Coaching is… “a method of transferring skill and expertise from more experienced and knowledgeable practitioners of such skill to less experienced ones” (Hargreaves & Dawe, 1990) Coaching is a set of responsibilities, actions and activities... not a particular person. “Coaching is the active and iterative delivery of: ▫ (a) prompts that increase successful behavior, and ▫ (b) corrections that decrease unsuccessful behavior” (Horner, 2009) Coaches have changed from “experts” to “thought partners” (Eggers & Clark, 2000)
General Coaching Model 1. “Setting the foundation by defining the context, establishing the contract, and building a working alliance” ▫ Building rapport 2. “Assessing the individual” 3. “Strategizing the engagement and developing a plan based on assessment feedback and goals” 4. “Implementing the plan” 5. “Evaluating the intervention and reassessing the initial target areas” Liljenstrand & Nebeker, 2008
Types of Coaching Business coaching Career/job coaching Challenge coaching Change/capacity coaching Collegial coaching Executive coaching Instructional coaching Life coaching Peer coaching Sports coaching Technical coaching
Who provides coaching? Coaches come from a variety of different educational disciplines ▫ Ranging from high school graduates to PhD’s Coaches in the psychology field tend to be hired by organizations ▫ Rely more on their academic training when coaching, attend coaching specific certifications or licensure ▫ They view coaching as a mere extension to their regular services Coaches in the field of OTH, BUS, or EDU appear to be hired mainly by individuals receiving coaching services and seem to be more involved in the personal coaching market. Liljenstrand & Nebeker, 2008
Research on Coaching Effectiveness Lack of empirical research (Bartlett, 2007; Silver et al., 2009) But what there is indicates that coaching is effective ▫ Hendrickson et al. (1993) ▫ Haan, Duchworth, Birch, & Jones, 2013
Effective Professional Development Examine goals and performance Decisions on what needs to be learned Contextualized learning in schools Collaborative problem solving Ongoing and sufficient support Rich information Opportunities to develop theoretical understanding Training that is part of a comprehensive reform process Hawley & Valli, 1999, as cited in Batt, 2010
Coaching vs. Didactic Training “Traditional ‘stand-and-deliver’ presentations rarely affect measurable, sustained change in student learning” (Walpole, 2005, as cited by Denton & Hasbrouck, 2009) “In traditional forms of professional development… teachers are passive participants in the learning. Such modes of professional development have been found to be largely ineffective (e.g., Darling‐Hammond & McLaughlin, 1995). ▫ In contrast, learning though collaboration has been identified as a characteristic of effective professional development (Fullan, 1995)” (Lynch & Ferguson, 2010)
Training Methods and Impact Upon Participants Gravois et al., 2002
Training Outcomes Related to Training Components Training Outcomes Training Component Knowledge of Content Skill Implementation Classroom Application Presentation/ Lecture 10%5%0% Plus Demonstration 30%20%0% Plus Practice 60% 5% Plus Coaching/ Admin Support Data Feedback 95% Joyce & Showers, 2002, as cited in Horner, 2009
Why Do Coaching Models Work? Coaches… ▫ Have credibility and experience with the target skill(s) ▫ Meet repeatedly (e.g., monthly or bi-monthly) ▫ Respond to needs & strengths ▫ Adjust the intensity according to need ▫ Provide supportive and specific feedback about practices ▫ Offer coaching in context Cappella et al., 2012
Internal vs. External Coaches Definitions ▫ Internal coaches – “employed in the school where they provide support” School-based and/or full-time at one school ▫ External coaches – “employed outside the schools where they provide support (e.g. by district, region, state)” (Horner, 2009) District-level and/or serve multiple schools
Internal vs. External Coaches Internal CoachExternal Coach Advantages Knowledge of school Staff relationships Regular access Independent Outside perspective Multiple schools experience Disadvantages Conflicting roles Narrow range of experiences Limited knowledge of school Limited relationships Less frequent access Unaware of politics in school Horner, 2009
Special Concerns Associated with External Coaches Sustainability (Cappella et al., 2012) ▫ Coach needs to get whole school on board in order to have the school sustain the implementation of the program when a particular administrator leaves Schools will need to be effective in organizing personnel and resources to facilitate assisting, maintaining, and training—both initial training and continuing development
Coaches Maintain a defined role so they can… ▫ Facilitate Training & updating in the area in which they provide support Good use of time management Team processes Establishment & maintenance of positive relationships ▫ Communicate Effectively Understand confidentiality & ethics Hasbrouck & Denton, 2005, as cited in Denton & Hasbrouck, 2009; Haan, Duckworth, Birch, & Jones, 2013
Coaches are ▫ Experts in Problem-solving Data collection Goal-setting Intervention development Designing & providing professional development Supporting sustaining, school-wide student success
Effective Coaches are… Communicators Content Knowledge Experts Facilitators Coach Faculty Administrator District Coordinator Community OTISS expert Behavioral ‘expert’ Instructional ‘expert’ Link to resources Team meetings Activities at trainings Implementation – ‘Positive Nag’
What roles do you hold at your site? Explicit roles ▫ Job title Implicit roles ▫ What else am I asked to do How do these roles support or undermine my ability to Facilitate, Communicate, gain and demonstrate expertise?
Coaching Involves active collaboration and participation to, ▫ Build local capacity Become unnecessary, but remain available ▫ Maximize current competence Never change things that are working Always make the smallest change that will have the biggest impact ▫ Focus on valued outcomes Tie all efforts to the benefits for children It is not simply group instruction
Coaching also… Emphasize accountability Measure and report everything Build credibility through: ▫ Consistency ▫ Competence with behavioral and academic principles/practices ▫ Relationships ▫ Time investment
What do you do? How do you facilitate your team? How do you communicate with your team? How do you share information to your team to build their skills? What do you need to build your coaching skills?
Coaches’ Goals are to Assist school team with implementation Ensure fidelity of implementation Serve as a resource for team
Responsibilities Coaches provide assistance by ▫ Attend site team meetings ▫ Encourage and model effective problem solving within the team ▫ Help develop tools/ resources/ guidelines for future implementers ▫ Provide ideas for fresh or alternative solutions ▫ Acknowledge progress and encourage continuation of effective implementation ▫ Support in the development of plans—specifying goal and steps to achieve goal
Responsibilities Coaches ensure fidelity by ▫ Monitor team progress (implementation, use of database, communication with faculty, etc.) ▫ Review data ▫ Monitor accuracy and consistency ▫ Report to district coordinator Coaches provide resource by ▫ Providing or securing training in needed areas of implementation ▫ Finding answers to difficult questions ▫ Provide resources, or access to resources
Early Implementation Support is Key Helps maintain momentum Helps with team process Coordinates information and communication Provide reinforcement thru praise, & celebration Provide or obtain critical information/technical support. Active problem solving All staff trainings/orientation Development and use of data for decision-making
Coach must be Problem Analyst Identify problems early Use data on a regular basis (every two weeks) to monitor key indicators, and identify problems before they become difficult Refine a problem statement to a level of precision that will allow functional solutions Use data to identify possible solutions
Questions to Ask Evaluate performance ▫ How do our data compare with last year? ▫ How does our data on current functioning compare with our goals?
Questions to Answer Do we have a problem? ▫ If a problem is identified, then ask: What is the data we need, to make a good decision? The statement of a problem is important for team- based problem solving. ▫ Everyone must be working on the same problem with the same assumptions. Problems often are framed in a “primary” form that creates concern but is not useful for problem-solving. ▫ Frame primary problems based on initial review of data ▫ Use more detailed review of data to operationally define the problem.
Expected Outcomes of Effective Coaching Implementation accuracy & fluency of evidence- based practice Maximum student outcomes Durable & generalizable implementation Implementation-outcome accountability Sugai, 2011
Evaluation of Outcomes Compare data before and after changes and Review the identified problem To determine if ▫ Changes were made consistently? ▫ Changes address the problem? ▫ There was an impact? If so, evaluate changes and impact Identify next step. (Continue, modify, discontinue etc.)
Evaluation of Outcomes Scoring Rubrics for Implementation ▫ OTISS Fidelity Assessment OTISS Fidelity Assessment Objective measure of overall degree of implementation ▫ It serves as the initial assessment and the measure of progress
Facilitating Lasting Change Clear expectations from the principal/admin that OTISS is important A community of practice in which teachers feel empowered to seek and provide help to their peers Research results that clearly link an instructional practice with improved student outcomes Resources that support implementation (e.g., materials) Flexibility to modify a practice to fit the needs of teachers and students. Lather, rinse, repeat… Klingner, 2004
Pros and Cons of Coaching List the three most challenging aspects of coaching ▫ In general ▫ At your site List three positive aspects of coaching ▫ In general ▫ At your site Review the list and ask the groups to discuss strategies for overcoming the challenges.
Your Next Step??? Acknowledge/reinforce principal & team for progress since training Communicate with the team/leadership & ask What is planned? Is assistance needed? Prompt team to: Meet & review action plan with staff – are we on track? Review school data Plan update to faculty of progress/outcomes to date Schedule next team meeting Monitor completion of team action plan Document team & coaching accomplishments, speed bumps, challenges, solutions
Horner’s (2009) “Lessons Learned” “Implementation cannot be faster than your school staff capacity to implement” “Teams need to be taught how to analyze and use data” “Emphasis on directing resources to need and removing competing activities”
Examples Florida’s Positive Behavior Support Project New Hampshire Department of Education Northern Suburban Special Education District University of Oregon Effective Behavioral & Instructional Support Systems University of Oregon Effective Behavioral & Instructional Support Systems
References Bartlett II, J. E. (2007). Advances in coaching practices: A humanistic approach to coach and client roles. Journal of Business Research, 60, 91-93. Batt, E. G. (2010). Cognitive coaching: A critical phase in professional development to implement sheltered instruction. Teaching and Teaching Education, 26, 997-1005. Cappella, E., Hamre, B. K., Kim, H. Y., Henry, D. B., Frazier, S. L., Atkins, M. S., & Schoenwald, S. K. (2012). Teacher consultation and coaching within mental health practice: Classroom and child effects in urban elementary schools. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/a0027725 Denton, C. A., & Hasbrouck, J. (2009). A description of instructional coaching and its relationship to consultation. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 19, 150- 175. Eaken, G. J., & Hagemeier, C. (2011, February). Sustaining positive behavior supports using school psychologists as coaches. Presented at the National Association of School Psychologists Annual Convention in San Francisco, CA. Gravois, T. A., Knotek, S., & Babinski, L. M. (2002). Educating practitioners as consultants: Development and implementation of the instructional consultation team consortium. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 13, 113-132. Haan, E, Duckorth, A., Birch, D., & Jones, C. (2013). Executive coaching outcome research: The contribution of common factors such as relationship, personality match, and self-efficacy. Consulting Psychology Journal, 65, 40-57. Hargreaves, A., & Dawe, R. (1990). Paths of professional development: Contrived collegiality, collaborative culture, and the case of peer coaching. Teaching & Teacher Education, 6, 227-241.
References Hendrickson, J. M., Gardner, N., Kaiser, A., & Riley, A. (1993). Evaluation of a social interaction coaching program in an integrated day-care setting. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26, 213-225. Horner, R. (2009, March). The importance of coaching in implementation of evidence-based practices. Presented at the Effective Behavioral & Instructional Support Systems Conference in Eugene, OR. Klingner, J. K. (2004). The science of professional development. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 37, 248-255. Liljenstrand, A. M., & Nebeker, D. M. (2008). Coaching services: A look at coaches, clients, and practices. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 60, 57-77. Lynch, J., & Ferguson, K. (2010). Reflections of elementary school literacy coaches on practice: Roles and perspectives. Canadian Journal of Education, 33, 199-227. Silver, M., Lochmiller, C. R., Copeland, M. A., & Tripps, A. M. (2009). Supporting new school leaders: Findings from a university-based leadership coaching program for new administrators. Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 17, 215-232. Sugai, G. (2011, June). Coaching for implementation: Best practices perspective. Presented at the Kentucky PBIS Institute Conference in Louisville, KY.