Interrater and Test-Retest Reliability Diagnosis Interrater Reliability Test-Retest Reliability
Odd/Eccentric Cluster 4 Paranoid Personality Disorder - suspicious of people, preoccupied with unjustified doubts about the loyalty or trustworthiness of others. Reluctant to confide in others and tend to blame others and hold grudges. 4 Schizoid Personality Disorder - does not desire or enjoy social relationships and usually has no close friends. Is aloof and has no warm, tender feelings for other people. 4 Schizotypal Personality Disorder - have the interpersonal difficulties of the schizoid personality and excessive social anxiety that does not diminish with familiarity. They have some symptoms that define schizophrenia, including odd beliefs or magical thinking, and recurrent illusions. They may have paranoid ideation and ideas of reference.
Dramatic/Erratic Cluster 4 Borderline Personality Disorder - instability in relationships, mood and self-image - argumentative, irritable, sarcastic, quick to take offense, and altogether very hard to live with - tend to have a series of intense one-on-one relationships that are usually stormy and transient, alternating between idealization and devaluation 4 Histrionic Personality Disorder - formerly called hysterical personality, is applied to people who are overly dramatic and attention seeking. These people are thought to be emotionally shallow. 4 Narcissistic Personality Disorder - have a grandiose view of their own uniqueness and abilities; they are preoccupied with fantasies of great success.
Antisocial Personality Disorder 4 Two major components: (1) conduct disorder before 15 yrs, (2) continuation of pattern into adulthood. 4 Individuals with APD shows irresponsibility and antisocial behavior by working only inconsistently, breading laws, being irritable and physically aggressive, defaulting on debts, and being reckless. 4 Psychopathy - consists of emotional detachment (selfish, remorseless individual with inflated self-esteem who exploits others) and antisocial lifestyle. 4 75 to 80% of convicted felons meet the criteria for APD, but only 25% meet the criteria of Psychopathy.
Anxious/Fearful Cluster 4 Avoidant Personality Disorder - are keenly sensitive to the possibility of criticism, rejection, or disapproval and are therefore reluctant to enter into relationships unless they are sure they will be liked. They believe they are incompetent and inferior to others and typically exaggerate the risks involved in activities outside their usual routine. 4 Dependent Personality Disorder - lack self-confidence and self-reliance. Allow others to assume responsibility for important decisions. An intense “need” to be taken care of. 4 Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder - perfectionist, preoccupied with details, rules, schedules, and the like. These people often pay so much attention to detail they never finish projects. Work rather than pleasure oriented.
Therapies for Personality Disorders 4 Psychoactive drugs used to treat the Axis I problems the disorder resembles. 4 Psychodynamic therapists attempt to correct the childhood problems assumed to underlie the personality disorder 4 Cognitive Therapists (e.g., Beck, Ellis) attempt to correct the logical errors and dysfunctional schema characteristic of the disorders 4 Therapies for Borderline Personality Disorder –Object Relations Psychotherapy –Dialectical Behavior Therapy - Marsha Linehan 4 Psychopathy thought to be impossible to treat. Keep in prison until they settle down as they approach age 40