Presentation on theme: "Enriching Literacy With Arts, Enriching Arts With Literacy Laurie J. Curtis, Ph.D. February 19, 2010 Springdale, Arkansas."— Presentation transcript:
Enriching Literacy With Arts, Enriching Arts With Literacy Laurie J. Curtis, Ph.D. February 19, 2010 Springdale, Arkansas
There once was a singing kindergarten teacher… …who now likes to visit classrooms and look for connections between literacy and music!
Choices, Changes, and Challenges: Curriculum and Instruction in the NCLB Era 349 school districts: Since 2002 62% districts reported that they have increased time for English Language Arts and Math
44% of districts reported cutting time from one or more other subjects or activities- decreases averaging 145 minutes per week (nearly 30 minutes a day) These increases/ decreases were more prevalent in districts with schools identified for improvement.
Stagger testing requirements to include tests in other academic subjects Encourage states to give adequate emphasis to art and music** Require states to arrange for an independent review at least once every three years for high quality standards and rigor Provide federal funds for research to determine the best ways to incorporate the teaching of reading and math into social studies and science.
Identify ways to engage children in literacy learning through music ◦ Culture ◦ Creativity ◦ Content area instruction Provide educators with resources to integrate music with literacy instruction
English Language Learners in our schools- can read, write, and express themselves in the language of music. Music is processed in the brain more on the left hemisphere of those who have been trained in music- neuroscience is determining that it is processed there as a “language”. Untrained listeners process in other parts of the cerebral cortex
There are shared connections existing between auditory and visual processes activated through music and language/ literacy acquisition. (Hansen, Bernstorf, & Stuber, 2004 )
Music is an integral part of every culture that has been studied on earth Children are surrounded by music throughout their days- within and outside our classrooms Music is used to record the history of people
Music is a receptive art… ◦ Listen ◦ Read ◦ View Music is an expressive art… ◦ Sing ◦ Play ◦ Write
Research-based Assessment-based Comprehensive Integrated Dynamic With a purpose of learning to read for meaning, understanding, and joy. (Cowen, 2003).
Reading and music go together because singing is a celebration of language” (Harp, 1988, p. 454)
Musical scores and written text are written left to right with a return sweep Written score/text comparison: ◦ Note/letter ◦ Chord/word ◦ Phrase/sentence ◦ Chorus-verse/ main idea-supporting details ◦ Dynamics/punctuation
Repetitive practice/ rehearsal is meaningful Personal preferences are held regarding music and texts Music connects friends and family: socially constructed Music has multiple purposes- educational/ entertainment
Language is symbolic, as is music Similar to the genre of poetry with instructional elements ◦ Opportunities for decoding ◦ Opportunities for rich vocabulary experiences ◦ Opportunities for building fluency ◦ Opportunities for comprehension of rich, meaningful “texts”
Critical importance of phonological and phonemic awareness in early literacy learning. ◦ Predictor of early reading success (Share, Jorm, Maclean, & Matthews, 1984) ◦ Phonemic awareness can be taught (Lundberg, Frost, & Peterson, 1998) ◦ Music is an avenue used to facilitate phonemic awareness (Yopp & Yopp, 2000)
Drawing the attention of a child to the sounds of language/ void of the letter ◦ Chant: Who Let the Letters Out (Dr. Jean) ◦ Songs with a focus on rhyme (Row, row…/ ō/, /ē/) ◦ Helping children identify pitch -high/low… ◦ Songs with phoneme manipulation: Willaby, Wallaby… ◦ Songs with alliteration: Yankee Doodle…
Linking a grapheme (letter) to sound (phoneme) ◦ Children wearing name tags with letter around their neck. Sounding out/ spelling the name of friends to the tune to Fr è re Jacques. ◦ Referencing the letters used in the context of music. For example, referring to the letter name of the bars on the Orff instruments. Writing the notes by name for children to see. Drawing their attention to any letter/word relationship.
Songs provide additional practice for children dealing with word play and rhymes. Children can also integrate what they learn through song with their future reading/writing experiences. ♪ I Know and Old Fellow Who Swallowed a Cello…
Word identification, rate, and prosody to allow children to read smoothly allowing the focus to shift to comprehension. Repetitive reading builds fluency. Using musical lyrics and “singing” stories builds confidence and reading stamina of young readers. ◦ Repeated rehearsal of songs ◦ Children patting their legs as they chant the names of their friends/ feeling the steady beat
Determine a song and provide children with a copy of the lyrics. Mark lyrics for “vocal variety” (be selective) ◦ L = loud volumeQ = quiet volume ◦ = high pitch = low pitch ◦ (F) = fast rate(S) = slow rate ◦ / = pause ◦ _____ = emphasis
Children practice (rehearse) the reading of the lyrics which have been marked or highlighted In groups of 4, children provide feedback for peers with PQP format P = Praise Q = Question P = Polish
Moss, L. (2003). Music is. Illus. by P. Petit- Roulet. New York: Putnam’s Sons.
Teachers and music educators can utilize songs and musical terms to build academic/ conceptual vocabulary and encourage children to use the rich, descriptive words found in songs to enhance their writing.
Frayer Model Word Sightings/ Bulletin Board Lansdown Word Cards Anything Goes Partner Password
Focus on constructing meaning at the word level ◦ Time being spent to review words in songs that children may not be comprehending. ◦ Helping children to identify figurative language: simile, metaphor, descriptors. ◦ Modeling of curiosity of word meaning and encouraging children to initiate asking about words that they may not understand.
Description: The tune that I can sing or hum Definition: A sequence of single notes that is musically satisfying ♬ ♫ ♩♩♩ Mary had a little lamb … ♪ Non-Example Example Melody
Children locate target words from your classroom (texts or lyrics) that they are to locate outside the classroom- on radio, television, books, or oral conversation and share the context for where they heard them and what they meant. Please find a partner…
One syllable wordsTwo syllable words and the through the house go we horse knows over river carry drifted dapple
1. Place word and illustration on front 2. Inside of card student writes 1.Child’s own definition of the word 2.Sentence or phrase it is used in from the song 3.Part of speech as it is used 4.Dictionary definition found for word 3. Children share word in rotation with peers
a ribbon of highway endless skyway roamed and rambled sparkling sands of her diamond deserts wheat fields waving dust clouds rolling fog was lifting
Focus on the meaning of text/ song ◦ Who is this song about?/ Who is the audience for this piece? ◦ What is this song about? ◦ How was this piece historically important? ◦ Why was it written? ◦ What cultural significance might this have? ◦ How is this a reflection of culture and tradition ◦ Instrumental: What does this make you think of, feel like…
Songs often carry a plot with main ideas being stated in the refrain or chorus and details provided within the verses. Songs often provide sequencing opportunities, conflict/ resolution, and an interesting plot for children to follow. ♪ Froggy went a courtin’ http://www.contemplator.com/america/
Making Connections Building Background Knowledge Questioning Inferring Visualizing Determining Importance ◦ Main Idea- chorus ◦ Details- verse Application
Sequential: ◦ When Johnny Comes Marching Home ◦ Follow the Drinking Gourd http://www.followthedrinkinggourd.org/index.htm Descriptive: ◦ You’re a Grand Old Flag ◦ God Bless the U.S.A
Critical Profiler Guide (Wood, Lapp, Flood, Taylor, 2008) After-listening, Critical Stance Questions Student response after listening or reading of lyrics Student follow-up View Whose viewpoint is expressed? What does the writer of lyrics want us to believe? How might alternative perspectives be represented? What action might you take based on what you have heard? Write a speech to take a stance from the song. Write an editorial voicing your opinion on the subject Make an illustration based on what you have learned Create a slide presentation on what you have learned
Students compile a journal of responses to music of the civil war related to origins of the Civil War and struggles of the Civil War: Battle Cry of Freedom All Quiet on the Potomac Battle Hymn of the Republic John Brown’s Body
What I’ve Learned Grand Old Flag Star-Spangled Banner Literal Level In the song- right there Inferential Level- In the song- think and search Evaluating the Song- In my head- On my own.
Opportunities to integrate music should be utilized to strengthen literacy instruction. Children should be exposed to a wide variety of musical styles as well as multiple genres of literature. Music and music education programs should be viewed for their inherent value- but also as a resource for literacy instruction.
Music is a language That kindles the human spirit, Sharpens the mind, Fuels the body, And fills the heart.