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Projective Personality Testing Psychological Testing.

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Presentation on theme: "Projective Personality Testing Psychological Testing."— Presentation transcript:

1 Projective Personality Testing Psychological Testing

2 Projective hypothesis  DEFINITION: In a projective test, an individual “supplies structure to unstructured stimuli in a manner consistent with the individual’s own unique pattern of conscious and unconscious needs, fears, desires, impulses, conflicts, and ways of perceiving and responding.”

3 Concerns About Projectives  Assumptions:  The more unstructured the stimuli, the more examinees reveal about their personality.  Projection is greater to stimulus material that is similar to the examinee.  Every response provides meaning for personality analysis.  There is an “unconscious.”  Subjects are unaware of what they disclose.  Situational variables:  Age of examiner.  Specific instructions.  Subtle reinforcement cues.  Setting - privacy.

4 Inkblots as projective stimuli  The Rorschach:  Hermann Rorschach ( ).  10 bilaterally symmetrical inkblots on separate cards:  5 black and white.  2 black, white, and red.  3 multicolor.

5 Inkblots: Initial administration  “What might this be?”  Record response verbatim:  Include time until first response.  Position of card, spontaneous statements, nonverbal gestures or body movements.  No discussion of examinee’s responses.

6 Inkblots: “The inquiry”  “What made it look like _____?” or “How do you see ____?”  Clarify initial responses and determine which aspects of inkblot were most influential.  Determine if examinee remembers initial responses and if original response is still seen.  Ask about “any new perceptions?”

7 Inkblots: “Testing the limits”  Ask specific questions to get additional information about personality functioning.  Identify confusion/misunderstanding about the task.  Determine if examinee is able to do better with more testing structure.

8 Inkblots: Scoring Categories  Location:  Part of inkblot utilized:  Entire blot, large or small section, minute detail, white space.  Determinants:  Qualities of the inkblot:  Form, color, shading, movement.  Popularity of response  Frequency of response.  Content:  Human figures, animal figures, blood etc.  Form:  How accurately examinee’s perception matches the corresponding part of the inkblot.

9 Inkblots: Interpretation of scores  Generate hypotheses based on patterns of response, recurrent themes and interrelationships among scoring categories:  Whole responses - conceptual thought processes.  Form - reality testing.  Human movement - imagination.  Color - emotional reactivity.

10 Inkblots: Psychometric Properties  Split-half and test-retest methods are not feasible.  Inter-scorer reliability (with respect to categories) is acceptable.  Inter-scorer reliability (with respect to interpretation) is not always acceptable.  Convergent validity of.41:  WAIS -.62  MMPI -.46

11 The Rorschach Ink Blot:  Still widely used clinical instrument:  Most frequently used projective test;  Most frequently taught projective technique in counseling psychology programs and practicum sites.  Extensively used as a research instrument:  Thousands of references in the Mental Measurements Yearbook.

12 Exner’s system for the Rorschach  Comprised of best features of 5 different systems.  Coding categories:  Location.  Determinants.  Form quality.  Content.  Popularity.  Coding categories (cont.):  Organizational activity.  Special scores.  Indexes derived:  Obsessive style.  Depression.  Coping deficit.  Schizophrenia.

13 Pictures as Projective Stimuli  First used in 1907:  Differences reported in responses of boys and girls to 9 pictures.  Variety of pictures utilized:  Paintings, drawings, etchings, or photos of animals, people, objects or anything.

14 Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)  Morgan and Murray (1935).  Elicit fantasy material from patients in psychoanalysis.  31 cards:  30 black & white with scenes:  Describe story.  1 blank:  Imagine picture on card and tell related story.

15 TAT: Administration  A set of 20 cards is recommended, but the number may vary based on length of stories:  Some cards are suggested for use with adult males, adult females, or both.  Some cards are best used with children; however, all cards may be administered to any subject.

16 TAT: Conclusions  Based on:  Stories told by examinee.  Clinician’s notes:  Examinee’s response to the cards.  Extra-test behavior and verbalizations.  Analysis of story requires special training.

17 TAT: Interpretation  Murray’s concepts:  Need - determinants of behavior arising from within the individual.  Press - determinants of behavior arising from within the environment.  Thema - interaction between need and press.

18 TAT Interpretation (cont.)  Basic assumption:  Examinee is identifying with protagonist in the story.  Examinee’s concerns, hopes, fears, and desires are reflected in the protagonist’s needs, demands, and conflicts.  That is, the examinee’s personality is projected onto the protagonist.

19 TAT Psychometric properties  Reliability:  Split-half, test-retest, and alternate-form reliability measures are not appropriate.  Inter-rater reliability is acceptable.  Situational factors:  Examiner.  Events just prior to administration.  Delivery of instructions.  Transient internal needs states.  Stimulus pull.  Desire to fake good or bad.  Validity:  Conflicting opinions regarding the validity of the assumptions and the interpretations.

20 Variations of the TAT  Thompson TAT 1949:  Use with African Americans.  CAT 1949 (3-10):  Pictures of animals.  CAT - H:  Humans instead of animals.  Blacky Pictures Test 1950:  Used Blacky the dog and his family and friends.

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25 Other Picture-Story Tests  The Picture Story Test 1949:  Used with adolescents.  Education Apperception Test and School Appreciation Test:  Measure kids’ attitudes toward school and learning.  TEMAS:  Hispanic characters and urban settings.

26 Other picture-story tests (cont.)  Make A Picture Story Method 1952:  Arrange pictures of figures on pictorial backgrounds.  The Apperception Personality Test 1990:  8 stimulus cards with recognizable people in everyday settings; more upbeat than TAT.  Multiple choice questions fill in the gap.

27 Words as Projective Stimuli  Semi-structured technique:  Use of open-ended words, phrases and sentences provides a framework within which the examinee must operate.  Word association and sentence completion tests:  2 best-known examples.

28 Early Influences: Word Projection  Galton 1879:  Present series of words and respond with first word that comes to mind.  Jung 1910:  Key words representing possible areas of conflict.  Kent-Rosanoff Free Association Test 1910:  Attempt to standardize responses to specific words.

29 Word Association Test  Rapaport, Gill and Schafer (1946):  3 part test consisting of 60 words.  Basis of evaluation:  Popularity.  Response time.  Content.  Test-retest response.

30 Sentence Completion Tests  Complete the following:  “I like to _____________.”  Stems may be general or specific depending on the setting.  Obtain information about interests, goals, fears, conflicts, needs, etc.  High degree of face validity:  Most vulnerable projective test to faking.

31 Rotter Incomplete Sentences Blank (1950)  Most popular.  40 incomplete sentences.  3 levels:  high school, college and adult.  Estimates of inter-scorer reliability (with respect to scoring categories) are in the.90s.

32 Projective: Figure Drawings  Quick and easy administration:  Individually or in a group.  Non-clinicians can administer.  Pencil and paper only.  Used to obtain information about intelligence, neurological intactness, visual- motor coordination, cognitive development, and learning disabilities.  Questionable use.

33 Machover’s Draw-A-Person Test  Administration:  “Draw a person” on piece of 8 1/2 X 11 blank white paper.  2nd drawing of other sex.  “Tell me a story about the figure.”

34 Machover’s Draw-A-Person Test Evaluation Criteria  Placement of the figure:  right - future; left - past; upper right - suppress past and optimism; lower left - depression.  Facial expressions:  large eyes or ears - suspiciousness; paranoid.  Light pencil pressure:  character disturbance.  Figure size, line quality, symmetry etc.

35 Other Figure Drawings  House Tree Person (HTP)  Buck  Kinetic Family Drawing (KFD):  Burns & Kaufman (1970).  Picture of everyone in family doing something.  No widely accepted scoring system.


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