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Psychology Applied to Work Steven Lu IO Psychology Team FJU.

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1 Psychology Applied to Work Steven Lu IO Psychology Team FJU

2 The Historical Background of I/O Psychology The image of PsychologyThe image of Psychology Psychology is defined as the scientific study of thinking and behavior.Psychology is defined as the scientific study of thinking and behavior. American Psychology Association (APA)American Psychology Association (APA) Founded in 1892Founded in 1892 More than 89,000 members till 2004More than 89,000 members till % women and 49% men51% women and 49% men 53 divisions53 divisions American Psychology Society (APS)American Psychology Society (APS) Founded in 1988Founded in 1988 Toward to health care practice areas of PsychologyToward to health care practice areas of Psychology

3 Industrial / Organizational Psychology SIOP--Division 14 of APA, the Society for Industrial and Organizational PsychologySIOP--Division 14 of APA, the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology In 2004 SIOP had about 3,400 professional members and 1900 student members.In 2004 SIOP had about 3,400 professional members and 1900 student members. USA : I / O Psychology ; UK : Occupational PsychologyUSA : I / O Psychology ; UK : Occupational Psychology Approximately 4% of all Psychologists work in the I / O area.Approximately 4% of all Psychologists work in the I / O area.

4 Industrial / Organizational Psychology Blum and Naylor(1968) defined it asBlum and Naylor(1968) defined it as ” simply the application or extension of psychological facts and principles to the problems concerning human beings operating within the context of business and industry ” ” simply the application or extension of psychological facts and principles to the problems concerning human beings operating within the context of business and industry ” There are two sides of I/O psychology :There are two sides of I/O psychology : science and practice. Scientist-Practitioner model (Is it possible?)Scientist-Practitioner model (Is it possible?)

5 Principal work settings of I/O psychologists

6 Fields of I/O Psychology Selection and Placement.Selection and Placement. Training and Development.Training and Development. Performance Appraisal.Performance Appraisal. Organization Development.Organization Development. Quality of Worklife.Quality of Worklife. Ergonomics.Ergonomics.

7 Licensing of Psychology Licensure : against quacks and charlatansLicensure : against quacks and charlatans Typically, licensure involves:Typically, licensure involves: education, experience, examination, and administrative requirements. education, experience, examination, and administrative requirements. The licensure of I/O psychology is controversial.The licensure of I/O psychology is controversial.

8 The History of I/O Psychology The Early Years ( ) AThe Early Years ( ) AA World War Ⅰ ( ) BWorld War Ⅰ ( ) BB Between the Wars ( ) C1 C2Between the Wars ( ) C1 C2C1C2C1C2 World War Ⅱ ( ) DWorld War Ⅱ ( ) DD Toward Specialization ( ) EToward Specialization ( ) EE Government Intervention ( ) FGovernment Intervention ( ) FF The Information Age (1994-Present) GThe Information Age (1994-Present) G G G

9 Overview Morris Viteles :Morris Viteles : If it isn’t scientific, it’s not good practice, and if it isn’t practical, it’s not good science. If it isn’t scientific, it’s not good practice, and if it isn’t practical, it’s not good science. Bruce Moore, the first president of Division 14,said:Bruce Moore, the first president of Division 14,said: The extreme applied practitioners is in danger of narrow, myopic thinking, but the extreme pure scientist is in danger of being isolated from facts. The extreme applied practitioners is in danger of narrow, myopic thinking, but the extreme pure scientist is in danger of being isolated from facts. Now, our profession has renewed interest in work / family conflict and the mental health of employees.Now, our profession has renewed interest in work / family conflict and the mental health of employees.

10 The Changing Nature of Work: I / O Psychology and 9/11/01 Transportation Security ActTransportation Security Act Transportation Security Administration (TSA)Transportation Security Administration (TSA) The role of I / O psychologists after 911.The role of I / O psychologists after 911. Providing the systematic selection process of security screener.Providing the systematic selection process of security screener. Basically, it is successful for protecting national security by the selection system which I/O psychologists designed.Basically, it is successful for protecting national security by the selection system which I/O psychologists designed.

11 Cross-Culture I / O Psychology Global era: culture differencesGlobal era: culture differences As a scientific discipline, I / O psychology is examining to what degrees and in what ways culture differences influence the work world.As a scientific discipline, I / O psychology is examining to what degrees and in what ways culture differences influence the work world. From “terms” difference to “ time concept” differenceFrom “terms” difference to “ time concept” difference Understanding the impact of cultureUnderstanding the impact of culture

12 The Mandate of I / O Psychology Higher levels of educationHigher levels of education There are more women entering the workforce.There are more women entering the workforce. The nature of work is changingThe nature of work is changing The professional code of ethics.The professional code of ethics. Pay attention to People 、 Organization 、 Society 、 Nation and GlobalPay attention to People 、 Organization 、 Society 、 Nation and Global

13 The Early Years ( ) Two forces : the pragmatic nature of some basic psychological research 、 the desire of industrial engineers to improve efficiency.Two forces : the pragmatic nature of some basic psychological research 、 the desire of industrial engineers to improve efficiency. Bryan’s beautiful mistake: typographical error.Bryan’s beautiful mistake: typographical error. individual -- industrial psychology individual -- industrial psychology Scott Taylor Gilbreth MunsterbergScott Taylor Gilbreth MunsterbergScottTaylorGilbrethMunsterbergScottTaylorGilbrethMunsterberg

14 World War Ⅰ ( ) Robert Yerkes was the psychologist most instrumental in involving psychology in the war.Robert Yerkes was the psychologist most instrumental in involving psychology in the war. The army was somewhat skeptical of the psychologists’ claims.The army was somewhat skeptical of the psychologists’ claims. Army Alpha Test & Army Beta TestArmy Alpha Test & Army Beta Test 1,726,000 individuals were ultimately tested in the program.1,726,000 individuals were ultimately tested in the program. 讓人們知道心理學家可以提供有價值的貢獻 讓人們知道心理學家可以提供有價值的貢獻 戰後, 心理諮詢公司及研究機構如雨後春筍般出 現 Back 戰後, 心理諮詢公司及研究機構如雨後春筍般出 現 BackBack

15 Between the Wars ( ) (A) Hawthorne StudiesHawthorne Studies A series of research studies that began in the late 1920s at the Western Electric Company and ultimately refocused the interests of I/O psychologists on how work behavior manifests it self in an organizational context. A series of research studies that began in the late 1920s at the Western Electric Company and ultimately refocused the interests of I/O psychologists on how work behavior manifests it self in an organizational context. The original study attempted to find the relationship between lighting and efficiency.The original study attempted to find the relationship between lighting and efficiency. Represent the most significant research program undertaken to show the enormous complexity of the problem of production in relation to efficiency. BackRepresent the most significant research program undertaken to show the enormous complexity of the problem of production in relation to efficiency. BackBack

16 Between the Wars ( ) (B) Hawthorne EffectHawthorne Effect In essence, the Hawthorne studies revealed many previously unrecognized aspects of human behavior in a workplace.In essence, the Hawthorne studies revealed many previously unrecognized aspects of human behavior in a workplace. Researchers hypothesized that the study’s results were caused by the employees’ desire to please them.Researchers hypothesized that the study’s results were caused by the employees’ desire to please them. A positive change in behavior that occurs at the onset of an intervention followed by a gradual decline, often to the original level of the behavior prior to the intervention. First identified in the Hawthorne studies,which is why it is so named. BackA positive change in behavior that occurs at the onset of an intervention followed by a gradual decline, often to the original level of the behavior prior to the intervention. First identified in the Hawthorne studies,which is why it is so named. BackBack

17 World War Ⅱ ( ) During this period, the I/O psychologists were more prepare for their role in the war effort than they had been in 1917.During this period, the I/O psychologists were more prepare for their role in the war effort than they had been in Unlike in World War Ⅰ, this time the army approached the psychologists first.Unlike in World War Ⅰ, this time the army approached the psychologists first. AGCT: Army General Classification Test, a benchmark in the history of group testing.AGCT: Army General Classification Test, a benchmark in the history of group testing. World War Ⅰ :helped form the profession and give it social acceptance.World War Ⅰ :helped form the profession and give it social acceptance. World War Ⅱ :helped develop and refine it.World War Ⅱ :helped develop and refine it. Back

18 Toward Specialization ( ) 進入學院系統,提供工業心理學的課程 及學位,包括碩士及博士學程。 進入學院系統,提供工業心理學的課程 及學位,包括碩士及博士學程。 從心理學中分化成一專業的領域, APA 也於 1946 年成立工業心理學分會。 從心理學中分化成一專業的領域, APA 也於 1946 年成立工業心理學分會。 學科的融合: 學科的融合: 工程心理學:實驗心理學+工業心理學 工程心理學:實驗心理學+工業心理學 組織行為學:工業心理學+社會心理學+社 會學 Back 組織行為學:工業心理學+社會心理學+社 會學 BackBack

19 Government Intervention ( ) Civil Rights MovementCivil Rights Movement 公平雇用精神 公平雇用精神 政府立法干涉,防止長期以來對少數族 群在就業機會上的歧視。 政府立法干涉,防止長期以來對少數族 群在就業機會上的歧視。 工業與組織心理學家也面臨著雙重的約 束:政府的他律+專業社群的自律 工業與組織心理學家也面臨著雙重的約 束:政府的他律+專業社群的自律 Back BackBack

20 The Information Age (1994-Present) 網際網路的發明與普及,世界變成平的。 網際網路的發明與普及,世界變成平的。 工作的性質也發生了重大的改變。 工作的性質也發生了重大的改變。 美國醫療產業的例子: 美國醫療產業的例子: 美國看病,印度解讀 美國看病,印度解讀 OHP 的發展趨勢已不容忽視。 BackOHP 的發展趨勢已不容忽視。 BackBack

21 Walter Dill Scott Applying psychology to advertising. The theory of Advertising.(1903) The Psychology of Advertising.(1908) 1911: Influencing Men in Business. 、 Increasing Human Efficiency in Business. BackBack

22 Frederick W. Taylor 工程師背景 自學 代表作: The Principle of Scientific Management(1911) 科學勝過經驗法則 科學的甄選與訓練 合作取代個人主義 管理階層與作業人員的妥 善分工 因為對其主張的誤解而 招致來自外界嚴厲的批 判 BackBack

23 Lillian Moller Gilbreth 早期對 I/O 心理學產 生重要貢獻的女性心 理學家。 她的先生比較關心工 作效率的技術層面, 而他則比較關心時間 管理中人的方面。 第一個注意到工作者 的壓力與疲勞會產生 何種影響。 BackBack

24 Hugo Munsterberg 德國心理學家,應 William James 邀請 到哈佛大學客座。 Psychology and Industrial Efficiency(1913) Selecting workers Designing work situations Using Psychology in sales 工業心理學的創建者 Back


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