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History of NursingHistory of Nursing Denise Filiatrault RN, BSN, MNc 1.

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Presentation on theme: "History of NursingHistory of Nursing Denise Filiatrault RN, BSN, MNc 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 History of NursingHistory of Nursing Denise Filiatrault RN, BSN, MNc 1

2 Objectives  Describe the evolution of nursing and nursing education  Discuss significant changes in nursing  Identify nursing leaders  Identify major organizations  Identify components of the health care system  Define nursing  Define roles and responsibilities of the LPN and RN 2

3 Illness?  Early records  Illness = standing with God  Medicine man & witchcraft  Evil spirits  Hippocrates (born 460 BC)  Rejected ‘supernatural’  Holistic care origins  Hippocratic Oath “Do no harm” 3

4 19 th Century19 th Century  Hospitals Overcrowded  No training  Nurses lower class women  Unkempt  Poor hygiene practices  Dirty conditions 4

5 In small groups answer….In small groups answer….  What standards did Florence Nightingale contribute to nursing, and how have they affected the standards of the nursing profession today?  What impact did WWI and WWII have on nursing?  Why did professional nursing organizations develop in the twentieth century, and what is their purpose today?  What characteristics define the LPN/LVN role? 5

6 Early Nursing EducationEarly Nursing Education  Attendant Nurses  The Ballard School  First school for training practical nurses  Started in 1892 in Brooklyn, NY  3 months’ duration  Trained students to care for the chronically ill, invalids, children, and the elderly  Main emphasis was on home care  Cooking, nutrition, basic science, basic nursing procedures  Graduated as attendant nurses 6

7 Nursing EducationNursing Education  Lutheran Order of Deaconesses  Established the first real school of nursing  Located in Kaiserwerther, Germany  Florence Nightingale attended this school  thisday/bday/0512.html thisday/bday/0512.html 7

8 Nursing EducationNursing Education  Florence Nightingale  Changed condition of the hospitals  Cleaned units, washed clothes regularly, provided sanitary conditions  Through her patience, dedication, and empathetic treatment, made a psychological change  “Lady with the lamp”  Carried a lamp to light her way through the rows of beds of the injured and sick 8

9 Nursing from Occupation to ProfessionNursing from Occupation to Profession  Contributions of Florence Nightingale  Defined nursing as both an art and a science  Differentiated nursing from medicine  Identified personal needs of patient and role of nurse in meeting them  Established standards for hospital management  Established nursing education and nursing as a respected occupation for women 9

10 Nursing from Occupation to ProfessionNursing from Occupation to Profession  Contributions of Florence Nightingale  Stressed the need for continuing education for nurses  Recognized two components of nursing—health and illness  Recognized nutrition as important to health  Instituted occupational and recreational therapy for sick people  Maintained accurate records/beginning of nursing research 10

11 Nursing Education in the USANursing Education in the USA  Most early nursing programs were supported by large hospitals.  First three schools of nursing in the United States  Bellevue Hospital School of Nursing, New York  Connecticut Training School, New Haven  Boston Training School at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston  Goal was to set education standards for nurses  Code of ethics was adopted by the society  Nightingale Pledge 11

12 Nursing in the USANursing in the USA  Nursing licensure  First laws were established in 1903  Protect the public  North Carolina, New Jersey, and New York were first states  Isabelle Hampton Robb and Mary Adelaide Nutting  Developed a program at Columbia University to train and develop teachers of nursing 12

13 Nursing  World War I  Increased demand for nurses  Army School of Nursing was established  Training focused on “service to the patient” rather than on comprehensive care  Most nurses returned to previous jobs after the war 13

14 Nursing  World War I and World War II  Increased demand for nurses  Army School of Nursing was established  Training focused on “service to the patient” rather than on comprehensive care  Nurses stayed in the military after the war  Civilian nursing: low pay, long shifts, atrocious conditions  Military nursing: prestige, good pay, and opportunity for advancement 14

15 Nursing EducationNursing Education  Characteristics of health care changed rapidly as health care became an industry  Growth and diversity became the major emphasis  Beginning of contemporary nursing with specialized nursing care adapted to areas  Private duty, school nursing, industrial nursing, nurse anesthesia, and nurse- midwifery 15

16 Nursing EducationNursing Education  Association of Practical Nurse Schools  Founded in 1941  Dedicated to practical nursing  Planned the first standard curriculum for practical nursing  1942: changed name to the National Association of Practical Nurse Education (NAPNE)  1959: changed name to National Association for Practical Nurse Education and Service (NAPNES) 16

17 Nursing  1961: National League for Nursing  established a Department of Practical Nursing Programs  Developed an accreditation service for PN programs; Council of Practical Nursing Programs  1965: American Nurses Association  Education should take place in institutions of learning  Many hospital-based nursing programs were disbanded  Trend was changed from “training” nurses to “educating” nurses 17

18 Contemporary Nursing EducationContemporary Nursing Education  Nursing programs are offered by various organizations: high schools, trade or technical schools, hospitals, junior and community colleges, universities, private education agencies  Length of programs: 12 to 18 months  Skills, theory, and clinical practice  National Council Licensing Examination for Practical Nursing (NCLEX-PN)  Examination for licensure as LPN 18

19 Nursing  Licensing laws  Protect the public from unqualified persons practicing in almost any field or profession  Jurisdictions  Area such as a state that has the legal power to regulate nursing licensure and practice  State board of nursing 19

20 Nursing as a Profession & DisciplineNursing as a Profession & Discipline  Practice in a wide variety of settings.  Develop a specific body of knowledge.  Conduct and publish nursing research.  Recognize role in promoting health.  Use nursing knowledge as base for nursing practice. 20

21 Aims of NursingAims of Nursing  To promote health  To prevent illness  To restore health  To facilitate coping with disability or death 21

22 Additional Roles of the NurseAdditional Roles of the Nurse  Caregiver  Communicator  Teacher/Educator  Counselor  Leader  Researcher  Advocate  Maybe a cheerleader too? 22

23 Practical Nursing DefinedPractical Nursing Defined  The activity of providing specific services to patients under direct supervision of a licensed physician or dentist and/or RN  Assist individuals, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health, to their recovery, or to a peaceful death  Educated to be a responsible member of a health care team, performing basic therapeutic, rehabilitative, and preventive care for anyone who needs it 23

24 Role of the Nurse: 1887Role of the Nurse: 1887  In addition to caring for your 50 patients, each nurse will follow these regulations:  Daily sweep & mop the floors of your ward, dust the patient's furniture & windowsills.  Maintain an even temperature in your ward by bringing in a scuttle of coal for the day's business.  Each nurse on day duty will report every day at 7 a.m. & leave at 8 p.m. except on the Sabbath on which day you will be off from 12 noon to 2 p.m.  Graduate nurses in good standing with the director of nurses will be given an evening off each week for courting purposes or two evenings a week if you go regularly to church.  The nurse who performs her labors and serves her patients and doctors without fault for five years will be given an increase of five cents a day, providing there are no hospital debts outstanding. 24

25 In a small group: Discuss the Roles  Patient/Client  Physician  Physician Assistant  Residents - Fellows  ARNP  Registered nurse  LPN/LVN  Nurses Aid  Physical therapists & Occupational Therapists  Respiratory therapists  Dietician  Case Manager  Radiology technician  Pharmacists  Janitor/Housekeeping  Phlebotomist  Social workers  Nurse Managers  House supervisors 25

26 In a small group:In a small group:  Discuss how a multidisciplinary approach to patient care is affected by the influences of other disciplines, economic factors, environmental issues, and expectations of the patient.  How does the nurse fit into this realm? 26

27 In Class ActivityIn Class Activity  Can I have a *not shy* volunteer? 27

28 Expanded Educational RolesExpanded Educational Roles  Clinical nurse specialist (CNS)  Nurse practitioner (DNP, ARNP)  Nurse anesthetist (CRNA)  Nurse–midwife  Nurse educator  Nurse administrator  Nurse researcher  Nurse entrepreneur  Nurse Lawyer (RN, JD) 28

29 Educational PreparationEducational Preparation Entry Level  LPN  LPN-RN  RN  RN-BSN  BSN Graduate Level  RN – MN  MN  PhD now DNP  CNS  ARNP  CRNA 29

30 Distribution - Nursing EducationDistribution - Nursing Education

31 Advance PracticeAdvance Practice 31

32 Nursing ResearchNursing Research 32  Systematic inquiry to develop knowledge about issues of importance to the nursing profession  Evidence-based practice projects  Replications of current reseach  Research integration through systematic review  Multisite and interdisciplinary studies  Increased focus on health disparities

33 Nursing ResearchNursing Research  Evidence-based practice (EBP)  Basing clinical decisions on best possible evidence—especially high-quality research  Level of Evidence  Which is stronger?  Professional opinion vs. Randomized Control Trial  Wikipedia vs. Medline 33

34 Goals of ResearchGoals of Research  Improve care of people in clinical setting.  Study people and the nursing process.  Education  Policy development  Ethics  Nursing history  Develop greater autonomy and strength as a profession.  Provide evidence-based nursing practice. 34

35 Components of a Research Journal Article  Abstract  Introduction  Methods  Results  Discussion  References 35

36 Nursing Role in EB ResearchNursing Role in EB Research  Read widely and critically  Attend professional conferences  Learn to expect evidence that a procedure is effective  Become involved in a journal club  Pursue and participate in EBP projects 36

37 Nursing Research Related WebsitesNursing Research Related Websites OrganizationWebsite American Nurses American Nurses Credentialing Center—Magnet Recognition magnet/ American Nurses Cochrane Florence Nightingale site ale/index.html Joanna Briggs Institute (Aus) National of Research Sigma Theta Tau 37

38 Homework for Next WeekHomework for Next Week  Go to one of the above websites and look around.  Post on the discussion board something interesting you found.  See next week’s Required Assignment for details 38

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