Education leading to college Education leading to career
Transmission of Knowledge Construction of Meanings
Set of knowledge and social virtues passed from generation to generation Carefully planned presentation of content Class Discussion and Individual Practice Teacher Feedback Teacher controls the learning
Students learn through experience Assimilation, accommodation, equilibration Depends on social and language contexts Student controls the learning
Both effective schools movement and NCLB used more transmission Validates frequent monitoring of student progress Validates teacher feedback – immediate and content directed Need for background knowledge
1/3 were immigrants 1/3 were African American No particular age or years of teaching Not necessarily better degrees 1/3 had similar lives as their students Neither far left or right politically Most were religious and said their religion was a significant reason for their work.
Kirschner, Mayer, Hirsch, Hattie Students are novices, not experts Lack of background knowledge Active learning does not mean action Transmission can engage minds Cognitive overload Critical importance of immediate feedback
If students do learn by constructing new meanings, they may be more able to do that with a more active teacher who is skilled in transmitting information.