9/5/95

19 We will focus on: Using the program Teacher Presentation Student Response Rate Teacher Praise Rate

20 Teacher Praise Rate (page 168 Research into Practice) “Detecting and praising performance improvements by students, particularly low achieving students who have experienced little academic success, is one of the most important and effective forms of teaching. (Heward, Special Educator, Vol. 25 No. 2)

21 Teacher Praise Rate Specific Praise –A. Correct specific praise: A positive, descriptive response following a desired behavior (e.g., “nice job saying brother.”; “I like the way you remembered that sound.” “Good following my signal.” “I like how you’re sitting quietly.”).

22 Teacher Praise Rate General Praise Statements –A. Correct general praise: Global or broad phrases that reflect a positive response to a desired behavior (e.g., “good job.” “Super.” “Excellent.” “Perfect.”). –B. Typical praise errors: Praise follows an undesirable behavior; Praise statement is given as sarcasm. **Marchant/Martella, Lignugaris/Kraft, Pettigrew and Leishaman, Rev 9/5/95

23 PracticePractice Student Response Rate Teacher Praise Rate

24 We will focus on: Using the program Teacher Presentation Student Response Rate Teacher Praise Rate Corrective Feedback

25 Corrective Feedback (page 96 Research into Practice) Two Types: –Signal Error Corrections –Response Error Corrections

26 Signal Error Corrections A signal error occurs when students respond correctly, but not on teacher’s signal. Signal error correction consists of two necessary components –(1) address, followed by a –(2) repeat

27 Signal Error Corrections –1. Address: Correct address: The address occurs within 3 seconds after the signal error and the teacher tell pupils what they need to do (e.g., “I need to hear everyone”; “you have to wait until I signal”; “Let’s do it together.”) Typical errors: Individual who made missed signal is singled out; teacher begins address with a negative statement or tell s the group what they did wrong (e.g., “That’s not right!”, “you did not respond together.”); teacher does not tell students what they need to do to respond correctly (e.g., “again!”).

28 Signal Error Corrections 2. Repeat –Correct repeat: Repeat the original presentation to test the group’s response. The repeat should include a cue, a pause and a signal. –Typical errors: Changes the cue when repeating the trial; does not include a cue, a pause or a signal; does not end with a correct response **Marchant/Martella, Lignugaris/Kraft, Pettigrew and Leishaman, Rev 9/5/95

29 Response Error Corrections Response error corrections; A response error occurs when pupils respond incorrectly. Response error correction may include four components: (1) model, (2) lead, (3) test, and (4) retest.

30 Response Error Corrections Model: (required component) –Correct model: the teacher tells pupils the correct answer within 3 seconds after the response error occurs 9e.g., “That word is polite”). Lead: (optional component) –Correct lead: guides pupils through correct response by saying it with them. Typically used after a repeated response error. **Marchant/Martella, Lignugaris/Kraft, Pettigrew and Leishaman, Rev 9/5/95

31 Response Error Corrections Test: (required component) –Correct test: teacher requests group/individual to respond again by repeating the original cue. Retest: (required component for multi-word/number responses) –Correct retest: Teacher retests pupil on a word, sound, number, sentence or math equation (e.g., go back to top of the column of words, work through math problems again, reread a sentence from the beginning following an error). –Typical response correction errors: Addresses model, lead, test or retest, to an individual following a group response error or group following an individual response error; demonstrates incorrect response to pupil

32 Response Error Corrections What are the critical elements when correcting student mistakes? –Identify the type of error (explained in a minute) –Get an independent correct response –Retest later (this increases probability for correct responses) –If we do not get independent correct responses, students will continue to practice mistakes. Lignugaris/Kraft 2000

33 Response Error Corrections Three types of Response Errors 1.Student does not respond to teacher direction –Repeat the direction and model the correct response or have peer model the correct response. –“Listen. What word? ‘wonderful’” –Repeat the response direction to the child –“What word is this?” –Repeat the direction later in the lesson (dropping this step is a common mistake made by novice teachers) –(page 101 Research into Practice)

34 Response Error Corrections Three types of Response Errors 2.Student Does Not Know the Answer –Give the answer – “It’s an elephant” – Repeat the direction (Independent Correct Response) – “What is this?” –Repeat the direction later in the lesson

35 Response Error Corrections Three types of Response Errors 3.Student Makes an Incomplete Response Lead – Assist the child by making the response with him – “Let’s do it together. Say the whole word.” – Repeat the lead several times rapidly (do not make the repetition tedious) –Repeat the trial and get an independent correct response –Repeat the trial later in the session

36 PracticePractice Corrective Feedback “Great Job!”


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