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1 Why We Design Education 2015 to Learn What? Grok in a Google World Gigi Johnson Lecturer, UCLA Anderson Executive Director, Maremel Institute.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Why We Design Education 2015 to Learn What? Grok in a Google World Gigi Johnson Lecturer, UCLA Anderson Executive Director, Maremel Institute."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Why We Design Education 2015 to Learn What? Grok in a Google World Gigi Johnson Lecturer, UCLA Anderson Executive Director, Maremel Institute

2 …Grok? …Grok? “There was so much to grok, so little to grok from.“ (p.24) Robert Heinlein's science fiction novel, Stranger in a Strange Land (Heinlein, 1961), Michael Valentine Smith “There was so much to grok, so little to grok from.“ (p.24) Robert Heinlein's science fiction novel, Stranger in a Strange Land (Heinlein, 1961), Michael Valentine Smith ’Grok’ is drink…’Grok’ means to understand so thoroughly that the observer becomes part of the observed – to merge, blend, intermarry, lose identity in the group experience.” (p.204) Cc-2.0 groks/flickr

3 Knowing: Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy Creating Evaluating Analyzing Applying Understanding Remembering Assessment and Measurement: Focus on the Bottom 3 Finding & Discovery? Cc-2.0 oddsock/flickr

4 “Information encoding, memory retrieval, influence, evaluation” Fiske & Taylor, 1991 Filtering (ignore or pay attention) Meaning matching (recognizing symbols), Meaning construction Potter “Ability to create personal meaning” Adams & Hamm 2001 Assess, analyze, evaluate, communicate Hobbs 1997 Decypher mass communication Empower independent judgment Silverblatt & Elicein 1997 Message = facts + social information (accepted beliefs) Potter Information Literacy? Cc-2.0 degreezero2000/flickr

5 Reality: 3 avg words in US Searches online Source: Experian Hitwise, March 2010, US Cc-2.0 Searchman/flickr

6 US Search Concentration of Voices, 3/2010 Mar-10ExperiancomScore Google70%65% Yahoo15%17% MSN/Bing10%12% Ask3%4% AOL2%3% Total98%100% Cc-2.0 searchenginemarketing Mobile Share Net ApplicationscomScoreStatCounter Google98%50%90%

7 Google eye-tracking study Of 34 users Source: Google blog 2/6/09 StudyFirst item clicked2 nd / 3 rd / 4 th itemFirst Page Clicked AOL data %12% / 9 % / 6%90% Cornell Labs %13% / 10% / 4% Enquisite % iProspect % % % % 2008 Search Is Not Neutral Behavioral targeting -- influencing behavior by crafting patterns of messages Search Engine Optimization (SEO) and negative SEO (pushing down results)

8 Library? Global Study in 2006: 60% of college library electronic journal users look at no more than 3 pages 65% do not return to library electronic journals again 89% of college students start with online search engines Only 2% start from a library website Rowlands, I. (2008, January 16). Information behavior of the researcher of the future. British Library and the Joint Information Systems Committee. Centre for Information Behaviour and the Evaluation of Research. University College, London. Cc-2.0 brew books/flickr

9 So is there a problem? “Horizontal Search” -- Skimming and Surfing Depth Some think this bouncing helps grow critical thinking skills, including problem solving, decision- making, and analysis How do we scaffold the depth of thinking? Cc-2.0 [le]doo/flickr

10 “Abundance breaks more things than scarcity.” Clay Shirkey, SXSW 2010 Cc-2.0 johan-larsson/flickr

11 Friction: Opposing Forces Automated systems Digitized content Search Digital books/texts Mobility Systems based on Scarcity of Information Bounded Rationality Textbook Economics Sage on the Stage NCLB Test-Minds Strange Partners Lack of PD/teacher-level change Lack of Time Need for Filters (previously textbooks)

12 US vs. European Policy Forces Partnership for 21 st Century Skills Oracle Educational Foundation 2014 NAEP Technology and Engineering Literacy Assessment Educause Unesco page handbook National Forum on Information Literacy Association of College & Research Libraries ETS test US since 2001 iCritical Thinking Standardized Assessment of Information Literacy Skills EU: i2010 by European Information Society 2010 – eInclusion goals Assessment

13 Grunwald Stats

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16 Friction to Change Skill-based Testing and MeasurabilityLack of feedback loops back to learningUnfunded policy drivers Market forces of presold filters (Discovery, SMART, Textbooks) Time: Training and Filtering Cc-2.0 ryan_gessner/flickr

17 “Reading” graphical interfaces Digital reproduction of information Branching – hypertext, linking Social- emotional – online rules Information – evaluating quality and validity Context/Cognition Source: Eshet-Akalai & Amichai-Hamburger, 2005 Skills

18 What and How we are Teaching SkillsCognition Cc-2.0 zitma/flickr

19 Test Provide Information ??? Part of K-12 textbook-driven learning? Evidence-based evaluation in a project-based real world Seek, Filter, & Evaluate Truth Cc-2.0 takomabibelot/flickr 1904 Boston Library door

20 Search Embedded in the Context of learning, living, teaching, and understanding life Cc-2.0 simminch/flickr

21 Release of Assumed Limits on Discovery and Space 4 th Classroom Wall – Steve Hargadon, Classroom 2.0 New space/time – one of my Abu Dhabi arts students – not a flat page but a deepening many-planed display and community space Cc-2.0 joi/flickr

22 Need for Gardeners Gardeners are informal experts in the system that help with domain-specific context (Nardi 1993) Gardeners are informal experts in the system that help with domain-specific context (Nardi 1993) Are we missing or not valuing the Gardeners in the system? Are we missing or not valuing the Gardeners in the system? Or were the librarians the past gardeners but structurally excluded? Or were the librarians the past gardeners but structurally excluded? Cc-2.0 infomatique/flickr Kildare; St. Fiachra, Patron Saint of Gardeners

23 BUT THAT’S JUST CATCHING UP! Cc-2.0 Mr. Thomas/flickr

24 Decision engines – not just a Bing gimmick Real-Time Search (Twitter et al) Mobile – post-search pre-filtered results by context Semantic web Mobility of Search is growing in the US:  21% of mobile phone users had unlimited data plans  17% Smartphone ownership  43% 3G phone ownership 12/2009, comScore mobiLens Mobility of Search is growing in the US:  21% of mobile phone users had unlimited data plans  17% Smartphone ownership  43% 3G phone ownership 12/2009, comScore mobiLens Cc-2.0 johan_larsson/flickr

25 “Default” “Rev/Share” Relationships Source: comScore, Mobile Marketer CarrierSearch EngineCarrier Share AT&T/iPhoneGoogle4% of phones AT&T/OtherYahoo21% of subs T-MobileGoogle12% of subs Verizon WirelessBing31% of subs SprintGoogle12% of subs

26 Upcoming Search Trends QR (quick response) Graphic Image Search – Google: 100,000 QR codes to retailers; impressions can then be sent as sponsorable searches Photo Image Search Input – Google Goggles Voice Search Input

27 O’Reilly’s Where 2.0: Phones to Embed Context For Us iPhone sensors Augmented reality (Mobilizy, Wikitude) Location sensors (Skyhook, Loopt) Audio input into data devices (not just music in microphones) Computer vision input/cameras into data devices Page 27

28 Search AND Social as Decision Drivers Page 28

29 Regulating the Results? Broadband Data Improvement Act (S. 1492) – eRate requirement – web safety – FTC requirement for a national awareness program NCLB, Title II, D Goal 2-A – “To assist every student in crossing the digital divide by ensuring that every student is technologically literate by the time the student finishes the eighth grade, regardless of the student’s race, ethnicity, gender, family income, geographic location, or disability.” Meaning what? New California State Standards, May 2010? – For School Libraries; neither enforced nor funded

30 So what is the real gap? Friction between Linear/traditional vs. non- linear/hyperlinked reasoning? Friction between Linear/traditional vs. non- linear/hyperlinked reasoning? New filters needed AND understanding the old better? New filters needed AND understanding the old better? – Decoding and deconstructing the traditional Valuing concepts of discovery and student-driven knowledge (vs. Sage on the Stage) Valuing concepts of discovery and student-driven knowledge (vs. Sage on the Stage) Conscious scaffolding means consciousness for teachers as well Conscious scaffolding means consciousness for teachers as well

31 Wanted: Symbolic Analysts Symbolic systems communication by leaders (Gardner) Symbolic systems communication by leaders (Gardner) Symbolic analysts: Major drivers of future jobs (Reich, 1992) Symbolic analysts: Major drivers of future jobs (Reich, 1992) CPA Exam – requires CPAs find rules on the web – anticipates changing environment CPA Exam – requires CPAs find rules on the web – anticipates changing environment Evidence-based storytelling Evidence-based storytelling Cc-2.0 theusarmy/flickr

32 How do we design to… Know how to better memorize, remind, remember? – Will we need to? Is this the biggest real change? Know how to find using context? Know how to go beyond the first page of search? Know how to question and when to question search results? Know to combine diverse ideas for different search and information worlds that aren’t the first answer? …Grok?

33 Gigi


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