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Patricia A. Meglich, Ph.D., SPHR 2009

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1 Patricia A. Meglich, Ph.D., SPHR 2009
Job Analysis Patricia A. Meglich, Ph.D., SPHR

2 Learning Objectives for this Session
Explain the historical context of job analysis. Define the importance of job analysis to all HR activities and functions. Explain the information required to conduct a job analysis and sources of information. Introduce the learning session objectives and define job analysis. These objectives were modified from Heneman and Judge (2009). In this first session, you will discuss the history of job analysis and show students how integral the understanding and codification of jobs are to the efficient functioning of HR in an organization. Students should understand the evolution of work and how job analysis changed in response to the changing work environment. The session concludes with what information is needed to effectively conduct a job analysis. ©SHRM 2009

3 Job Analysis Defined Job analysis is the process of studying jobs to gather, analyze, synthesize and report information about job responsibilities and requirements and the conditions under which work is performed. Modified from Heneman and Judge (2009) Job analysis is a data-gathering process in which the job analyst determines what the employee actually does on the job, the required qualifications needed to perform those duties and the context in which the work is performed. Job analysis can be conducted for existing and anticipated jobs. It is not necessary to have a job incumbent to perform a job analysis. Job analysis can be performed on a prospective basis when an organization anticipates creating new jobs or retrospectively if a job must be recreated (perhaps to respond to litigation or an accident investigation months after the job ceases to exist). An organization undergoing substantial changes can use job analysis to plan for the future and to assure that there will be a good match between the organization’s skill needs and the employees’ capabilities. ©SHRM 2009

4 Historical Perspective
Frederick Taylor (1911) Scientific Management Replaced rule-of-thumb work methods with scientific study. Scientifically select, train and develop workers. Cooperate with workers to ensure that scientific methods are followed. Divide work such that managers apply scientific principles and workers implement them. Find the “one best way” to accomplish any task. Utilized time and motion studies to analyze tasks. Job analysis was initially conducted to improve the efficiency of workers. The first job analyst was Frederick Taylor, known as the father of the scientific management. Taylor studied work by breaking it down into its smallest identifiable components to determine the one best way to perform each component and then compiled work into larger duties and, finally, jobs. Before the turn of the 20th century, most work was done on family farms or by skilled craftspeople who had learned their trades while in lengthy apprenticeships. It was not until the Industrial Revolution in the early 1900s that the manufacturing factories were created. The skilled craftspeople of yesteryear made their own decisions about how the job was to be performed. Scientific management removed much of this autonomy and converted skilled crafts into a series of simplified jobs that could be performed by unskilled workers who easily could be trained for the tasks. Scientific management methods called for optimizing the way tasks were performed and simplifying jobs so workers could be trained to perform their specialized sequence of motions in the one best way. To scientifically determine the optimal way to perform a job, Taylor performed time studies (also known as time and motion studies) using a stopwatch to time a worker's sequence of motions with the goal of determining the one best way to perform a job. Taylor was the first management consultant to systematically study work as it was performed. While his expressed purpose was to improve productivity, without his detailed methods of observing and evaluating work, we would have no foundation on which to conduct job analyses. ©SHRM 2009

5 Historical Perspective
Elton Mayo ( ) Hawthorne Studies Informal organization affects productivity. Work group norms affect productivity. The workplace is a social system. Work is more than tasks and duties. The Hawthorne Studies conducted between 1927 and 1932 at Western Electric followed closely on the heels of the scientific management movement. Work context was an important element in determining the best method to perform job duties, so the Hawthorne Studies focused on varying elements in the work environment to determine the effect on worker productivity. The researchers soon discovered that the social context of work played a much larger role in worker output and attitude than they had expected. The Hawthorne Studies advanced the understanding of jobs by including the interpersonal elements of the work context. The studies found that it was not sufficient to simply study tasks and duties that workers perform. A job requires the worker to interact with others, and this must be considered during a job analysis. Jobs must be considered in the larger context of social relationships rather than as stand-alone entities. To truly understand how work gets done, the job analyst must take into account who the worker interacts with, how much interdependence there is among workers and other social aspects of the job. ©SHRM 2009

6 Organizations in the New Millennium
Evolving work methods. Organization structure. Reporting relationships. Global demands. Knowledge workers. The world of work continues to evolve in terms of work methods, organizational structure, reporting relationships and global demands. Jobs must change in response to these forces. Work methods constantly evolve due to changes in technology and processes. Work that was previously done manually is now automated. Computerized databases have replaced paper records. Digital imaging has replaced x-ray film. Cell manufacturing is replacing assembly line operations. These examples show how workplaces are in an ever-changing state, and jobs must be continually redesigned to reflect the new methods and tools available. Teams are being used in many workplaces to replace the traditional hierarchy and to increase employee involvement and engagement. Jobs often include more cross functionality than in the past, and workers are being asked to make decisions about how work gets done. Reporting relationships are changing due to the use of teams and the virtual world in which we now live. Workers may not all work at one site; they may be in virtual settings around the globe. These challenges to traditional reporting structures lead to restructuring of jobs and responsibilities. The global marketplace has lead to a 24/7 demand from customers and clients. Work now takes place around the clock, and jobs must be redesigned to account for these demands. Knowledge workers are replacing manual workers as we evolve into a service-based economy. Knowledge workers pose special challenges in work design because of their unique contributions to the end product. The difficulties of measuring and assessing performance and determining where to draw the line on responsibilities require a continual analysis of jobs. The changing workplace creates challenges to employers that wish to maintain updated job information. Job analysis is an ongoing process. Managers and HR professionals should continually review the workplace to assess the accuracy of job descriptions and documentation relative to the jobs. ©SHRM 2009

7 Foundation of all HR practices
Job analysis plays an integral role in all HR functions and activities. Job analysis is the foundation on which all HR practices are built. Without a thorough understanding of how jobs are performed, effective HR practices would be impossible. Ask students to offer ideas on how job analysis affects each of the eight HR functions detailed in the model before moving on to the next slide. ©SHRM 2009

8 Foundational HR planning: Staffing: Training: Performance management:
Work design. Skills required. Staffing: Advertising in labor market. Selection criteria. Selection methods. Succession planning. Training: Training needs for new employees. Training program content. Training evaluation. Performance management: Performance standards. Evaluation criteria. Appraisal forms and methods. Feedback and communication with employees. HR planning: It is critical to identify the skills needed to accomplish the work that will help achieve organizational goals. The organization’s structure relies on an understanding of what jobs are done, how they are done, how jobs are interconnected, and what tools and equipment will be needed. Staffing: Without a detailed job description and a list of required qualifications, it would be impossible to recruit and select highly qualified employees. Every step of the staffing process depends on a thorough understanding of what people are being hired to do and what knowledge, skills, abilities and other attributes (KSAOs) they must have to effectively fulfill their roles. Training: The tasks identified by job analysis pinpoint the knowledge, skills and abilities required to perform the duties. Training must be assessed in the context of helping employees perform their job duties effectively. Performance management: Job analysis leads to identification of performance standards. Job performance must be evaluated with an understanding of the assigned duties and at the prescribed level. The job description and performance standards that flow from job analysis provide a common framework for employees and supervisors to assess work performance. ©SHRM 2009

9 Foundational Safety and health: Rewards: Employee relations:
Training required. Protective equipment needed. Hazard communications. Accommodations for medical impairments. Rewards: Value of each job for compensation purposes. FLSA status. Pay adjustments. Employee relations: Work rules, policies and procedures. Clear lines of authority and responsibility. Union work settings. Legal compliance: Recordkeeping. Accommodations. Training. Compensation practices. Equal employment practices and affirmative action. Safety and health: Job analysis helps identify work hazards inherent in the job, any required personal protective equipment and training needs. Further, ADA compliance requires understanding of essential and non-essential job functions so that reasonable accommodations can be made when needed. Rewards: Proper evaluation of a job’s value or worth relies on codifying tasks, duties and qualifications for successful job performance. Pay rates should not be established without a sound job evaluation process. The exempt/nonexempt status of each job can only be determined through job analysis. Employee relations: Work rules, policies and procedures depend on clear job descriptions with authority and responsibility for task accomplishment clearly identified. Job analysis allows the organization to specify what jobs are to be performed by whom. In union settings, the clarification of responsibility is essential for smooth functioning in the organization. Legal compliance: All nondiscrimination statutes demand the evaluation of job relatedness in employment decisions. Lacking a systematic job analysis process, the organization cannot substantiate employment decisions nor assure that such decisions are free from adverse impact and bias. ADA compliance in particular assumes that the organization has assessed job duties and is capable of accommodating disabled employees. Wage and hour law requires an analysis of the overtime status for each job. Job analysis serves as the foundation for every HR function. A well-conducted job analysis follows a systematic method to collect and analyze information about the job(s) being studied. Ask students: “What information would you need analyze a job?” ©SHRM 2009

10 Information Collected
Data, people, things. Tasks or job functions: What gets done on the job. Essential functions. Scope of responsibility: Supervision received. Supervision provided. Tools and equipment used on the job: Computer software. Hand tools. Job-related equipment. In the 1940s, Sidney Fine and his colleagues developed the Functional Job Analysis, a task-based technique in which job elements are evaluated in terms of their relatedness to data, people and things. This classification scheme served as the foundation for the Dictionary of Occupational Titles. Fine’s functional job analysis process resulted in the now classic taxonomy of “Things-Data-People” as the three critical domains to analyze jobs. While Fine’s original work dates to the 1950s, the contemporary Dictionary of Occupational Titles and its successor, O*Net, rely heavily on this data classification to be collected in job analysis. The Dictionary of Occupational Titles is now an online resource called O*Net. The federal government maintains this extensive database of job information. Detailed job descriptions, including job requirements, work context, and pay rate information are readily available for a wide range of occupations. Employers, job seekers, job analysts and others can freely access this web site. We will retrieve job descriptions from the O*Net web site later in this module so you will have a chance to see its usefulness in studying jobs. Job analysis requires collecting information regarding actual job tasks and duties. What does the job incumbent actually do? How many people does this job supervise? How closely is this job supervised? What tools and equipment are used on the job? Sources: Fine, S. A. (1955). A structure of worker functions. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 34, Harvey, R. J. (2004). Empirical foundations for the Things-Data-People taxonomy of work. Symposium presented at the Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Chicago. ©SHRM 2009

11 Information Collected
Work context and environment: Physical environment (discomfort, hazards). Work schedule (hours, days). Travel required. Social/relationship factors: Nature of social contacts. Level of social contact. Decision-making authority: Judgment and discretion. Where the work takes place also affects the job. Are there physical hazards or comfort conditions (noise, heat, odors) to contend with? Is the job incumbent required to work a nontraditional work schedule (rotating shifts, weekend duty, on call)? Is travel required to fulfill the job duties? Does the job incumbent interact with people at various levels of the organization? Does the job incumbent work in teams? Is there contact with external parties? How much authority does the job incumbent have? Is there a monetary limit on decision-making authority? What are the consequences of making bad decisions? How can errors by the job incumbent affect organizational outcomes? ©SHRM 2009

12 Information Collected
Personal and physical demands of the job: Stand, sit, reach, lift, walk. Knowledge, skills and abilities required to perform job tasks: Education. Experience. Certification (desired) and licensure (required): Certification (HR). Board licensure (physician, engineer). Especially for ADA purposes, the job’s physical demands must be assessed to facilitate a reasonable accommodation request. Are there particular physical demands needed to perform the job? Does the job incumbent need physical strength, visual or auditory acuity and/or mobility? What educational background is needed to effectively perform tasks and duties? Do job incumbents need education beyond high school? Are there specific fields of study needed? Is this an entry-level job? Does the job require prior experience? Do job incumbents need to be licensed? Is certification desirable? Do job incumbents need special training and licensure to drive over-the-road trucks or to work as physicians, nurses, real estate agents, social workers, insurance brokers? Is certification a desirable attribute for jobs such as a certified public accountant, a certified HR professional (PHR, SPHR) or a certified financial planner? ©SHRM 2009

13 Job Requirements Matrix
Tasks KSAs Specific Tasks Task Dimensions Importance (% of time) Nature Importance to tasks (1-5) Arrange schedules with office assistant to ensure that office is staffed. Supervision 30% Knowledge of office policies and operations. 4.9 Assign office tasks to office assistant and volunteers. Type/transcribe letters, memos and reports. Word processing 20% Knowledge of typing formats and software. 3.1 After collecting information relative to the job tasks, work context and interpersonal demands, a concise way to convey this information is to use a job requirements matrix. Heneman and Judge give a good example of what a job requirements matrix might look like. Here is a portion of the Heneman and Judge matrix. You can see how the tasks are tied to specific KSAOs needed to perform the job. The job requirements matrix concisely displays how the information collected is used to flesh out a job description. The matrix ties it all together. We have looked at the types of information needed to conduct a job analysis. We will now turn our attention to where we get this information. Ask students the following question: As a job analyst, who would you consult to obtain information about the job? What resources might you check? See Exhibit 4.3 on page 151 of Heneman and Judge, Staffing Organizations, 2009. ©SHRM 2009

14 Data Sources Job incumbent Supervisor or manager Former jobholders
Job analyst Subject matter experts (SMEs) Industry resources Professional organizations like SHRM There are many sources to tap when conducting a job analysis. Remember that it is not necessary to have a job incumbent to conduct a job analysis. The choice of sources to use depends on a number of factors: 1. How many job incumbents there are. 2. The purpose for the job analysis. 3. The cost and time constraints for the process. Job incumbents are typically relied on because of their familiarity with the job tasks. However, they should not be taken at their word without verification. Incumbents may not be objective, and they may have a bias toward their own particular credentials and background. Supervisors or managers are an excellent data source. They supervise job incumbents and likely had a key role in defining the job to begin with. Their buy-in is important to determine reasonable standards of performance and job descriptions. Former jobholders can be informative as well because they have performed the job tasks. They are less likely to bias the information in their own favor. However, if they performed the job some time ago or before methods/tools changed, the accuracy of their information must be verified. The job analyst is an outside expert more skilled at assessing jobs than in the specific job being analyzed. However, the job analyst is likely to be more objective than anyone closely tied to the job. Subject matter experts can be used for complex jobs, especially if the jobs are not currently performed in the organization. Individuals that perform the job duties at another organization, department or work site can be helpful in explaining how the work gets done. Industry resources such as associations (American Welding Society, National Automobile Dealers Association) often have job descriptions available to their members. Professional associations like SHRM, the state bar association and Municipal Firefighters Association can provide generic, benchmark job descriptions for jobs within the occupational family. ©SHRM 2009

15 Dictionary of Occupational Titles
Dictionary of Occupational Titles is now online on O*Net. Comprehensive searchable database: Provided by the federal government, the former Dictionary of Occupational Titles is now offered online as O*Net. This is an extensive, easily searchable federal government resource that is comprehensive and detailed. It is an excellent starting point when conducting a job analysis. O*Net is the nation's primary source of occupational information. Central to the project is the O*Net database, containing information on hundreds of standardized and occupation-specific descriptors. The database is continually updated by surveying a broad range of workers from each occupation. Information from this free database forms the heart of O*Net Online, the interactive application to search occupations. The database also provides the basis for Career Exploration Tools, a set of valuable assessment instruments for workers and students looking to find or change careers (Source: O*net.Online). Every occupation requires a different mix of knowledge, skills and abilities, and is performed using a variety of activities and tasks. These distinguishing occupational characteristics are described by the O*Net Content Model, which encapsulates the key features of an occupation into a standardized, measurable set of variables called descriptors. The hierarchical model starts with six domains, describing the day-to-day aspects of the job and the qualifications and interests of the typical worker. The model expands to 277 descriptors collected by the O*Net program, with more collected by other federal agencies such as the Bureau of Labor Statistics. ©SHRM 2009

16 O*Net Homepage The Content Model was developed using research on job and organizational analysis. It embodies a view that reflects the character of occupations (through job-oriented descriptors) and people (through worker-oriented descriptors). The model also allows occupational information to be applied across jobs, sectors or industries (cross-occupational descriptors) and within occupations (occupational-specific descriptors). These descriptors are organized into six major domains, which enable users to focus on areas of information that specify the key attributes and characteristics of workers and occupations. Follow the link to the URL - for a complete description of the Content Model. ©SHRM 2009

17 End of Session I This concludes Session I. Assignment for Session II:
In groups of four to five students, retrieve a job description from O*Net. Choose from the following list of job titles: Dental hygienist. Waiter and waitress. Real estate sales agent. Floral designer. Hairdresser, hairstylist, cosmetologist. Retail salesperson. Print out the job description and bring it to the next class session. In the end, a combination of sources is the best solution because the strengths and weaknesses of the various sources can be offset by using several sources. Different people and sources can provide unique perspectives about the job. It is usually best to triangulate the information from several points. This allows you to compare and contrast the information and draw the most comprehensive picture of the job. The job incumbent may see things differently than the manager. For instance, the job incumbent is likely to inflate the importance of his/her job duties to “pump up” the job’s value. However the manager may wish to deflate the job’s value so as not to be forced to pay more for the work. The motivations of each information source must be considered when collecting job-related information. Review the importance of job analysis to HR practices. Reinforce the essence of job analysis and the key role it plays in assuring that the organization is in compliance with all statutory requirements as well as staying current with changes in the way work gets done. Assign students to retrieve one of the following job descriptions from O*Net: * Dental hygienist. * Waiter and waitress. * Real estate sales agent. * Floral designer. * Hairdresser, hairstylist, cosmetologist. * Retail salesperson. Students will likely have personal knowledge of these occupations and may have even held some of the jobs (waiter/waitress and retail salesperson). Because the hands-on activity requires students to visualize the job being performed, it is helpful to use jobs with which they are familiar. Each student should retrieve and print a job description and bring it to the next class session. ©SHRM 2009

18 Learning Objectives for Session II
Explain data collection methods to conduct a job analysis. Analyze a job description retrieved from O*Net with respect to sources and data collection methods. Analyze a job description retrieved from O*Net with respect to importance of tasks. Review the key points from the first session. Ask students about the: History of job analysis. Role of job analysis in conducting HRM activities. Information needed to conduct a job analysis. Sources of job information that can be used. Introduce this session’s learning objectives. In this session, we will describe the various data collection methods and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each method. Students will complete a group activity that involves retrieval of a job description from O*Net and an analysis of that job description. This activity provides hands-on experience with the O*Net web site and in-depth review of a specific job description. At the end of this session, students will have a working knowledge of job information sources, data collection methods and techniques to evaluate the importance of various tasks and duties necessary to perform the job. ©SHRM 2009

19 Data Collection Methods
Observation Work sample Work diary Interview Questionnaire Perform the job Background records Multiple methods Just as there are many information sources about jobs, there are various methods that can be used to collect this data. Each method has strengths and weaknesses, and some methods work better under particular circumstances. The decision about which methods to use is based on: 1. The purpose for the job analysis. 2. The cost and time constraints for the process. 3. Accessibility to the job site; hazards inherent on the job. 4. Repeatability of job tasks. 5. Number of job incumbents. Amount of training needed to conduct the analysis. Each method is explained in detail on the following slides. Strengths and weaknesses of each method are also discussed. Source: Mathis and Jackson (2008), ©SHRM 2009

20 Observation Directly observe job incumbents performing the job duties, work sample or job segments. Can also be observed indirectly via video or audiotape: Hazardous jobs (airline pilot, surgeon, construction). High-risk jobs (nuclear power plant). Best when job/task is repetitive and short cycle. Good for manual jobs and tasks. Not good for nonrepetitive, long-cycle jobs and tasks. Not good for creative or “thinking” jobs and tasks. Observation For this method, the job analyst visits the job site and watches workers perform the job tasks. It is advisable to observe several different workers performing the job because each worker may perform the tasks in different sequences or ways. The job analyst takes notes or records the workers in action on video. It is important to consult local and state laws regarding privacy and obtain proper consent to record employees on the job. In situations where the work is hazardous or it would be difficult to travel to the job site, it might be possible to recreate the job in a laboratory setting. However, this would be expensive and would not allow the job analyst to observe the actual job context in which the work takes place. ©SHRM 2009

21 Work Sample Observe samples of critical job tasks.
Best when job or task is repetitive and short cycle. Good for manual jobs and tasks. Not good for nonrepetitive, long-cycle jobs and tasks. Not good for creative or “thinking” jobs and tasks. Choosing the “right” or most representative tasks: Scientifically sample the job tasks to choose appropriate tasks. Work sample A work sample is a snippet or small segment of the total job that represents the typical tasks and duties performed. For example, a work sample for a nurse would be observing the nurse taking a patient’s vital signs. This is a task that is repeated frequently in the course of the job and demonstrates the knowledge and skills needed to successfully perform the job. When a job analyst uses a work sample, it is important to select portions of the job that are representative of the overall job. The work sample might also consist of completed work reports or documents produced in the course of performing the job. For example, a work sample for a graphic artist might be the final mock-up of a brochure that was designed. As with sampling job performance, it is important to obtain representative samples of typical, common work output. ©SHRM 2009

22 Work Diary Description of daily activities maintained for a period of time: Calendar, day planner. Best when job or task is nonrepetitive, long cycle. Good for creative or “thinking” jobs/tasks. Requires great discipline on diary-keeper’s part. Accuracy may be questionable. Work diary The work diary or log requires that employees record their daily activities, noting the frequency of each task and the time required to perform each task. The employee keeping the log must be highly motivated to dutifully record all tasks performed and the details of each task. This can be a rich source of information but may be burdensome to the employee. ©SHRM 2009

23 Interview Individual or group interviews:
Job incumbents. Supervisor. Former job holders. Clients. Subject matter experts (SMEs). Generates “deep” information: Qualitative data is rich. Time-consuming and expensive. Lacks anonymity. Subject to interviewer‘s skill level. Interview The job analyst might interview job incumbents, managers, former jobholders or other individuals who have information about the job. The interview might involve multiple interviewees (such as several job incumbents) to reduce the time required for the job analyst. It is optimal to use a standardized interview format so that the job analyst ensures that all relevant information is obtained. SMEs--subject matter experts--are individuals who bring particular expertise to the job analysis process obtained through first-hand knowledge of the job being analyzed. For example, a school superintendent would be an SME if the job of school principal was being analyzed (Henemen and Judge, p. 170). ©SHRM 2009

24 Questionnaire Structured form or checklist.
Paper and pencil or computer-based. Commonly used method. Standardized in content and format. Good for accessing large numbers of responses. Quantitative data. Economical. Anonymous. Downside is possible deficiency of questions/content areas assessed. Assumes incumbent literacy and intelligence. Questionnaire The questionnaire or survey method is commonly used to analyze jobs. A standardized form is given to individuals with knowledge about the job. This provides a great deal of information in a relatively short time. The responses are collected and compared by the job analyst to determine what the real job elements are. The survey method assumes that those completing the form have sufficient knowledge of the job to complete the form accurately. It also assumes that individuals are literate and able to evaluate the job objectively. Noteworthy job survey instruments are the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) and the Managerial Job Analysis Questionnaire (MPDQ). The PAQ assesses 27 job dimensions composed of 187 elements. The MPDQ includes more than 200 statements relative to managerial job dimensions such as decision making and delegating. When outsourcing the job analysis process to a consulting firm, it is likely that the firm has its own copyrighted questionnaire or would develop a custom questionnaire for the client. ©SHRM 2009

25 Perform the Job Job analyst performs the job duties as described by job incumbent and/or supervisor. First-hand exposure to job tasks and context provides rich, relevant data. Time-consuming. Potential safety risks. Assumes a certain level of skill to perform the tasks. Perform the job For this method, the job analyst actually performs the tasks of the job being studied. This is practical only for entry-level jobs that do not require specific skills. For example, the job analyst might be able to perform the tasks of a receptionist, assembly worker or hotel housekeeper. Jobs that require extensive training or are in hazardous environments are not suitable for this method. The job analyst would obtain first-hand information about the job using this method. ©SHRM 2009

26 Background Records Data mining of relevant materials such as:
Organizational charts. Training manuals. Policies and procedures. Payroll records. Production records. Call sheets. A good starting point. Documents may not exist in usable form. Documents may be out of date. Background records A valuable source of information is the existing records in the organization. The job analyst might consult current job descriptions, organizational charts, training manuals, etc. to get a sense of how the job is currently structured. Existing job descriptions would be a good starting point to help the job analyst understand what is currently expected on the job. Reporting relationships can be ascertained from the organizational chart. Training manuals would highlight the important KSAOs needed to perform the job. Call sheets and production records would provide some background information relative to how the worker’s time is allocated and what results have been typically achieved on the job. ©SHRM 2009

27 Multiple Methods For best result, use multiple methods.
Balance time and cost constraints. Balance the strengths and weaknesses of each method. No magic formula to determine how many methods are ideal or which methods to combine for a given job. Ideally, obtain both quantitative and qualitative data. For best results, combine several data collection methods to balance the strengths and weaknesses of each method. Rarely is a single method adequate to capture all of the relevant data. The best combination provides both quantitative and qualitative data to explain in detail all of the elements involved in the job and the qualifications needed to perform the duties. ©SHRM 2009

28 Job Analysis Activity I
Using a job description retrieved from O*Net, you will determine the sources and methods best used to collect data to analyze this job. You will then determine the importance of each task for the job. The URL for O*Net is: In groups of four to five, students will evaluate a job description retrieved from O*Net. Recommended job descriptions are jobs that undergraduate students would typically be familiar with in their daily lives. Job descriptions that are particularly easy to work with are: * Dental hygienist * Waiter and waitress * Real estate sales agent * Floral designer * Hairdresser, hairstylist, cosmetologist * Retail salesperson Students will retrieve a job description from O*Net before this class session. Students should be assigned to work with a group of four to five. Each group will select one job description from those retrieved by the students. Before beginning the activity, ask the group to determine which job description each group has selected. It is preferable to have at least two groups evaluate each job description so that their findings can be compared during the debrief. It is preferable to use several different job descriptions to avoid boredom and fatigue during the debrief. Students should determine the best job data sources to update the job description and provide their rationale for the decision. See slide 14 for job data sources and the strengths and weaknesses of each source. Depending on the job description used, various answers will be appropriate. Students are to determine the best data collection method(s) they should use to update the job description and provide their rationale for the decision. See slides 17–24 for data collecting methods and the strengths and weaknesses of each method. Depending on the job description used, various answers will be appropriate. Each job description on O*Net has 10 tasks listed. Students are to determine how important each of those tasks is to job performance. Using Heneman and Judge (2009) Exhibit 4.5, students should assess the percentage of time spent per task and the importance of each task to overall job performance. These alternate methods may result in conflicting task importance for any given job. Remind students to bring the job description and the analysis from Job Analysis Activity I to the next class session. ©SHRM 2009

29 End of Session II This concludes the second session.
Remember to bring your printed job description and worksheet for the activity to the next class session. Remind students to bring the job description and completed worksheet to the next class session. ©SHRM 2009

30 Learning Objectives for Session III
Identify the outcomes of job analysis. Distinguish between essential and nonessential job duties. Explain the legal implications of job analysis. Review the key points from the second session. Ask students to discuss: Data collection methods. Strengths and weaknesses of each method. The methods used to determine importance of job tasks. Next, introduce the this session’s learning objectives. In this final session, students will: Identify the outcomes of a job analysis (job descriptions, job specifications and performance standards). Learn the techniques used to distinguish between essential and nonessential job duties (especially important for ADA compliance). Understand the legal implications for conducting a job analysis in the broader scope of HR activities. Students will complete a group activity that involves continued work with the job description from O*Net used in the previous session. This activity provides hands-on experience with the assessment of importance of job tasks. At the end of this session, students will have a working knowledge of how to determine whether a job task is essential or nonessential. In this session, students will acquire a basic understanding of why job analysis is critical to HR, how a job analysis is conducted and gain personal experience using O*Net job descriptions. ©SHRM 2009

31 Outcomes of Job Analysis
Job description: Systematic, detailed summary of job tasks, duties and responsibilities. Assures that employees and managers are on the same page regarding who does what. Job specification: Detailed summary of qualifications needed to perform required job tasks. Performance standards: Establishes the level of satisfactory performance. Source: Mathis and Jackson. (2008). Human resource management (12th edition), pp ©SHRM 2009

32 Job Description The job description should include at least the following elements: Job title. Job code. FLSA status. Job summary. Essential job duty task statements. Job context or any unusual elements. Date created. Revision number and date. The job description is a key document used by employees and managers to assure an understanding of what the job incumbent is expected to do to perform the job. This document is used in all aspects of managing human resources in the organization. Job descriptions are not required by law, however, it is difficult (and legally risky) to perform many HR functions without written job descriptions. The suggested elements of a job description provide good detail for HR and line managers in carrying out many HR-related activities. The list on this slide is typical of the contents of a job description. 1. Job title: Use typical convention to title a job. Creative and novel job titles make the position difficult to compare on wage surveys, industry databases and other benchmarks. This is not the time to be cute or unusual. 2. Job code: Most organizations have some type of coding scheme (business unit, job family, department, etc.) 3. FLSA status: Is this job exempt or nonexempt for overtime purposes? It is important to identify that on the job description to avoid wage and hour problems or misunderstanding by employees regarding entitlement to overtime pay. 4. Job summary: This is a brief paragraph that explains the basic purpose for the job. The summary should be just a few sentences. 5. Essential job duty task statements: Provide action-oriented statements to describe essential job duties. Maintain consistency in terms of person and tense. 6. Job context or unusual elements: Nonstandard work hours or job conditions should be noted. Note if travel is required, hazards are present or on-call duty is expected. 7. Date created: State when then job description was originally created. Revision number and date: For tracking purposes, it is important to know what revision the present document represents and when it was revised. Source: Mathis and Jackson. (2008). Human resource management (12th edition), pp ©SHRM 2009

33 Job Specification The job specification should include at least the following elements: Job title. Job code. Job summary. Knowledge required to perform job. Skills required to perform job. Abilities required to perform job. Education required. Experience required. Licensure required or certification desired to perform the job. Date created. Revision number and date. The job specification describes the qualifications needed for successful performance of the essential job duties. The specification is used in particular for staffing the job and for complying with non-discrimination statutes. The job specification should include the following elements: 1. Job title: See slide on job description. 2. Job code: See slide on job description. 3. Job summary: See slide on job description. 4. Knowledge required to perform the job: Knowledge is a body of information that can be applied to the performance of job tasks. Examples include business and management, engineering and technology, arts and humanities, and communications. 5. Skills required to perform the job: A skill is an observable competence used to apply knowledge to perform a particular task. Examples include reading comprehension, writing, speaking, critical thinking, problem solving and decision making. 6. Abilities required to perform the job: An ability is an underlying, enduring trait that is useful in performing tasks. Examples include cognitive, psychomotor, physical and sensory ability. 7. Education required: An appropriate level of education required to successfully perform the job is determined based on the essential job duties identified. It is important to set the level of required education at the level that most current successful employees possess. 8. Experience required: An appropriate level of experience required to successfully perform the job is determined based on the essential job duties identified. It is important to set the level of required experience at the level that most current successful employees possess. 9. Required licensure or desired certification to perform the job: Based on the essential job duties identified and applicable regulations, required licensures or desired certifications are determined. Health care professionals, commercial vehicle operators, accountants, attorneys, and many other occupations require licensure or certification. 10. Date created: State when the job specification was originally created. Revision number and date: For tracking purposes, it is important to know what revision the present document represents and when it was revised. Source: Mathis and Jackson. (2008). Human resource management (12th edition), pp ©SHRM 2009

34 Performance Standards
Performance standards define the level of expected quality and quantity of work produced on the job. Line managers’ input in developing performance standards is essential. Standards must be consistent and reasonable. Performance standards help the employee gauge performance on the job. Performance standards define the level of expected quality and quantity of work output produced on the job. Line managers’ input is absolutely essential. Establishing performance standards is not the HR professional’s responsibility. The line manager understands exactly what output is reasonable for a particular job. Performance standards are used in the performance management process, and therefore line managers must develop them. (The line manager is the person to whom the job incumbent reports. This is the manager that oversees the employee and should have intimate knowledge of performance expectations for the person holding the job.) Performance standards address the questions like how much, how fast, how accurately, how many and so on. Performance standards provide the bar for employees to understand what they are expected to produce on the job. Source: Mathis and Jackson. (2008). Human resource management (12th edition), pp ©SHRM 2009

35 Essential Job Functions
Americans with Disabilities Act (1990) Percentage of time spent on task: Significant percentage of time. Often 20 percent or more. Frequency of task: Task performed regularly? Daily, weekly, monthly. Importance of task: Does the task affect other parts of the job? Does the task affect other jobs? Explain the legal requirement to identify essential job functions. To comply with the ADA, an employer must distinguish between essential and nonessential job functions. Essential functions are those that are central to job performance. The job would not exist without those essential job functions. Employers are required to provide reasonable accommodations for an otherwise qualified individual to perform the essential job functions. Several methods can be used to determine essential job functions. It is ideal to review job functions from several perspectives to determine which are essential and which are not. In Activity I, the students assessed each job task based on the percentage of time spent by the jobholder and the importance to overall job performance. These are common methods used to determine essential versus nonessential job duties. ©SHRM 2009

36 Job Analysis Activity II
Using a job description retrieved from O*Net, determine the essential and nonessential job functions of the job. Next, determine the abilities required to perform the job. Separate the class into small groups (four to five students). Ask the groups to identify the essential and nonessential job functions for a job description retrieved from O*Net. Recommended job descriptions are jobs that undergraduate students would typically be familiar with in their daily lives. It is preferable to have at least two groups evaluate each job description so that their findings can be compared during the debrief. It is preferable to use several different job descriptions to avoid boredom and fatigue during the debrief. Job descriptions that are particularly easy to work with are: * Dental hygienist. * Waiter and waitress. * Real estate sales agent. * Floral designer. * Hairdresser, hairstylist, cosmetologist. * Retail salesperson. Ask the groups to identify which of the 10 functions are essential to job performance. In the previous activity, students assessed job duties based on two methods: percentage of time spent by jobholder and importance to overall job performance. Students should establish a rating method (relative time spent, percentage of time spent, importance to overall performance, effect of inadequate performance of the task) to evaluate the 10 functions. Depending on the job descriptions used, various responses will be appropriate. Next, ask the student groups to determine which category each of the listed abilities falls into. The four categories based on O*Net are cognitive, psychomotor, physical and sensory. Next, ask them to tally the frequency of each category of abilities to determine which is the predominant category. Debrief the activity before the session adjourns. Source: Heneman and Judge. (2009). Staffing organizations (6th edition), p. 158. ©SHRM 2009

37 Behavioral Aspects Employee fears: Inflating titles and jobs.
Paranoia. Self-protection. Inflating titles and jobs. Limiting managerial flexibility: “It’s not in my job description.” Incumbent emphasis. Human nature affects the job analysis process. Employees may be reluctant to participate in an enthusiastic, forthright manner. Employees often do not understand the reason for the job analysis and are fearful that it means their jobs are in jeopardy or that they will be given a decrease in pay or status as a result. It is important to establish trust and credibility before asking employees to divulge the details of their daily lives at work. There is also a tendency to inflate the importance of what one does in an effort to get an upgrade in status or pay. Job analysts must be cautious not to accept everything they are told at face value. That is why collecting data from various sources and via various methods is so important. Supervisors also tend to boost the importance of the jobs that report to them. It is natural to expect that if those reporting to you are of higher status, that will result in your own job being upgraded. Also, supervisors may want to maintain maximum flexibility and control and therefore will include many job duties in each job description to avoid limitations imposed by rigid job descriptions. There is also a tendency to emphasize the job duties performed by the job incumbent. This can be limiting because the incumbent may not be performing all of the duties assigned. Likewise, the job incumbent’s prior education and experience will be taken as “givens” as far as necessary qualifications for the job. However, the job incumbent may be over- or under-qualified for the job and therefore his/her qualifications may not be representative of what is really needed for successful job performance. ©SHRM 2009

38 Maintenance Job descriptions and specifications must be kept current to reflect changes in: Work practices and processes. Tools and equipment used on the job. Levels of discretion Licensure or certification. Annual review during performance appraisal. Review when incumbent turns over. Jobs and organizations are constantly changing. It is critical that once the job analysis has been conducted that it not go to waste. Periodic review of all jobs is essential to comply with statutory requirements and to keep up to date with current practice in the organization. Appropriate times for review are: 1. Annually as part of the performance appraisal process. 2. Whenever a major change in technology or work methods takes place. 3. When governing bodies change the certification or licensure requirements. 4. When the job incumbent leaves the job and HR is recruiting and staffing for the job. ©SHRM 2009

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