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Ariel Adams 1 BJ Arnold 2 Renee Smith 2 Brittany Reed 2 1 Department of Hearing, Speech, and Language Sciences 1 Department of Hearing, Speech, and Language.

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Presentation on theme: "Ariel Adams 1 BJ Arnold 2 Renee Smith 2 Brittany Reed 2 1 Department of Hearing, Speech, and Language Sciences 1 Department of Hearing, Speech, and Language."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ariel Adams 1 BJ Arnold 2 Renee Smith 2 Brittany Reed 2 1 Department of Hearing, Speech, and Language Sciences 1 Department of Hearing, Speech, and Language Sciences Gallaudet University 2 Department of Speech-Language Pathology University of Central Arkansas Test-Retest Reliability of The Family Paradigm Assessment Scale (F-PAS)

2 Time How is it used? Space How are physical and personal space used? Energy How much effort to get things done? Material How are possessions viewed? Family Members may act as one entity, in small groups, individually, according to their Control How do important things get done? Meaning What do you value? Content How do you determined what is real? Affect How are caring & support expressed?

3 There are four paradigms: Closed Random Open Synchronous Family Paradigm = family’s view of the world. Each family's behavior is guided by its paradigm(s).

4 There are four paradigms: Closed  Random Open Synchronous Family Paradigm = family’s view of the world. Each family's behavior is guided by its paradigm(s). Stability through continuity & tradition

5 There are four paradigms: Closed Random  Open Synchronous Family Paradigm = family’s view of the world. Each family's behavior is guided by its paradigm(s). Free exploration through intuition & innovation

6 There are four paradigms: Closed Random Open  Synchronous Family Paradigm = family’s view of the world. Each family's behavior is guided by its paradigm(s). Adaptation through consensus

7 There are four paradigms: Closed Random Open Synchronous  Family Paradigm = family’s view of the world. Each family's behavior is guided by its paradigm(s). Harmony through identification

8 There are four paradigms: Closed  Random  Open  Synchronous  Family Paradigm = family’s view of the world. Each family's behavior is guided by its paradigm(s).

9 The Family Paradigm Assessment Scale (F-PAS) Used to identify paradigms Used to identify paradigms Paper and pencil instrument Paper and pencil instrument 10 multi-part questions using a 0-10 rating scale 10 multi-part questions using a 0-10 rating scale 1 question per resource 1 question per resource 1 question to rank resources 1 question to rank resources 1 question per goal 1 question per goal 1 question to rank goals 1 question to rank goals Current and Ideal Current and Ideal (Imig, 1998)

10 The Family Paradigm Assessment Scale (F-PAS) Cluster Scores Cluster Scores Calculated from the F-PAS Calculated from the F-PAS Range from 0-5 Range from – family never uses this paradigm 0 – family never uses this paradigm 5 – family uses this paradigm most often 5 – family uses this paradigm most often

11 Research Aim To measure test-retest reliability of the F-PAS overall cluster scores. To measure test-retest reliability of the F-PAS overall cluster scores.

12 Participants (N=51) Gender: 34 females, 17 males Age: Mean Age 30 years Range from Race/ethnicity: 2 % American Indian 18 % African American 81 % Caucasian Education level: 2 % High school graduate 39 % Some college 31 % College graduate 18 % Some graduate school 10 % Advanced degree Family roles: 26 spouses 11 parents 3 grandparents 20 offsprings 23 siblings Years in family: 53 % entire life 29 % five years or more 10 % less than five years 8 % less than one year

13 Procedures Recruitment: flyers, word of mouth Recruitment: flyers, word of mouth Each participant completed the F-PAS twice, demographics, no major change, Each participant completed the F-PAS twice, demographics, no major change, Data entered into Excel spreadsheet which calculated F-PAS cluster scores Data entered into Excel spreadsheet which calculated F-PAS cluster scores Test-Retest Reliability of the overall F-PAS cluster scores for each paradigm was calculated using weighted kappas (k) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) Test-Retest Reliability of the overall F-PAS cluster scores for each paradigm was calculated using weighted kappas (k) with 95% confidence intervals (CI)

14 Retest Test Current Closed Paradigm Current Closed Paradigm k =.50 95% CI (.30,.70) Moderate

15 Retest Test Current Random Paradigm Current Random Paradigm k =.30 95% CI (.09,.52) Fair

16 Retest Test Current Open Paradigm Current Open Paradigm k =.26 95% CI (.03,.50) Fair

17 Retest Test Current Synchronous Paradigm k =.54 95% CI (.38,.69) Moderate

18 Retest Test Ideal Closed Paradigm k =.51 95% CI (.33,.70) Moderate

19 Retest Test Ideal Random Paradigm Ideal Random Paradigm k =.27 95% CI (.05,.49) Fair

20 Retest Test Ideal Open Paradigm Ideal Open Paradigm k =.50 95% CI (.24,.71) Moderate

21 Retest Test Ideal Synchronous Paradigm Ideal Synchronous Paradigm k =.36 95% CI (.16,.56) Fair

22 Overall Findings Current-Closed Paradigm Current-Closed Paradigm Moderate reliability Moderate reliability Current-Random Paradigm Current-Random Paradigm Fair reliability Fair reliability Current-Open Paradigm Current-Open Paradigm Fair reliability Fair reliability Current-Synchronous Paradigm Current-Synchronous Paradigm Moderate reliability Moderate reliability Ideal-Closed Paradigm Ideal-Closed Paradigm Moderate reliability Moderate reliability Ideal Random Paradigm Ideal Random Paradigm Fair reliability Fair reliability Ideal- Open Paradigm Ideal- Open Paradigm Moderate reliability Moderate reliability Ideal- Synchronous Paradigm Ideal- Synchronous Paradigm Fair reliability Fair reliability

23 Clinical Implications Test-retest reliability OK for clinical use Test-retest reliability OK for clinical use Clinicians can use the F-PAS to: Clinicians can use the F-PAS to: Determine paradigms of clients and their families Determine paradigms of clients and their families Provide services that best fit client/family Provide services that best fit client/family Improve family-centered practices Improve family-centered practices Help families better understand how intervention affects their family functioning Help families better understand how intervention affects their family functioning

24 Future Research Analyze reliability of individual cluster scores Analyze reliability of individual cluster scores Need to evaluate ways to improve reliability Need to evaluate ways to improve reliability Wording of questions Wording of questions Data collection method Data collection method Use family paradigm model of resources and goals in researching family-centered practices Use family paradigm model of resources and goals in researching family-centered practices

25 What we learned… There are no short cuts There are no short cuts Nothing is as easy as it appears to be Nothing is as easy as it appears to be Double check EVERYTHING Double check EVERYTHING Everybody needs a team Everybody needs a team Research is fun Research is fun “Welcome to research” “Welcome to research”

26 Acknowledgements Those who participated Those who participated Faculty mentor: Dr. Mary Jo Cooley Hidecker Faculty mentor: Dr. Mary Jo Cooley Hidecker F-PAS creator: Dr. David R. Imig F-PAS creator: Dr. David R. Imig Research team members: BJ Arnold, Morgan Poole, Brittany Reed, Megan Scott, Sara Shaw, Renée Smith, Tammy Soileau and Kara Taylor Research team members: BJ Arnold, Morgan Poole, Brittany Reed, Megan Scott, Sara Shaw, Renée Smith, Tammy Soileau and Kara Taylor UCA Sponsored Programs Office (SPO) UCA Sponsored Programs Office (SPO) This research was funded by the Arkansas Department of Higher Education and the University of Central Arkansas Speech-Language Pathology Department This research was funded by the Arkansas Department of Higher Education and the University of Central Arkansas Speech-Language Pathology Department

27 For more information: Byrt, T. (1996). How good is that agreement? Epidemiology, 7(5), 561. Constantine, L. L. (1986). Family paradigms: The practice of theory in family therapy. New York: Guilford. Constantine, L. L. (1993). The structure of family paradigms: An analytical model of family variation. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 19(1), Hidecker, M. J. C. (2004). An exploratory study of the associative relationships between family paradigms and augmentative and alternative communication satisfaction in families with young Children. Unpublished Thesis (Ph. D.), Michigan State University. Dept. of Audiology and Speech Sciences, Hidecker, M. J. C., Jones, R. S., Imig, D. R., & Villarruel, F. A. (2009). Using family paradigms to improve evidence-based practice. American Journal of Speech Language Pathology, 18(3), Imig, D. R. (1993). Family stress: Paradigms and perceptions. Family Science Review, 6, Imig, D. R. (2000). A conversation about interpersonal relationships, family systems and paradigms. Venice, CA: ETEXT.net Electronic Textbook Publishing. Imig, D. R. (2005). Family paradigms, interpersonal relationships, and family systems. Venice, CA: ETEXT.net Electronic Textbook Publishing. Imig, D. R., Pate, S. M., Mitchell, M. M., David, D. A., Pegorraro, C., Barton, E. R., et al. (1996). Paradigmatic family systems theory: Applications and praxis. Paper presented at the 58th Annual Conference Education & Enrichment Section, Kansas City, MO. Imig, D. R., & Phillips, R. G. (1992). Family theory: The family regime assessment scale (FRAS). Family Science Review, 5, Kantor, D., & Lehr, W. (1975). Inside the family (1st ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

28 The Family Paradigm Assessment Scale (F-PAS) Cluster Scores Cluster Scores Two cluster scores for each paradigm Two cluster scores for each paradigm Current & Ideal overall Current & Ideal overall Current & Ideal time Current & Ideal space Current & Ideal energy Current & Ideal material Current & Ideal control Current & Ideal affect Current & Ideal meaning Current & Ideal content Calculated from the F-PAS Calculated from the F-PAS Range from 0-5 Range from – family never uses this paradigm 0 – family never uses this paradigm 5 – family uses this paradigm most often 5 – family uses this paradigm most often


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